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adipose tissue inflammation

R Churm, S Caplin, J Barry, J S Davies, J W Stephens, S L Prior
Acyl-ghrelin has various peripheral effects including the potential role in mediating cellular lipid removal and macrophage polarization. Previous reports are contradictory as to how glycaemia and acyl-ghrelin mediates lipid retention and inflammation within individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to explore acyl-ghrelin levels and ghrelin expression in relation to lipid and inflammatory markers within an ex vivo human model, biopsied visceral adipose tissue. Results indicated that acyl-ghrelin was associated with a decline in key lipid homeostasis genes ABCG1 and LXRβ expression...
November 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Wei Cao, Meng Shi, Liling Wu, Zhichen Yang, Xiaobing Yang, Hongfa Liu, Xin Xu, Youhua Liu, Fan Fan Hou, Christopher S Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested the hypothesis that CKD activates a broad reflex response from the kidneys and the white adipose tissue to impair peripheral glucose uptake and investigated the role of salt intake in this process. METHODS: 5/6-nephrectomized rats were administered normal- or high-salt for 3 weeks. Conclusions were tested in 100 non-diabetic patients with stage 3-5 CKD. FINDINGS: High-salt in 5/6-nephrectomized rats decreased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake >25% via a sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reflex that linked the IR to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in brain and peripheral tissues...
November 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
Jane F Ferguson, Kailey Roberts-Lee, Cristina Borcea, Holly M Smith, Yasmeen Midgette, Rachana Shah
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically the fish-oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been proposed as inflammation-resolving agents via their effects on adipose tissue. OBJECTIVE: We proposed to determine the effects of EPA and DHA on human adipocyte differentiation and inflammatory activation in vitro. METHODS: Primary human subcutaneous adipocytes from lean and obese subjects were treated with 100 μM EPA and/or DHA throughout differentiation (differentiation studies) or for 72 h postdifferentiation (inflammatory studies)...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Laura M Bond, Maggie S Burhans, James M Ntambi
Inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. While these metabolic derangements have been well-investigated in white adipose tissue, their existence and etiology in brown adipose tissue (BAT) are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to investigate ER homeostasis and the inflammatory status and of BAT lacking uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), a protein required for BAT thermogenesis. H&E staining illustrated lipid accumulation and crown-like structures surrounding adipocytes in BAT of UCP1-/- mice housed at room temperature compared to control mice...
2018: PloS One
Mayra Manoella Perez, Juliana Souza Pessoa, Ana Lídia Ciamponi, Michele Baffi Diniz, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues Santos, Heloísa Helena de Oliveira Alves, Renata Gorjão, Renata Oliveira Guaré
Obesity is considered a risk factor for periodontal health due to the low- grade inflammation promoted by the increased adipose tissue. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine correlations and associations between gingival inflammation (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, and Gingival Index), salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), and salivary parameters (salivary flow and osmolality) in normal-weight and overweight/obese children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-one children, aged 6 to 12 years old (8...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Sonia Spalletta, Vincenzo Flati, Elena Toniato, Jacopo Di Gregorio, Antonio Marino, Laura Pierdomenico, Marco Marchisio, Gabriella D'Orazi, Ivana Cacciatore, Iole Robuffo
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is the result of white adipose tissue accumulation where excess of food energy is stored to form triglycerides. De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the continuous process of new fat production and is driven by the transcription factor ChREBP. During adipogenesis, white adipocytes change their morphology and the entire cell volume is occupied by one large lipid droplet. Recent studies have implicated an essential role of autophagy in adipogenic differentiation, cytoplasmic remodelling and mitochondria reorganization...
2018: PloS One
Haiyang Zhang, Lei Zhu, Ming Bai, Ying Liu, Yang Zhan, Ting Deng, Haiou Yang, Wu Sun, Xinyi Wang, Kegan Zhu, Qian Fan, Jialu Li, Guoguang Ying, Yi Ba
Cancer-related cachexia is a metabolic syndrome characterized by a wasting disorder of adipose and skeletal muscle and is accompanied by body weight loss and systemic inflammation. The treatment options for cancer cachexia are limited, and the molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel family of endogenous noncoding RNAs that have been proposed to regulate gene expression in mammals. Exosomes are small vesicles derived from cells, and recent studies have shown that circRNAs are stable in exosomes...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Dani P Yellanki, Esha Kothekar, Abdullah Al-Zaghal, Nina Cheng, Thomas J Werner, Poul F Høilund-Carlsen, Abass Alavi
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by synovial tissue inflammation and underlying bone degeneration in the joints. Aging and obesity are among the major risk factors. This study evaluated the effects of aging and body mass index (BMI) on hip joint inflammation and bone degeneration using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) and fluorine-18 sodium fluoride (18 F-NaF) PET/CT imaging, respectively. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, a total of 116 subjects (58 males and 58 females) who had undergone both 18 F-FDG and 18 F-NaF PET/CT imaging were analyzed...
November 10, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
G Wolff, A E Taranko, I Meln, J Weinmann, T Sijmonsma, S Lerch, D Heide, A T Billeter, D Tews, D Krunic, P Fischer-Posovszky, B P Müller-Stich, S Herzig, D Grimm, M Heikenwälder, W W Kao, A Vegiopoulos
OBJECTIVE: Extracellular matrix remodeling is required for adipose expansion under increased caloric intake. In turn, inhibited expandability due to aberrant collagen deposition promotes insulin resistance and progression towards the metabolic syndrome. An emerging role for the small leucine-rich proteoglycan Lumican in metabolically driven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease sparks an interest in further understanding its role in diet-induced obesity and metabolic complications. METHODS: Whole body ablation of Lumican (Lum-/- ) gene and adeno-associated virus-mediated over-expression were used in combination with control or high fat diet to assess energy balance, glucose homeostasis as well as adipose tissue health and remodeling...
October 23, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Tal Pecht, Steffen Jung, Assaf Rudich
The involvement of macrophages in the pathogenesis of obesity has been recognized since 2003. Early studies mostly focused on the role of macrophages in adipose tissue and in obesity-associated chronic low-grade inflammation. Lately, adipose tissue macrophages were shown to undergo intrinsic metabolic changes that affect their immune function (i.e. immunometabolism), corresponding to their unique properties along the range of pro- versus anti-inflammatory activity. In parallel, recent studies in mice revealed critical neuronal-macrophage interactions, both in the CNS and in peripheral tissues, including in white and brown adipose tissue...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Heather Greenlee, Zaixing Shi, Hanina Hibshoosh, Dilip D Giri, Aqeel Ahmed, Samantha Williams, Domenick J Falcone, Lisle A Winston, Xi K Zhou, Clifford A Hudis, Dawn L Hershman, Andrew J Dannenberg, Neil M Iyengar
Breast white adipose tissue inflammation (BWATi) is associated with obesity and higher breast cancer (BC) risk among non-Hispanic white women. Obesity is prevalent in Hispanic/Latina BC patients, and the occurrence of BWATi in this population is not well-characterized. The association between BWATi and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in Hispanic/Latina BC patients who underwent mastectomy. BWATi was defined as the presence of crown-like structures of the breast (CLS-B), detected by CD68 immunohistochemistry in non-tumor breast tissue...
November 7, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Maya Zachut, Gitit Kra, Uzi Moallem, Lilya Livshitz, Yishai Levin, Shiran Udi, Alina Nemirovski, Joseph Tam
Adipose tissue (AT) plays a major role in metabolic adaptations in postpartum (PP) dairy cows. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a key regulator of metabolism and energy homeostasis; however, information about this system in ruminants is scarce. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the eCB system in subcutaneous AT, and to determine its relation to the metabolic profile in peripartum cows. Biopsies of AT were performed at 14 d prepartum, and 4 and 30 d PP from 18 multiparous peripartum cows. Cows were categorized retrospectively according to those with high body weight (BW) loss (HWL, 8...
2018: PloS One
Jeehye Sung, Chi-Tang Ho, Yu Wang
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, which leads to the development of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Obesity and a high calorie diet are associated with altered endocrine and metabolic functions of adipose tissue, contributing to systemic inflammation as a result of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/adipokines into the circulation and metabolic endotoxemia. Furthermore, the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages within the visceral adipose tissue may also be a major cause of chronic inflammation of adipocytes...
November 7, 2018: Food & Function
Irean Garcia-Hernandez, Carlos A Lopez-Garcia, Servando Cardona-Huerta, Rocio Ortiz-Lopez, Jaime J Tamez Salazar, Mauricio Canavati Marcos, Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, David Verdin Gonzalez, Paloma Del C Monroig-Bosque, Gabriela Sofia Gomez-Macias
Introduction: Panniculits presents as an inflammation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the skin. In breast, panniculitis is very rare and is usually a manifestation of underlying inflammatory conditions. The typical presentation is palpable tender nodules, which in cases of breast panniculitis, triggers an extensive work up to exclude a malignancy. Herein we present a case of septal and lobar panniculitis in a female with clinical history of invasive ductal carcinoma. Presentation of the case: A 52-year old female with past medical history of invasive breast carcinoma 5 years prior to the presentation...
December 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Jihong Zhou, Limin Mao, Ping Xu, Yuefei Wang
Obesity is an escalating global epidemic caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been reported to be conducive to preventing obesity and alleviating obesity-related chronic diseases. However, the role of EGCG in energy metabolism disorders and central nervous system dysfunction induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of EGCG on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and neuroinflammation in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice...
November 5, 2018: Nutrients
Kumar Ganesan, Baojun Xu
Obesity is a group of metabolic disorders caused by multiple factors, including heredity, diet, lifestyle, societal determinants, environment, and infectious agents, which can all lead to the enhancement of storage body fat. Excess visceral fat mass in adipose tissue generate several metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular diseases with chronic inflammation based pathophysiology. The objective of the current review is to summarize the cellular mechanisms of obesity that attenuate by antioxidant potentials of medicinal and edible mushrooms...
November 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ljupka Gligorovska, Biljana Bursac, Sanja Kovacevic, Natasa Velickovic, Gordana Matić, Ana Djordjevic
The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in inflammation, regulation of energy metabolism and glucocorticoid action. Chronic low-grade inflammation may be caused by fructose intake, contributing to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) dysfunction. Since MIF is a known antagonist of glucocorticoid signaling, and deregulated glucocorticoid signaling can contribute to lipid metabolism disturbances, we hypothesized that altered MIF signaling might underlie fructose-induced adiposity through glucocorticoid action...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Ya Pei, Honggui Li, Yuli Cai, Jing Zhou, Xianjun Luo, Linqiang Ma, Kelly McDaniel, Tianshu Zeng, Yanming Chen, Xiaoxian Qian, Yuqing Huo, Shannon Glaser, Fanyin Meng, Gianfranco Alpini, Lulu Chen, Chaodong Wu
Adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of A2AR in obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the expression of A2AR in adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity and determined the effect of A2AR disruption on the status of obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation. WT C57BL/6J mice and A2AR-disrupted mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity and adipose tissue inflammation...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Alexander Kokkinos
A wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence has linked obesity to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Obesity can increase CVD morbidity and mortality directly and indirectly. Direct effects are mediated by obesity-induced structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system to accommodate excess body weight, as well as by adipokine effects on inflammation and vascular homeostasis...
November 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Karolina Janochova, Michal Haluzik, Marek Buzga
One of the most significant challenges of current medicine is the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide that is accompanied by a wide range of chronic health complications and increased mortality. White adipose tissue actively contributes to metabolic regulation by production of a variety of hormones and cytokines, commonly referred to as adipokines. The spectrum and quantity of adipokines produced by the adipose tissue of obese patients is directly or indirectly involved in much obesity-related pathology (type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory response)...
November 6, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
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