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adipose tissue inflammation

J Kaur, H S Mattu, H S Randeva
Adipose tissue, initially known only for storing excess fat, produces a number of active cytokine-like hormones, collectively known as adipokines or adipocytokines. These molecules are further known to elicit auto-, para- and endocrine functions in the body. In healthy bodies, the cardiovascular endothelium maintains vascular health by critically controlling the interplay between various factors. However, in diseased states such as obesity, owing to numerous metabolic malfunctions, this vascular homeostasis is disrupted...
July 14, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
A Ritter, F Louwen, J Yuan
Obesity alters the composition, structure and function of adipose tissue, characterized by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are responsible for cell renewal, spontaneous repair and immunomodulation in adipose tissue. Increasing evidence highlights that ASCs are deficient in obesity, and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We have recently shown that obese ASCs have defective primary cilia, which are shortened and unable to properly respond to stimuli...
July 17, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
A Lorek, S E Spencer, R Dennis
OBJECTIVES: To describe low- and high-field MRI characteristics of occult masticatory muscle lesions in basset hounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of the MR images of the heads of 44 basset hounds that had been imaged for reasons unrelated to suspected muscle disease. RESULTS: In most basset hounds, there was reduced bulk of the superficial part of the temporalis and masseter muscles together with bilaterally symmetrical T2W and T1W hyperintense signal with reduced contrast enhancement compared to normal muscle...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Nahum Mendez-Sanchez, Vania Cesar Cruz-Ramon, Oscar Lenin Ramirez-Perez, Jessica P Hwang, Beatriz Barranco-Fragoso, Jaqueline Cordova-Gallardo
NASH is becoming increasingly common worldwide because of the growing global prevalence of obesity and consequently NAFLD. Unfortunately, the mechanism of progression of NAFLD to NASH and then cirrhosis is not completely understood. Several factors, including insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and bile acid (BA) toxicity, have been reported to be associated with NASH progression. The release of fatty acids from dysfunctional and insulin-resistant adipocytes results in lipotoxicity, which is caused by the ectopic accumulation of triglyceride-derived toxic metabolites and the subsequent activation of inflammatory pathways, cellular dysfunction, and lipoapoptosis...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Courtney M Peterson, Robbie A Beyl, Kara L Marlatt, Corby K Martin, Kayanush J Aryana, Maria L Marco, Roy J Martin, Michael J Keenan, Eric Ravussin
Background: Type 2 resistant starch (RS2) has been shown to improve glycemic control and some cardiovascular endpoints in rodent and human studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform one of the first randomized clinical trials in adults with prediabetes and one of the longest trials to test whether RS2 can improve cardiometabolic health. Design: 68 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2] adults aged 35-75 y with prediabetes were randomized to consume 45 g/d of high-amylose maize (RS2) or an isocaloric amount of the rapidly digestible starch amylopectin (control) for 12 wk...
July 12, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Theodora Tzanavari, Jason Tasoulas, Chrysoula Vakaki, Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Stamatios Theocharis
Adipokines constitute a family of protein factors secreted by white adipose tissue (WAT), that regulate the functions of WAT and other sites. Leptin, adiponectin, resistin, are the main adipokines present in serum and saliva, targeting several tissues and organs, including vessels, muscles, liver and pancreas. Besides body mass regulation, adipokines affect glucose homeostasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and other crucial cell procedures. Their involvement in tumor formation and growth is well established and deregulation of adipokine and adipokine receptors' expression is observed in several malignancies including those located in the head and neck region...
July 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Tsung-Ru Wu, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Chih-Jung Chang, Tzu-Lung Lin, Jan Martel, Yun-Fei Ko, David M Ojcius, Chia-Chen Lu, John D Young, Hsin-Chih Lai
OBJECTIVE: The medicinal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its anamorph Hirsutella sinensis have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine for their immunomodulatory properties. Alterations of the gut microbiota have been described in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We examined the possibility that H. sinensis mycelium (HSM) and isolated fractions containing polysaccharides may prevent diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota...
July 14, 2018: Gut
Marie-Sophie Nguyen-Tu, Pierre Nivoit, Valérie Oréa, Sandrine Lemoine, Cécile Acquaviva, Aurélie Pagnon-Minot, Bérengère Fromy, Jaswinder K Sethi, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The increased prevalence of obesity has prompted great strides in our understanding of specific adipose depots and their involvement in cardio-metabolic health. However, the impact of obesity on dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) and dermal microvascular functionality remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the temporal changes that occur in dWAT and dermal microvascular functionality during the development of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Dov B Ballak, Suzhao Li, Giulio Cavalli, Jonathan L Stahl, Isak W Tengesdal, Janna A van Diepen, Viola Kluck, Benjamin Swartzwelter, Tania Azam, Cees J Tack, Rinke Stienstra, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen, Douglas R Seals, Charles A Dinarello
Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation mainly originating from expanding adipose tissue and resulting in inhibition of insulin signaling and disruption of glycemic control. Transgenic mice expressing human interleukin 37 (IL-37), an anti-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family, are protected against metabolic syndrome when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 45% fat. Here, we examined whether treatment with recombinant IL-37 ameliorates established insulin resistance and obesity-induced inflammation...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mengmeng Wang, Lili Song, Charlie Strange, Xiao Dong, Hongjun Wang
To assess the potential therapeutic effects of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we compared the phenotype and functionality of ASCs isolated from high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T2D and the leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice with cells from healthy C57BL/6 mice. ASCs from T2D or db/db mice showed similar expression patterns of cellular markers and abilities to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. However, the rate of proliferation was reduced...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Eun-Hee Koh, Natasha Chernis, Pradip K Saha, Liuling Xiao, David A Bader, Bokai Zhu, Kimal Rajapakshe, Mark P Hamilton, Xia Liu, Dimuthu Perera, Xi Chen, Brian York, Michael Trauner, Cristian Coarfa, Mandeep Bajaj, David D Moore, Tuo Deng, Sean E McGuire, Sean M Hartig
Chronic inflammation accompanies obesity and limits subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) expandability, accelerating the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MicroRNAs influence expression of many metabolic genes in fat cells, but physiological roles in WAT remain poorly characterized. Here, we report expression of the microRNA miR-30a in subcutaneous WAT corresponds with insulin sensitivity in obese mice and humans. To examine the hypothesis that restoration of miR-30a expression in WAT improves insulin sensitivity, we injected adenovirus (Adv) expressing miR-30a into the subcutaneous fat pad of diabetic mice...
July 12, 2018: Diabetes
Vivian A Paschoal, Thiago Belchior, Mariane T Amano, Marina Burgos-Silva, Albert S Peixoto, Juliana Magdalon, Thayna S Vieira, Maynara L Andrade, Mayara F Moreno, Patricia Chimin, Niels O Câmara, William T Festuccia
SCOPE: To test whether myeloid cells Tsc1 deletion and therefore constitutive activation of the nutrient sensor mTORC1 protects from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice with Tsc1 deletion in myeloid cells (MTsc1KO) and littermate controls (MTsc1WT) were fed with HFD for 8 weeks and evaluated for body weight, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation. MTsc1KO mice were protected from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance...
July 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Krzysztof Marycz, Katarzyna Kornicka, Jennifer M Irwin-Houston, Christine Weiss
Endocrine disorders have become more and more frequently diagnosed in humans and animals. In horses, equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, inflammation and usually by pathological obesity. Due to an increased inflammatory response in the adipose tissue, cytophysiological properties of adipose derived stem cells (ASC) have been impaired, which strongly limits their therapeutic potential. Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondria deterioration and accelerated ageing of those cells affect their multipotency and restrict the effectiveness of the differentiation process...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
M C Luciardi, T R Carrizo, E I Díaz, M N Áleman, M C Bazán, A V Abregu
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a chronic disease that affects adults as well as children and is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One of the reasons for the presence of low-grade inflammation in these patients could be that adipose tissue of the obese produces proin flammatory molecules that favor the development of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), in an obese chil dren population compared to a control group, also to analyze the correlation of these molecules with the anthropometric and metabolic variables...
June 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Kumar Abhiram Jha, Mickey Pentecost, Raji Lenin, Lada Klaic, Sally L Elshaer, Jordy Gentry, John M Russell, Alex Beland, Anton Reiner, Veronique Jotterand, Nicolas Sohl, Rajashekhar Gangaraju
Blast concussions are a common injury sustained in military combat today. Inflammation due to microglial polarization can drive the development of visual defects following blast injuries. In this study, we assessed whether anti-inflammatory factors released by the mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (adipose stem cells, ASC) can limit retinal tissue damage and improve visual function in a mouse model of visual deficits following mild traumatic brain injury. We show that intravitreal injection of 1 μL of ASC concentrated conditioned medium from cells pre-stimulated with inflammatory cytokines (ASC-CCM) mitigates loss of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity four weeks post blast injury...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Benjamin Korman, Roberta Goncalves Marangoni, Gabriel Lord, Jerrold Olefsky, Warren Tourtellotte, John Varga
BACKGROUND: A pivotal role for adipose tissue homeostasis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) skin fibrosis is increasingly recognized. The nuclear receptor PPAR-γ is the master regulator of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) has antifibrotic effects by blocking transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and is dysregulated in SSc. To unravel the impact of dysregulated PPAR-γ in SSc, we focused on nuclear corepressor (NCoR), which negatively regulates PPAR-γ activity and suppresses adipogenesis...
July 11, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Xabier Unamuno, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Berrecil, Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. Adipose tissue is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a large number of hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins and growth and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines that influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Thierry H Le Jemtel, Rohan Samson, Gregory Milligan, Abhishek Jaiswal, Suzanne Oparil
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Low-grade systemic inflammation increases residual cardiovascular risk. The pathogenesis of low-grade systemic inflammation is not well understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Visceral adipose tissue accumulates when the subcutaneous adipose tissue can no longer store excess nutrients. Visceral adipose tissue inflammation initially facilitates storage of nutrients but with time become maladaptive and responsible for low-grade systemic inflammation. Control of low-grade systemic inflammation requires reversal of visceral adipose tissue accumulation with intense and sustained aerobic exercise or bariatric surgery...
July 10, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Olaya de Dios, Teresa Gavela-Pérez, Pablo Aguado-Roncero, Gloria Pérez-Tejerizo, Marta Ricote, Nieves González, Carmen Garcés, Leandro Soriano-Guillén
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to gain insights into the role of visceral adipose tissue as a source of C-reactive protein (CRP) in acute inflammation and to explore the potential relationship of CRP expression with the severity of appendicitis. METHODS: A total of 20 pediatric patients undergoing appendectomy were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to appendicitis severity (uncomplicated and complicated). CRP levels were measured in visceral fat samples by western blotting, as well as in serum by biochemical testing...
July 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
Gaurav Sharma, Christopher Kuppler, Yong He, Ming Tao, Kui Ding, Alban Longchamp, Laura M Dember, C Keith Ozaki, Scott A Berceli
Introduction: Local inflammation is an important regulator of vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that adipose tissue adjacent to hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulae modulates maturation. Methods: During fistula creation, perivenous adipose was collected from 111 participants in the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study. Nine adipose-associated mediators were measured. Duplex ultrasound was performed at 4 time points postoperatively from 1 day to first cannulation (10-26 weeks)...
July 2018: KI Reports
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