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adipose tissue inflammation

Alen Lovric, Marit Granér, Elias Bjornson, Muhammad Arif, Rui Benfeitas, Kristofer Nyman, Marcus Ståhlman, Markku O Pentikäinen, Jesper Lundbom, Antti Hakkarainen, Reijo Sirén, Markku S Nieminen, Nina Lundbom, Kirsi Lauerma, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Adil Mardinoglu, Jan Boren
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome, accompanied with excessive fat accumulation in the liver and other vital organs. Ectopic fat accumulation was previously associated with negative effects at the systemic and local level in the human body. Thus, we aimed to identify and assess the predictive capability of novel potential metabolic biomarkers for ectopic fat depots in non-diabetic men with NAFLD, using the inflammation-associated proteome, lipidome and metabolome...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joseph Zhou, Scott Massey, Darren Story, Lixin Li
Metformin is a biguanide drug that has been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus for more than 60 years. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetic Study (UKPDS) has shown metformin to improve mortality rates in diabetes patients, and recent studies suggest metformin has additional effects in treating cancer, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and metabolic syndrome. Metformin has also been shown to alleviate weight gain associated with antipsychotic medication...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Juliana M A Almeida, Adaliene V M Ferreira, Verena B Oliveira, Marina C Oliveira, Mauro M Teixeira, Maria G L Brandão
Obesity is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been shown to be involved in the development of comorbidities such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and liver damage. Phytochemicals found in plants may modulate inflammation and improve health problems associated with the excess of adiposity. Teas prepared with many plants are used in Brazil for losing weight. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth. on metabolic and inflammatory disarrangement induced by high refined carbohydrate (HC)-containing diet in mice...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Loreana Sanches Silveira, Helena Angélica Pereira Batatinha, Angela Castoldi, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Willian T Festuccia, Camila Oliveira Souza, José Cesar Rosa Neto, Fábio Santos Lira
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a powerful tool for prevention and treatment of many conditions related to the cardiovascular system and also chronic low-grade inflammation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) exerts an import role on the regulation of metabolic profile and subsequent inflammatory response, especially in macrophages. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of 8-week moderate-exercise training on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in mice with PPARγ deficiency in myeloid cells...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xichuan Zhai, Dehui Lin, Yan Zhao, Wenwen Li, Xingbin Yang
This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with bacterial cellulose (BC), konjac glucomannan (KGM) and combined BC/KGM fiber on high-fat (HF)-diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. The results showed that combined supplementation with BC/KGM in HF-fed mice was more efficient in reducing body weight, lowing serum lipid profiles and suppressing insulin resistance than single supplementation with BC or KGM. Moreover, supplementation with combined BC/KGM fiber more efficiently alleviated HF-diet-induced liver injury by decreasing hepatic steatosis in comparison with supplementation with BC or KGM alone...
September 21, 2018: Food & Function
Kumiko Okada, Tetsuya Hosooka, Masakazu Shinohara, Wataru Ogawa
Thiazolidinediones exert their antidiabetic effect in part by ameliorating chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. However, the precise mechanism of this anti-inflammatory action has remained unclear. We here investigated the effects of the TZD pioglitazone on the lipid mediator profile of adipose tissue in obese diabetic KKAy mice by metabololipidomics analysis based on liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Pioglitazone treatment increased the amounts of pro-resolving lipid mediators including lipoxin B4 (LXB4 ), resolvin E2, and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as reduced those of prostaglandin E2 and 4-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid in epididymal adipose tissue of KKAy mice...
September 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chian-Jiun Liou, Ciao-Han Wei, Ya-Ling Chen, Ching-Yi Cheng, Chia-Ling Wang, Wen-Chung Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fisetin is a naturally abundant flavonoid isolated from various fruits and vegetables that was recently identified to have potential biological functions in improving allergic airway inflammation, as well as anti-oxidative and anti-tumor properties. Fisetin has also been demonstrated to have anti-obesity properties in mice. However, the effect of fisetin on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still elusive. Thus, the present study evaluated whether fisetin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and regulates lipid metabolism of FL83B hepatocytes in vitro...
September 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Haiyan Zhou, Feng Liu
Evidence accumulated over the past few years has documented a critical role for adipose tissue (AT)-resident immune cells in the regulation of local and systemic metabolic homeostasis. In the lean state, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is predominated by anti-inflammatory T-helper 2 (Th2) and regulatory T (Treg) cell subsets. As obesity progresses, the population of Th2 and Treg cells decreases while that of the T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 17 (Th17) cells increases, leading to augmented inflammation and insulin resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Stefania Gorini, Vincenzo Marzolla, Caterina Mammi, Andrea Armani, Massimiliano Caprio
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was first identified as a blood pressure regulator, modulating renal sodium handling in response to its principal ligand aldosterone. The mineralocorticoid receptor is also expressed in many tissues other than the kidney, such as adipose tissue, heart and vasculature. Recent studies have shown that MR plays a relevant role in the control of cardiovascular and metabolic function, as well as in adipogenesis. Dysregulation of aldosterone/MR signaling represents an important cause of disease as high plasma levels of aldosterone are associated with hypertension, obesity and increased cardiovascular risk...
September 18, 2018: Biomolecules
Fernando Laso-García, Jaime Ramos-Cejudo, Francisco Javier Carrillo-Salinas, Laura Otero-Ortega, Ana Feliú, MariCarmen Gómez-de Frutos, Miriam Mecha, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, Carmen Guaza, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication and as possible therapeutic agents in inflammation-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we investigated whether intravenously administered EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human adipose tissue might mediate recovery in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease, a progressive model of MS. SJL/J mice were subjected to EV treatment once the disease was established...
2018: PloS One
Lucia Russo, Carey N Lumeng
The expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is accompanied by the accumulation of immune cells that contribute to a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation and dysregulated metabolism. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) represent the most abundant class of leukocytes in adipose tissue (AT) and are involved in the regulation of several regulatory physiological processes such as tissue remodeling and insulin sensitivity. With progressive obesity, ATMs are key mediators of meta-inflammation, insulin resistance, and impairment of adipocyte function...
September 19, 2018: Immunology
Geraldine J Ooi, Paul R Burton, Jacqueline Bayliss, Arthe Raajendiran, Arul Earnest, Cheryl Laurie, William W Kemp, Catriona A McLean, Stuart K Roberts, Matthew J Watt, Wendy A Brown
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), driven by the obesity epidemic, has become the most common form of liver disease. Despite this, there is controversy regarding the prevalence and severity of NAFLD in obesity. Obesity-related factors, such as increasing adiposity, metabolic disease and inflammation, may influence prevalence. We therefore prospectively measured NAFLD prevalence in obesity and studied factors associated with NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited consecutive bariatric patients...
September 18, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Jimin Kim, Seul Ki Lee, Yeon Jin Jang, Hye Soon Park, Jong-Hyeok Kim, Joon Pio Hong, Yeon Ji Lee, Yoon-Suk Heo
Angiopoietin-like protein 2 has been proposed to be a key mediator linking obesity and insulin resistance. However, no detailed study of ANGPTL2 expression in human adipose tissues has yet been reported. To investigate the pattern and regulation of ANGPTL2 expression in human adipose tissues in obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 32 non-diabetic and 13 type 2 diabetic obese women and 32 normal-weight women. ANGPTL2 mRNA was expressed at a similar level in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues...
September 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jia Li, Yao-Ming Xue, Bo Zhu, Yong-Hua Pan, Yan Zhang, Chunxia Wang, Yuhao Li
Rosiglitazone is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ that is principally associated with insulin action. The exact mechanisms underlying its insulin-sensitizing action are still not fully elucidated. It is well known that adiponectin mostly secreted in adipose tissue is an insulin sensitizer. Here, we found that treatment of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage for 33 weeks) attenuated the increase in fasting plasma insulin concentrations and the index of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance along with the age growth and glucose concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Alexander Koch, Ralf Weiskirchen, Alexander Krusch, Jan Bruensing, Lukas Buendgens, Ulf Herbers, Eray Yagmur, Ger H Koek, Christian Trautwein, Frank Tacke
The adipokine visfatin, also termed pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), is mainly derived from adipose tissue but has been implicated in the regulation of innate immune responses. We hypothesized that visfatin could be a potential circulating biomarker in critical illness and sepsis. We therefore measured serum levels of visfatin in a cohort of 229 critically ill medical patients upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). In comparison to 53 healthy controls, visfatin levels were significantly elevated in medical ICU patients, especially in patients with sepsis...
2018: Disease Markers
Mohsen Mazidi, Niki Katsiki, Andre Pascal Kengne, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests an inverse association between whole grain (WG) consumption and insulin resistance (IR) or inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether adiposity plays a role in this relationship. We investigated whether the associations between WG intake with IR, glucose homeostasis and inflammation are mediated by adiposity in US adults. METHODS: The 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys participants were included...
September 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Jiadela Teliewubai, Hongwei Ji, Yuyan Lu, Bin Bai, Shikai Yu, Chen Chi, Yawei Xu, Yi Zhang
Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is one of the anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from white adipose tissue. However, little is known about the effect of SFRP5 on the cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of SFRP5 on smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, migration and inflammation. The plasma levels of SFRP5 were evaluated in a cohort‑based elderly population using ELISA, and the expression of SFRP5 in Sprague‑Dawley rat aortas was detected using immunohistochemistry...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Qishuang Zhou, Hongkai Xiang, Ang Li, Wu Lin, Zhaoshuai Huang, Junxiu Guo, Pingjie Wang, Yijie Chi, Ke Xiang, Yunsheng Xu, Libing Zhou, Kwok-Fai So, Xiaoming Chen, Xin Sun, Yi Ren
Myelin-laden macrophages (mye-MΦ), resulting primarily from internalization of myelin debris by infiltrating bone marrow-derived macrophages in spinal cord injury (SCI), trigger inflammatory responses that largely contribute to secondary injury. Adiponectin, which is secreted from adipose tissue, is an important hormone that modulates macrophage inflammation. In the present study, we examined the role of adiponectin on macrophage-mediated neuroinflammation after SCI. We found that in vitro activation of adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) by their agonist AdipoRon suppressed myelin lipid accumulation in mye-MΦ through APPL1/PPARγ/LXRα/ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux, subsequently inhibiting inflammation and restoring normal function to mye-MΦ...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Saverio Cinti
During the last decades, research on adipose tissues has spread in parallel with the extension of obesity. Several observations converged on the idea that adipose tissues are organized in a large organ with endocrine and plastic properties. Two parenchymal components: white (WATs) and brown adipose tissues (BATs) are contained in subcutaneous and visceral compartments. Although both have endocrine properties, their function differs: WAT store lipids to allow intervals between meals, BAT burns lipids for thermogenesis...
September 14, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Chantal A Vella, Matthew A Allison
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations between abdominal IMAT area and density with inflammatory markers associated with cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: 1897 participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis underwent computed tomography to quantify body composition and measurements of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and resistin. RESULTS: The mean age and body mass index of participants was 65years and 28kg/m2 , respectively, and 50% were female...
September 10, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
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