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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030182/biosynthesis-of-dextran-by-weissella-confusa-and-its-in-vitro-functional-characteristics
#1
Irina Rosca, Anca Roxana Petrovici, Dragos Peptanariu, Alina Nicolescu, Gianina Dodi, Mihaela Avadanei, Iuliu Cristian Ivanov, Andra Cristina Bostanaru, Mihai Mares, Diana Ciolacu
The aim of this study was to monitor the influence of the fermentation conditions on the exopolysaccharides (EPS) biosynthesis. For this, different culture media compositions were tested on an isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain, identified by 16S rDNA sequence as being Weissella confusa. It was proved that this bacterial strain culture in MRS medium supplemented with 80g/L sucrose and dissolved in UHT milk produced up to 25.2g/L of freeze-dried EPS, in static conditions, after 48hours of fermentative process...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965508/addressing-barriers-to-exclusive-breast-feeding-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-programmatic-implications
#2
Justine A Kavle, Elizabeth LaCroix, Hallie Dau, Cyril Engmann
OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous global initiatives on breast-feeding, trend data show exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) rates have stagnated over the last two decades. The purpose of the present systematic review was to determine barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in twenty-five low- and middle-income countries and discuss implications for programmes. DESIGN: A search of Scopus, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO was conducted to retrieve studies from January 2000 to October 2015...
October 2, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903865/economic-evaluation-of-the-eradication-program-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-in-the-swiss-dairy-sector
#3
B Thomann, A Tschopp, I Magouras, M Meylan, G Schüpbach-Regula, B Häsler
Since 2008, the Swiss veterinary service has been running a mandatory eradication program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) that is focused on detecting and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Detection was initially based on antigen testing from ear tag samples of the entire cattle population, followed by antigen testing of all newborn calves until 2012. Since then, bulk milk serology (dairy herds) and blood sample serology (beef herds) have been used for the surveillance of disease-free herds. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of newborn PI calves decreased from 1...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755928/stabilization-of-milk-proteins-in-acidic-conditions-by-pectic-polysaccharides-extracted-from-soy-flour
#4
Y Cai, B Cai, S Ikeda
Pectic polysaccharides were extracted from soy flour at either room temperature (SPRT) or 121°C (SPH), and their abilities to stabilize milk proteins in acidic conditions were evaluated. Both SPRT and SPH were found to contain proteinaceous components that were difficult to dissociate from polysaccharide components using size exclusion chromatography, whereas the molar mass of the former was approximately twice that of the latter. Due to the higher molar mass, SPRT was expected to provide stronger steric effects to prevent aggregation between milk proteins in acidic conditions than SPH...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711521/a-comparison-of-resetting-and-nonresetting-contingencies-in-progressive-duration-schedules
#5
Morgan Valois, Sara Peck, Tom Byrne
We compared two progressive schedules of reinforcement in which rats received access to sweetened condensed milk for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery in a manner similar to progressive-ratio schedules. Under one schedule, any response duration less than that required for reinforcement had no programmed consequences. Under the second schedule, the cumulative duration of all responses could meet the reinforcement criteria. Breaking points were consistently higher when all lever presses, regardless of duration, contributed to meeting the reinforcer requirements...
September 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710848/breaking-transmission-with-vaccines-the-case-of-tuberculosis
#6
Jesus Gonzalo-Asensio, Nacho Aguilo, Dessislava Marinova, Carlos Martin
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have evolved causing tuberculosis (TB) in different mammalian hosts. MTBC ecotypes have adapted to diverse animal species, with M. bovis being the most common cause of TB in livestock. Cattle-to-human transmission of M. bovis through ingestion of raw milk was common before introduction of the pasteurization process. TB in humans is mainly caused by M. tuberculosis. This bacterium is considered a genetically clonal pathogen that has coevolved with humans due to its ability to manipulate and subvert the immune response...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609542/effect-of-single-use-laser-cut-slow-flow-nipples-on-respiration-and-milk-ingestion-in-preterm-infants
#7
Katlyn E McGrattan, David H McFarland, Jesse C Dean, Elizabeth Hill, David R White, Bonnie Martin-Harris
Purpose: Single-use, laser-cut, slow-flow nipples were evaluated for their effect on respiration and milk ingestion in 13 healthy preterm infants (32.7-37.1 weeks postmenstrual age) under nonlaboratory, clinical conditions. Method: The primary outcomes of minute ventilation and overall milk transfer were measured by using integrated nasal airflow and volume-calibrated bottles during suck bursts and suck burst breaks during slow-flow and standard-flow nipple bottle feedings...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457554/comparison-between-an-exclusive-in-vitro-produced-embryo-transfer-system-and-artificial-insemination-for-genetic-technical-and-financial-herd-performance
#8
K Kaniyamattam, J Block, P J Hansen, A De Vries
The objective of this study was to implement an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system in an existing stochastic dynamic dairy simulation model with multitrait genetics to evaluate the genetic, technical, and financial performance of a dairy herd implementing an exclusive IVP-ET or artificial insemination (AI) system. In the AI system, sexed semen was used on the genetically best heifers only. In the IVP-ET system, all of the animals in the herd were impregnated with female sexed embryos created through in vitro fertilization of oocytes collected from animals of superior genetics for different traits of interest...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434723/labeling-strategies-to-overcome-the-problem-of-niche-markets-for-sustainable-milk-products-the-example-of-pasture-raised-milk
#9
S Kühl, B Gassler, A Spiller
Pasture-raised milk is gaining in importance in some European countries and in the United States. The production of pasture-raised milk is linked to higher costs, as the milk is normally collected and processed separately from conventional barn milk. This could hinder the production of sustainable milk products. We discuss alternative labeling strategies that allow the mixing of pasture-raised (sustainable) and conventional milk to reduce costs and break free from the current niche market. The lower price would allow for more pasture-raised milk to be produced and enter the mainstream market...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405934/a-brief-review-of-neurotoxicity-induced-by-melamine
#10
REVIEW
Lei An, Wei Sun
In September 2008, in China, tens of thousands of children were hospitalized, several even died, as a result of infant-formula milk adulterated with a synthetic chemical compound, melamine, and in the next few months, this crisis became the focus of attention worldwide. Although there are a number of articles about nephrotoxicity of melamine, the evidence of melamine toxicity on other organs is still scanty. Specially, several recent studies indicated that melamine can perturb the central nervous system (CNS) function and induce cognitive deficits, breaking the previous view that melamine toxicity is limited to the urinary system...
August 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173887/an-empirical-analysis-of-the-cost-of-rearing-dairy-heifers-from-birth-to-first-calving-and-the-time-taken-to-repay-these-costs
#11
A C Boulton, J Rushton, D C Wathes
Rearing quality dairy heifers is essential to maintain herds by replacing culled cows. Information on the key factors influencing the cost of rearing under different management systems is, however, limited and many farmers are unaware of their true costs. This study determined the cost of rearing heifers from birth to first calving in Great Britain including the cost of mortality, investigated the main factors influencing these costs across differing farming systems and estimated how long it took heifers to repay the cost of rearing on individual farms...
August 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013188/a-capture-method-based-on-the-vc1-domain-reveals-new-binding-properties-of-the-human-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-rage
#12
Genny Degani, Alessandra A Altomare, Mara Colzani, Caterina Martino, Angelica Mazzolari, Guenter Fritz, Giulio Vistoli, Laura Popolo, Giancarlo Aldini
The Advanced Glycation and Lipoxidation End products (AGEs and ALEs) are a heterogeneous class of compounds derived from the non-enzymatic glycation or protein adduction by lipoxidation break-down products. The receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is involved in the progression of chronic diseases based on persistent inflammatory state and oxidative stress. RAGE is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and the inhibition of the interaction with its ligands or of the ligand accumulation have a potential therapeutic effect...
April 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921350/effects-of-the-standardized-ileal-digestible-valine%C3%A2-%C3%A2-lysine-ratio-on-performance-milk-composition-and-plasma-indices-of-lactating-sows
#13
Yetong Xu, Zhikai Zeng, Xiao Xu, Qiyu Tian, Xiaokang Ma, Shenfei Long, Meijing Piao, Zhibin Cheng, Xiangshu Piao
To determine the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine : lysine ratio on the performance, milk composition and plasma indices of lactating sows, 32 Large White × Landrace sows (219.78 ± 7.15 kg body weight; parity 1.82 ± 0.62) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments with eight sows per treatment based on parity, back fat thickness and body weight. The sows were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 63, 83, 103 or 123% SID valine : lysine from day 107 of gestation until day 28 of lactation...
August 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875035/mothers-experience-of-not-breastfeeding-in-a-breastfeeding-culture
#14
Ingjerd Hvatum, Kari Glavin
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe women's experience of not breastfeeding in a breastfeeding culture. BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding represents a fundamental cultural value in Norway and many other countries, and a mother may often have intense emotions about breastfeeding her child. Political and health authorities in many countries have given high priority to encourage breastfeeding among mothers. However, breastfeeding can be challenging and sometimes affects mothers' mental health and the joy of interaction...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792244/breastfeeding-for-procedural-pain-in-infants-beyond-the-neonatal-period
#15
REVIEW
Denise Harrison, Jessica Reszel, Mariana Bueno, Margaret Sampson, Vibhuti S Shah, Anna Taddio, Catherine Larocque, Lucy Turner
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) show that breastfeeding newborn infants during painful procedures reduces pain. Mechanisms are considered to be multifactorial and include sucking, skin-to-skin contact, warmth, rocking, sound and smell of the mother, and possibly endogenous opiates present in the breast milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of breastfeeding on procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period (first 28 days of life) up to one year of age compared to no intervention, placebo, parental holding, skin-to-skin contact, expressed breast milk, formula milk, bottle feeding, sweet-tasting solutions (e...
October 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670924/disentangling-the-relative-roles-of-resource-acquisition-and-allocation-on-animal-feed-efficiency-insights-from-a-dairy-cow-model
#16
Laurence Puillet, Denis Réale, Nicolas C Friggens
BACKGROUND: Feed efficiency of farm animals has greatly improved through genetic selection for production. Today, we are faced with the limits of our ability to predict the effect of selection on feed efficiency, partly because the relative importance of the components of this complex phenotype changes across environments. Thus, we developed a dairy cow model that incorporates the dynamic interplay between life functions and evaluated its behaviour with a global sensitivity analysis on two definitions of feed efficiency...
September 26, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606000/employers-perspective-of-workplace-breastfeeding-support-in-karachi-pakistan-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Jamil Ahmed Soomro, Zeeshan Noor Shaikh, Tennegedara Buhary Saheer, Suhail Ahmed Bijarani
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is considered to be an important measure to achieve optimum health outcomes for children, women's return to work has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early discontinuation of breastfeeding. The aim of the study is to assess workplace breastfeeding support provided to working mothers in Pakistan. METHOD: A workplace based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April through December 2014. Employers from a representative sample of 297 workplaces were interviewed on pre-tested and structured questionnaire...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444340/breastfeeding-the-illusion-of-choice
#18
Lauren M Dinour, Yeon K Bai
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is frequently described as a woman's decision, yet this choice is often illusionary owing to suboptimal social and structural supports. Despite passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) that requires all qualifying employers to provide mothers "reasonable" break time and a private, non-bathroom space to express breast milk, the majority of women in the United States still do not have access to both accommodations. THE PROBLEM: At least three issues may be influencing this suboptimal implementation at workplaces: 1) federal law does not address lactation space functionality and accessibility, 2) federal law only protects a subset of employees, and 3) enforcement of the federal law requires women to file a complaint with the United States Department of Labor...
September 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380761/fermented-goat-milk-improves-antioxidant-status-and-protects-from-oxidative-damage-to-biomolecules-during-anemia-recovery
#19
Jorge Moreno-Fernandez, Javier Diaz-Castro, María Jm Alférez, Christine Boesch, Teresa Nestares, Inmaculada López-Aliaga
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world, and it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is altered during IDA. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fermented goat and cow milks on enzymatic antioxidant activities and gene expression, and their role in protecting from oxidative damage during anemia recovery. RESULTS: After feeding the fermented milks-based diets (cow or goat), a significant elevation of some antioxidant endogenous enzymes was found, together with an increase in total antioxidant status (TAS), and a decrease in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was recorded in animals consuming fermented goat milk-based diet...
March 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271523/neonatal-benzo-a-pyrene-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-causing-neurobehavioural-changes-during-the-early-adolescence-period-in-rats
#20
Bhupesh Patel, Saroj Kumar Das, Manorama Patri
Humans are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Prenatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) like PAHs through the placental barrier and neonatal exposure by breast milk and the environment may affect early brain development. In the present study, single intracisternal administration of B[a]P (0.2 and 2.0 µg/kg body weight) to male Wistar rat pups at postnatal day 5 (PND5) was carried out to study its specific effect on neonatal brain development and its consequences at PND30...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
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