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breaks milk

Laurence Puillet, Denis Réale, Nicolas C Friggens
BACKGROUND: Feed efficiency of farm animals has greatly improved through genetic selection for production. Today, we are faced with the limits of our ability to predict the effect of selection on feed efficiency, partly because the relative importance of the components of this complex phenotype changes across environments. Thus, we developed a dairy cow model that incorporates the dynamic interplay between life functions and evaluated its behaviour with a global sensitivity analysis on two definitions of feed efficiency...
September 26, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Jamil Ahmed Soomro, Zeeshan Noor Shaikh, Tennegedara Buhary Saheer, Suhail Ahmed Bijarani
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is considered to be an important measure to achieve optimum health outcomes for children, women's return to work has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early discontinuation of breastfeeding. The aim of the study is to assess workplace breastfeeding support provided to working mothers in Pakistan. METHOD: A workplace based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April through December 2014. Employers from a representative sample of 297 workplaces were interviewed on pre-tested and structured questionnaire...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
Lauren M Dinour, Yeon K Bai
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is frequently described as a woman's decision, yet this choice is often illusionary owing to suboptimal social and structural supports. Despite passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) that requires all qualifying employers to provide mothers "reasonable" break time and a private, non-bathroom space to express breast milk, the majority of women in the United States still do not have access to both accommodations. THE PROBLEM: At least three issues may be influencing this suboptimal implementation at workplaces: 1) federal law does not address lactation space functionality and accessibility, 2) federal law only protects a subset of employees, and 3) enforcement of the federal law requires women to file a complaint with the United States Department of Labor...
September 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Jorge Moreno-Fernandez, Javier Diaz-Castro, Maria J M Alferez, Christine Boesch, Teresa Nestares, Inmaculada Lopez-Aliaga
BACKGROUND: Fe deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and it is accepted that ROS production is altered during IDA. The aim of the current study is to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on enzymatic antioxidant activities and gene expression, and their roles protecting main from the oxidative damage during anemia recovery. RESULTS: After feeding the fermented milks, a significant elevation of some antioxidant endogenous enzymes were found, together with an increase in total antioxidant status (TAS) and a decrease in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was recorded in animals consuming fermented goat milk-based diet...
July 6, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Bhupesh Patel, Saroj Kumar Das, Manorama Patri
Humans are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Prenatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) like PAHs through the placental barrier and neonatal exposure by breast milk and the environment may affect early brain development. In the present study, single intracisternal administration of B[a]P (0.2 and 2.0 µg/kg body weight) to male Wistar rat pups at postnatal day 5 (PND5) was carried out to study its specific effect on neonatal brain development and its consequences at PND30...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
T M Davison, N N Jonsson, D G Mayer, J B Gaughan, W K Ehrlich, M R McGowan
Exposure to hot environments affects milk yield (MY) and milk composition of pasture and feed-pad fed dairy cows in subtropical regions. This study was undertaken during summer to compare MY and physiology of cows exposed to six heat-load management treatments. Seventy-eight Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked by season of calving, parity, milk yield, BW, and milk protein (%) and milk fat (%) measured in 2 weeks prior to the start of the study. Within blocks, cows were randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: open-sided iron roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (CID) + sprinklers (SP); CID only; non-shaded pen adjacent to dairy + SP (NSD + SP); open-sided shade cloth roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (SCD); NSD + sprinkler (sprinkler on for 45 min at 1100 h if mean respiration rate >80 breaths per minute (NSD + WSP)); open-sided shade cloth roofed structure over feed bunk in paddock + 1 km walk to and from the dairy (SCP + WLK)...
May 12, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
David I Douphrate, Matthew W Nonnenmann, Robert Hagevoort, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras
Dairy production in the United States is moving towards large-herd milking operations, resulting in an increase in task specialization and work demands. The objective of this project was to provide preliminary evidence of the association of a number of specific job conditions that commonly characterize large-herd parlor milking operations with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS). A modified version of the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire was administered to assess MSS prevalence among 450 US large-herd parlor workers...
2016: Journal of Agromedicine
N U Abdukarimova, R M Shermatov
The Determination system mechanism developments, formations and integrations some function small intestine on the grounds of studies of the growing and developments of the organism, developments and formations her(its) mucous shell, angioarhitektonic under natural and artificial feeding nutrition in early postnatal ontogenesis. The experiments are organized on 122 white rats both flap, which were kept in reference conditions vivary. The first group of the rats after birth feeding the breast milk (checking) and for morphological studies was rammed at periods 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 90 days following birth...
2015: Experimental & Clinical Gastroenterology
Pere Randy R Ramel, Fernanda Peyronel, Alejandro G Marangoni
The nanoscale structure of milk fat (MF) crystal networks is extensively described for the first time through the characterization of milk fat-crystalline nanoplatelets (MF-CNPs). Removing oil by washing with cold isobutanol and breaking-down crystal aggregates by controlled homogenization allowed for the extraction and visualization of individual MF-CNPs that are mainly composed of high melting triacylglycerols (TAGs). By image analysis, the length and width of MF-CNPs were measured (600 nm × 200 nm-900 nm × 300 nm)...
July 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Yan Luo, Yongsheng Wang, Jun Liu, Chenchen Cui, Yongyan Wu, Hui Lan, Qi Chen, Xu Liu, Fusheng Quan, Zekun Guo, Yong Zhang
Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription- activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Taylor K Soderborg, Sarah J Borengasser, Linda A Barbour, Jacob E Friedman
Maternal obesity and diabetes dramatically increase the long-term risk for obesity in the next generation, and pregnancy and lactation may be critical periods at which to aim primary prevention to break the obesity cycle. It is becoming increasingly clear that the gut microbiome in newborns and infants plays a significant role in gut health and therefore child development. Alteration of the early infant gut microbiome has been correlated with the development of childhood obesity and autoimmune conditions, including asthma, allergies and, more recently, type 1 diabetes...
May 2016: Diabetologia
Brigitte Lemyre, Megan Sample, Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil
Reducing blood loss and the need for blood transfusions in extremely preterm infants is part of effective care. Delayed cord clamping is well supported by the evidence and is recommended for infants who do not immediately require resuscitation. Cord milking may be an alternative to delayed cord clamping; however, more research is needed to support its use. In view of concerns regarding the increased risk for cognitive delay, clinicians should avoid using hemoglobin transfusion thresholds lower than those tested in clinical trials...
November 2015: Paediatrics & Child Health
Hang Yang, Mengyue Wang, Junping Yu, Hongping Wei
The global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing threat to public health worldwide. Natural bacteriophage lysins are promising alternatives in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, but not Gram-negative ones, like Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the barriers posed by their outer membranes. Recently, modifying a natural lysin with an antimicrobial peptide was found able to break the barriers, and to kill Gram-negative pathogens. Herein, a new peptide-modified lysin (PlyA) was constructed by fusing the cecropin A peptide residues 1-8 (KWKLFKKI) with the OBPgp279 lysin and its antibacterial activity was studied...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ronald J Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip Aa Cordery, Neil P Walsh, Samuel J Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, Stuart Dr Galloway
BACKGROUND: The identification of beverages that promote longer-term fluid retention and maintenance of fluid balance is of real clinical and practical benefit in situations in which free access to fluids is limited or when frequent breaks for urination are not desirable. The postingestion diuretic response is likely to be influenced by several beverage characteristics, including the volume ingested, energy density, electrolyte content, and the presence of diuretic agents. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of 13 different commonly consumed drinks on urine output and fluid balance when ingested in a euhydrated state, with a view to establishing a beverage hydration index (BHI), i...
March 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Dipti W Pitta, Nagaraju Indugu, Sanjay Kumar, Bonnie Vecchiarelli, Rohini Sinha, Linda D Baker, Bhima Bhukya, James D Ferguson
The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach...
April 2016: Anaerobe
Andreas Håkansson, Håkan S Andersson, Yvonne Granfeldt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between diet cost and adherence to nutritional recommendations among consumers in general. This has adverse effects on diet and health inequality. It could be hypothesized that consumers knowledgeable in nutrition escape this correlation. OBJECTIVE: Investigate whether the previously observed relationship between diet cost and nutritional quality prevails among consumers with an above-average interest in and knowledge of nutrition...
2015: Food & Nutrition Research
Catherine A Durham, Andrea Bouma, Lisbeth Meunier-Goddik
Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes...
December 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Katy B Kozhimannil, Judy Jou, Dwenda K Gjerdingen, Patricia M McGovern
OBJECTIVES: This study examines access to workplace accommodations for breastfeeding, as mandated by the Affordable Care Act, and its associations with breastfeeding initiation and duration. We hypothesize that women with access to reasonable break time and private space to express breast milk would be more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 6 months and to continue breastfeeding for a longer duration. METHODS: Data are from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18 to 45 who gave birth in 2011 and 2012...
January 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Jonggun Kim, Hyung Kwan Kim, Saehun Kim, Ji-Young Imm, Kwang-Youn Whang
Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet...
December 2015: Journal of Medicinal Food
Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Sarah Dow-Fleisner, Alice Noble
Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program...
October 2015: Pediatric Clinics of North America
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