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breaks milk

Lei An, Wei Sun
In September 2008, in China, tens of thousands of children were hospitalized, several even died, as a result of infant-formula milk adulterated with a synthetic chemical compound, melamine, and in the next few months, this crisis became the focus of attention worldwide. Although there are a number of articles about nephrotoxicity of melamine, the evidence of melamine toxicity on other organs is still scanty. Specially, several recent studies indicated that melamine can perturb the central nervous system (CNS) function and induce cognitive deficits, breaking the previous view that melamine toxicity is limited to the urinary system...
April 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
A C Boulton, J Rushton, D C Wathes
Rearing quality dairy heifers is essential to maintain herds by replacing culled cows. Information on the key factors influencing the cost of rearing under different management systems is, however, limited and many farmers are unaware of their true costs. This study determined the cost of rearing heifers from birth to first calving in Great Britain including the cost of mortality, investigated the main factors influencing these costs across differing farming systems and estimated how long it took heifers to repay the cost of rearing on individual farms...
February 8, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Genny Degani, Alessandra A Altomare, Mara Colzani, Caterina Martino, Angelica Mazzolari, Guenter Fritz, Giulio Vistoli, Laura Popolo, Giancarlo Aldini
The Advanced Glycation and Lipoxidation End products (AGEs and ALEs) are a heterogeneous class of compounds derived from the non-enzymatic glycation or protein adduction by lipoxidation break-down products. The receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is involved in the progression of chronic diseases based on persistent inflammatory state and oxidative stress. RAGE is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and the inhibition of the interaction with its ligands or of the ligand accumulation have a potential therapeutic effect...
April 2017: Redox Biology
Yetong Xu, Zhikai Zeng, Xiao Xu, Qiyu Tian, Xiaokang Ma, Shenfei Long, Meijing Piao, Zhibin Cheng, Xiangshu Piao
To determine the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine : lysine ratio on the performance, milk composition and plasma indices of lactating sows, 32 Large White × Landrace sows (219.78 ± 7.15 kg body weight; parity 1.82 ± 0.62) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments with eight sows per treatment based on parity, back fat thickness and body weight. The sows were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 63, 83, 103 or 123% SID valine : lysine from day 107 of gestation until day 28 of lactation...
December 5, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Ingjerd Hvatum, Kari Glavin
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe women's experience of not breastfeeding in a breastfeeding culture. BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding represents a fundamental cultural value in Norway and many other countries, and a mother may often have intense emotions about breastfeeding her child. Political and health authorities in many countries have given high priority to encourage breastfeeding among mothers. However, breastfeeding can be challenging and sometimes affects mothers' mental health and the joy of interaction...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Denise Harrison, Jessica Reszel, Mariana Bueno, Margaret Sampson, Vibhuti S Shah, Anna Taddio, Catherine Larocque, Lucy Turner
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) show that breastfeeding newborn infants during painful procedures reduces pain. Mechanisms are considered to be multifactorial and include sucking, skin-to-skin contact, warmth, rocking, sound and smell of the mother, and possibly endogenous opiates present in the breast milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of breastfeeding on procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period (first 28 days of life) up to one year of age compared to no intervention, placebo, parental holding, skin-to-skin contact, expressed breast milk, formula milk, bottle feeding, sweet-tasting solutions (e...
October 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laurence Puillet, Denis Réale, Nicolas C Friggens
BACKGROUND: Feed efficiency of farm animals has greatly improved through genetic selection for production. Today, we are faced with the limits of our ability to predict the effect of selection on feed efficiency, partly because the relative importance of the components of this complex phenotype changes across environments. Thus, we developed a dairy cow model that incorporates the dynamic interplay between life functions and evaluated its behaviour with a global sensitivity analysis on two definitions of feed efficiency...
September 26, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Jamil Ahmed Soomro, Zeeshan Noor Shaikh, Tennegedara Buhary Saheer, Suhail Ahmed Bijarani
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is considered to be an important measure to achieve optimum health outcomes for children, women's return to work has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early discontinuation of breastfeeding. The aim of the study is to assess workplace breastfeeding support provided to working mothers in Pakistan. METHOD: A workplace based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April through December 2014. Employers from a representative sample of 297 workplaces were interviewed on pre-tested and structured questionnaire...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
Lauren M Dinour, Yeon K Bai
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is frequently described as a woman's decision, yet this choice is often illusionary owing to suboptimal social and structural supports. Despite passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) that requires all qualifying employers to provide mothers "reasonable" break time and a private, non-bathroom space to express breast milk, the majority of women in the United States still do not have access to both accommodations. THE PROBLEM: At least three issues may be influencing this suboptimal implementation at workplaces: 1) federal law does not address lactation space functionality and accessibility, 2) federal law only protects a subset of employees, and 3) enforcement of the federal law requires women to file a complaint with the United States Department of Labor...
September 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Jorge Moreno-Fernandez, Javier Diaz-Castro, María Jm Alférez, Christine Boesch, Teresa Nestares, Inmaculada López-Aliaga
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world, and it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is altered during IDA. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fermented goat and cow milks on enzymatic antioxidant activities and gene expression, and their role in protecting from oxidative damage during anemia recovery. RESULTS: After feeding the fermented milks-based diets (cow or goat), a significant elevation of some antioxidant endogenous enzymes was found, together with an increase in total antioxidant status (TAS), and a decrease in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was recorded in animals consuming fermented goat milk-based diet...
July 6, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Bhupesh Patel, Saroj Kumar Das, Manorama Patri
Humans are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Prenatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) like PAHs through the placental barrier and neonatal exposure by breast milk and the environment may affect early brain development. In the present study, single intracisternal administration of B[a]P (0.2 and 2.0 µg/kg body weight) to male Wistar rat pups at postnatal day 5 (PND5) was carried out to study its specific effect on neonatal brain development and its consequences at PND30...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
T M Davison, N N Jonsson, D G Mayer, J B Gaughan, W K Ehrlich, M R McGowan
Exposure to hot environments affects milk yield (MY) and milk composition of pasture and feed-pad fed dairy cows in subtropical regions. This study was undertaken during summer to compare MY and physiology of cows exposed to six heat-load management treatments. Seventy-eight Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked by season of calving, parity, milk yield, BW, and milk protein (%) and milk fat (%) measured in 2 weeks prior to the start of the study. Within blocks, cows were randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: open-sided iron roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (CID) + sprinklers (SP); CID only; non-shaded pen adjacent to dairy + SP (NSD + SP); open-sided shade cloth roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (SCD); NSD + sprinkler (sprinkler on for 45 min at 1100 h if mean respiration rate >80 breaths per minute (NSD + WSP)); open-sided shade cloth roofed structure over feed bunk in paddock + 1 km walk to and from the dairy (SCP + WLK)...
December 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
David I Douphrate, Matthew W Nonnenmann, Robert Hagevoort, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras
Dairy production in the United States is moving towards large-herd milking operations, resulting in an increase in task specialization and work demands. The objective of this project was to provide preliminary evidence of the association of a number of specific job conditions that commonly characterize large-herd parlor milking operations with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS). A modified version of the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire was administered to assess MSS prevalence among 450 US large-herd parlor workers...
2016: Journal of Agromedicine
N U Abdukarimova, R M Shermatov
The Determination system mechanism developments, formations and integrations some function small intestine on the grounds of studies of the growing and developments of the organism, developments and formations her(its) mucous shell, angioarhitektonic under natural and artificial feeding nutrition in early postnatal ontogenesis. The experiments are organized on 122 white rats both flap, which were kept in reference conditions vivary. The first group of the rats after birth feeding the breast milk (checking) and for morphological studies was rammed at periods 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 90 days following birth...
2015: Experimental & Clinical Gastroenterology
Pere Randy R Ramel, Fernanda Peyronel, Alejandro G Marangoni
The nanoscale structure of milk fat (MF) crystal networks is extensively described for the first time through the characterization of milk fat-crystalline nanoplatelets (MF-CNPs). Removing oil by washing with cold isobutanol and breaking-down crystal aggregates by controlled homogenization allowed for the extraction and visualization of individual MF-CNPs that are mainly composed of high melting triacylglycerols (TAGs). By image analysis, the length and width of MF-CNPs were measured (600 nm × 200 nm-900 nm × 300 nm)...
July 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Yan Luo, Yongsheng Wang, Jun Liu, Chenchen Cui, Yongyan Wu, Hui Lan, Qi Chen, Xu Liu, Fusheng Quan, Zekun Guo, Yong Zhang
Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs...
February 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Taylor K Soderborg, Sarah J Borengasser, Linda A Barbour, Jacob E Friedman
Maternal obesity and diabetes dramatically increase the long-term risk for obesity in the next generation, and pregnancy and lactation may be critical periods at which to aim primary prevention to break the obesity cycle. It is becoming increasingly clear that the gut microbiome in newborns and infants plays a significant role in gut health and therefore child development. Alteration of the early infant gut microbiome has been correlated with the development of childhood obesity and autoimmune conditions, including asthma, allergies and, more recently, type 1 diabetes...
May 2016: Diabetologia
Brigitte Lemyre, Megan Sample, Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil
Reducing blood loss and the need for blood transfusions in extremely preterm infants is part of effective care. Delayed cord clamping is well supported by the evidence and is recommended for infants who do not immediately require resuscitation. Cord milking may be an alternative to delayed cord clamping; however, more research is needed to support its use. In view of concerns regarding the increased risk for cognitive delay, clinicians should avoid using hemoglobin transfusion thresholds lower than those tested in clinical trials...
November 2015: Paediatrics & Child Health
Hang Yang, Mengyue Wang, Junping Yu, Hongping Wei
The global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing threat to public health worldwide. Natural bacteriophage lysins are promising alternatives in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, but not Gram-negative ones, like Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the barriers posed by their outer membranes. Recently, modifying a natural lysin with an antimicrobial peptide was found able to break the barriers, and to kill Gram-negative pathogens. Herein, a new peptide-modified lysin (PlyA) was constructed by fusing the cecropin A peptide residues 1-8 (KWKLFKKI) with the OBPgp279 lysin and its antibacterial activity was studied...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ronald J Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip Aa Cordery, Neil P Walsh, Samuel J Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, Stuart Dr Galloway
BACKGROUND: The identification of beverages that promote longer-term fluid retention and maintenance of fluid balance is of real clinical and practical benefit in situations in which free access to fluids is limited or when frequent breaks for urination are not desirable. The postingestion diuretic response is likely to be influenced by several beverage characteristics, including the volume ingested, energy density, electrolyte content, and the presence of diuretic agents. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of 13 different commonly consumed drinks on urine output and fluid balance when ingested in a euhydrated state, with a view to establishing a beverage hydration index (BHI), i...
March 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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