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enterocolitis necrotizing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241961/probiotics-and-the-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#1
Mark A Underwood
BACKGROUND: Immaturity of the host immune system and alterations in the intestinal microbiome appear to be key factors in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The aim of this paper is to weigh the evidence for the use of probiotics to prevent NEC in premature infants. METHODS: Animal studies, randomized controlled trials, observational cohort studies and meta-analyses involving administration of probiotic products for the prevention of NEC were reviewed...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238412/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-milk-and-dairy-products-on-periodontal-cells-an-in-vitro-approach
#2
Layla Panahipour, Shayesteh Nasserzare, Zeinab Amer, Friedrich Brücke, Alexandra Stähli, Alexandra Kreissl, Nadja Haiden, Reinhard Gruber
OBJECTIVE: Milk can reduce intestinal tissue damage in colitis models, and protects infants against necrotizing enterocolitis. However, whether milk can decrease inflammation related to peri-implantitis and oral mucosal dehiscence remains unclear. We therefore investigated whether or not milk and fermented by-products have any anti-inflammatory effects on the cells of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human gingival fibroblasts and the human oral epithelial cell line HSC2 were exposed to pasteurized human milk, pasteurized cow's milk, dairy products, and powdered milk...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236604/potential-role-of-stem-cells-in-disease-prevention-based-on-a-murine-model-of-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#3
Courtney Pisano, Gail E Besner
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease of newborns, and despite years of research, there is no known cure. The mortality rate of infants with NEC remains as high as 20%-30%. Babies who survive NEC frequently have long term complications including short gut syndrome, developmental delays and neurological sequelae. Unfortunately, despite much research over the past years, the precise pathogenesis of the disease is still not completely understood. METHODS: Our laboratory has focused on identifying novel therapies to prevent the disease, including the use of stem cells (SC), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and recently, stem cell derived-exosomes, a type of nanovesicle, to combat this illness...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229192/evaluating-the-impact-of-a-feeding-protocol-in-neonates-before-and-after-biventricular-cardiac-surgery
#4
Jamie Furlong-Dillard, Alaina Neary, Jennifer Marietta, Courtney Jones, Grace Jeffers, Lindsey Gakenheimer, Michael Puchalski, Aaron Eckauser, Claudia Delgado-Corcoran
Introduction: Feeding difficulties and malnutrition are important challenges when caring for newborns with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) without clear available guidelines for providers. This study describes the utilization of a feeding protocol with the focus on standardization, feeding modality, and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) utilization postoperatively. Methods: Patients included neonates with CCHD undergoing complex biventricular repair using cardiopulmonary bypass...
May 2018: Pediatric quality & safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222517/outcomes-of-ostomy-location-in-children-placement-of-the-ostomy-at-the-umbilicus
#5
Joseph Sujka, Hanna Alemayehu, Leo Andrew Benedict, Justin A Sobrino, Shawn D St Peter, Jason D Fraser
PURPOSE: Neonatal exploratory laparotomies are often performed with a transumbilical incision in our institution, so umbilical ostomy placement has become more common. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the outcomes of neonates with ostomy placement at the umbilicus in comparison to more traditional stoma locations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of neonates that underwent an exploratory laparotomy with ostomy creation between January 2010 and September 2015...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213591/intestinal-microcirculation-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis-the-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-system
#6
REVIEW
Rakhee M Bowker, Xiaocai Yan, Isabelle G De Plaen
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates, is a devastating disease characterized by intestinal tissue inflammation and necrosis. NEC pathogenesis is multifactorial but remains unclear. Translocation of bacteria and/or bacterial products across a weak intestinal barrier in the setting of impaired mucosal immunity leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response and secondary mucosal epithelial injury. In addition to prematurity, other risk factors for NEC include congenital heart disease, maternal pre-eclampsia with placental vascular insufficiency, severe anemia and blood transfusion - all conditions that predispose the intestine to ischemia...
September 6, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213531/interleukin-6-serum-levels-predict-surgical-intervention-in-infants-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#7
Lukas Wisgrill, Anja Weinhandl, Lukas Unterasinger, Gabriele Amann, Rudolf Oehler, Martin L Metzelder, Angelika Berger, Thomas M Benkoe
BACKGROUND: Symptoms at suspicion of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are often nonspecific and several biomarkers have been evaluated for their discriminative power to both diagnose and predict the course from NEC suspicion to complicated disease requiring surgical intervention. Thus, we aimed to assess the utility of interleukin-6 (IL-6) to predict surgical intervention in infants suffering from NEC and, furthermore, to discriminate infants with starting NEC or late-onset sepsis (LOS)...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196017/surgical-considerations-for-neonates-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#8
REVIEW
Charles R Hong, Sam M Han, Tom Jaksic
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a potentially devastating condition that preferentially affects premature and low birth weight infants, with approximately half requiring acute surgical intervention. Surgical consult should be considered early on, and deterioration despite maximal medical therapy or the finding of pneumoperitoneum are the strongest indications for emergent surgical intervention. There is no clear consensus on the optimal surgical approach between peritoneal drainage and laparotomy; the best course of action likely depends on the infant's comorbidities, hemodynamic status, size, disease involvement, and available resources...
August 20, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188395/advanced-techniques-in-the-use-of-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-for-closure-of-complex-neonatal-abdominal-wounds
#9
Andrew Bayci, Begum Akay
BACKGROUND: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been described for closure of complex neonatal abdominal wounds, but advanced techniques for stoma or fistula control, skin protection, and the use of high pressure therapy not as well established. CASES: We identified neonatal patients at our institution who received NPWT for a complex abdominal wound, defined as a wound associated with a stoma or fistula with partial or complete dehiscence of the abdominal fascia or skin...
September 2018: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30186329/safety-of-autologous-cord-blood-cells-for-preterms-a-descriptive-study
#10
Jie Yang, Zhuxiao Ren, Chunyi Zhang, Yunbei Rao, Junjuan Zhong, Zhu Wang, Zhipeng Liu, Wei Wei, Lijuang Lu, Jiying Wen, Guocheng Liu, Kaiyan Liu, Qi Wang
Background: Preterm birth complications are one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years of age. Despite advances in medical care, many survivors face a lifetime of disability, including mental and physical retardation, and chronic lung disease. More recently, both allogenic and autogenic cord blood cells have been applied in the treatment of neonatal conditions such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Objective: To assess the safety of autologous, volume- and red blood cell- (RBC-) reduced, noncryopreserved umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell infusion to preterm infants...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184540/automated-quantification-of-fragmented-red-blood-cells-neonatal-reference-intervals-and-clinical-disorders-of-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-patients-with-high-values
#11
Allison J Judkins, Brianna C MacQueen, Robert D Christensen, Erick Henry, Gregory L Snow, Sterling T Bennett
BACKGROUND: Schistocytes are circulating erythrocyte fragments. They can be identified microscopically from a blood smear; but automated systems evaluate more cells and avoid inconsistencies in microscopy. Studies using adult subjects indicate that automated quantification of schistocytes can be clinically useful. However, reference intervals for automated schistocyte counts of neonates have not been published, and the relevance of a high automated schistocyte count from neonates has not been reported...
September 5, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181493/lactoferrin-a-critical-player-in-neonatal-host-defense
#12
REVIEW
Sucheta Telang
Newborn infants are at a high risk for infection due to an under-developed immune system, and human milk has been shown to exhibit substantial anti-infective properties that serve to bolster neonatal defenses against multiple infections. Lactoferrin is the dominant whey protein in human milk and has been demonstrated to perform a wide array of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions and play a critical role in protecting the newborn infant from infection. This review summarizes data describing the structure and important functions performed by lactoferrin in protecting the neonate from infection and contributing to the maturation of the newborn innate and adaptive immune systems...
September 4, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30180407/-effect-of-red-blood-cell-transfusion-on-the-oxygenation-of-mesenteric-tissue-in-premature-infants
#13
L Liu, S H Xu, P Zhang, C M Lu, G Q Cheng
Objective: To investigate the effect of red blood cell transfusion on the oxygenation of mesenteric tissue in premature infants. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, preterm infants with gestational age <37 weeks who were treated with red blood cell transfusions were enrolled from June 2017 to March 2018 in Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University. The infants were categorized into feeding intolerance group and feeding tolerance group according to the feeding intolerance standard...
September 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177514/variations-in-neonatal-antibiotic-use
#14
Joseph Schulman, Jochen Profit, Henry C Lee, Grace Dueñas, Mihoko V Bennett, Janella Parucha, Maria A L Jocson, Jeffrey B Gould
OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify whether and how the NICU antibiotic use rate (AUR), clinical correlates, and practice variation changed between 2013 and 2016 and attempted to identify AUR ranges that are consistent with objectively determined bacterial and/or fungal disease burdens. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of >54 000 neonates annually at >130 California NICUs from 2013 to 2016, we computed nonparametric linear correlation and compared AURs among years using a 2-sample test of proportions...
September 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172660/necrotizing-enterocolitis-the-intestinal-microbiome-metabolome-and-inflammatory-mediators
#15
REVIEW
Josef Neu, Mohan Pammi
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of preterm infants and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Although the pathogenesis of NEC is not clear, microbial dysbiosis, with a bloom of the phylum Proteobacteria, has been reported. Antibiotics and the use of H2 blockers, which affect the gut microbiome, are associated with increased incidence of NEC. In association with dysbiosis, inflammatory processes are upregulated with increased Toll-like receptor signaling, leading to translocation of nuclear factor kappa-β, a transcription factor that induces transcription of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
August 17, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172430/early-antibiotic-exposure-and-adverse-outcomes-in-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#16
Joseph B Cantey, Alaina K Pyle, Phillip S Wozniak, Linda S Hynan, Pablo J Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotic use in the first 14 postnatal days in preterm, very low birth weight (birth weight of ≤1500 g) infants is associated with risk after 14 days of age for late-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), or death after controlling for severity of illness using the Clinical Risk Index in Babies II score, and determine whether duration of antibiotic exposure was associated with risk of adverse outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included very low birth weight infants born at ≤326/7 weeks of gestation admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from September 2010 to June 2014...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170862/predictors-of-prolonged-breast-milk-provision-to-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#17
Andrew Romaine, Reese H Clark, Briana R Davis, Kaitlin Hendershot, Vance Kite, Madeleine Laughon, Isaac Updike, Marie Lynn Miranda, Paula P Meier, Aloka L Patel, P Brian Smith, C Michael Cotten, Daniel K Benjamin, Rachel G Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with prolonged maternal breast milk (BM) provision in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cohort study of VLBW infants who initially received maternal BM and were born at one of 197 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 2010 to 2012. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify demographic, clinical, and maternal factors associated with provision of maternal BM on day of life (DOL) 30 and at discharge...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170397/prophylactic-lactoferrin-for-preventing-late-onset-sepsis-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants-a-prisma-compliant-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Yi He, Luying Cao, Jialin Yu
BACKGROUND: Currently, prophylactic use of drugs to promote a healthy gut microbiota and immune system in preterm infants is hot debated, among which lactoferrin is a promising supplementation. However, the effect and safety of lactoferrin to prevent late-onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants remains controversial. METHODS: Databases including Medline, Ovid-Embase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, and VIP database of Chinese Journal were searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about lactoferrin for preventing LOS and NEC in preterm infants...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30157686/outcome-of-infants-born-at-32-weeks-gestation-in-a-single-centre-level-iii-neonatology-unit-relation-to-feeding-strategy
#19
Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Marlene Biermayr, Ulrike Pupp Peglow, Elke Griesmaier
Objective This study aimed to determine survival, neonatal morbidity, and outcomes at 1 and 2 years in children who were born very preterm, and to analyse any relation to enteral feeding. Methods We performed a prospective, observational study on very preterm infants (range: 23-31 weeks' gestation) born at Innsbruck Medical University Hospital, Austria, between 2007 and 2014 (n = 557). Results The overall survival rate was 94.6%. Survival rates were 77.8%, 78.6%, 90.9%, and 90.9% among those born at 24, 25, 26, and 27 weeks, and 97...
August 29, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30154778/the-global-response-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-cells-to-amino-acid-deficiency
#20
Si Chen, Qing Zhou, Xin Tan, Ye Li, Ge Ren, Xiaoyuan Wang
Cronobacter species can cause necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis in neonates and infants, their infection is closely relevant to their responses to extreme growth conditions. In this study, the response of Cronobacter species to amino acid deficiency has been investigated. Four Cronobacter species formed smooth colonies when grown on the solid LB medium, but formed mucoid colonies when grown on the amino acid deficient M9 medium. When the mucoid colonies were stained with tannin mordant, exopolysaccharide around the cells could be discerned...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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