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Jacob J Morse, Gramos Pallaska, Patrick R Pierce, Travis M Fields, Sujay S Galen, Moh H Malek
Morse, JJ, Pallaska, G, Pierce, PR, Fields, TM, Galen, SS, and Malek, MH. Acute low-dose caffeine supplementation increases electromyographic fatigue threshold in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3236-3241, 2016-The purpose of this study is to determine whether consumption of a single low-dose caffeine drink will delay the onset of the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles. We hypothesize that the EMGFT values for the caffeine condition will be significantly higher than the EMGFT values for the placebo condition...
November 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Florian Husmann, Martin Gube, Sabine Felser, Matthias Weippert, Anett Mau-Moeller, Sven Bruhn, Martin Behrens
PURPOSE: Despite growing interest in task-dependent alterations of central and peripheral fatigue following endurance exercise, little is known about the impact of rowing on quadriceps muscle fatigue. This study aimed to investigate central and peripheral mechanisms of fatigue following a 2000-m rowing time-trial. METHODS: Eight competitive rowers (4 males, 4 females, 20 ± 4 years) performed a 2000-m time-trial on an indoor rower and a control condition (sitting)...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Richard Ac Hughes, Ruth Brassington, Angela A Gunn, Pieter A van Doorn
BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute paralysing disease caused by inflammation of the peripheral nerves, which corticosteroids would be expected to benefit. OBJECTIVES: To examine the ability of corticosteroids to hasten recovery and reduce the long-term morbidity from GBS. SEARCH METHODS: On 12 January 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase...
October 24, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yingguo Ren, Baochao Zhang, Dongpei Jia, Ke Hu
Objective To investigate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) in rats and explore the possible immune regulation mechanism. Methods Lewis rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, EAMG group, TMP low-dose group (TMP-L, 10 mg/kg) and TMP high-dose group (TMP-H, 20 mg/kg). Except the control group, the other 3 groups were subjected to EAMG modeling. The body mass was determined and the symptoms of muscular weakness in rats were scored by Lennon EAMG criteria...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Monika S Brill, Tatjana Kleele, Laura Ruschkies, Mengzhe Wang, Natalia A Marahori, Miriam S Reuter, Torben J Hausrat, Emily Weigand, Matthew Fisher, Andrea Ahles, Stefan Engelhardt, Derron L Bishop, Matthias Kneussel, Thomas Misgeld
Developmental axon remodeling is characterized by the selective removal of branches from axon arbors. The mechanisms that underlie such branch loss are largely unknown. Additionally, how neuronal resources are specifically assigned to the branches of remodeling arbors is not understood. Here we show that axon branch loss at the developing mouse neuromuscular junction is mediated by branch-specific microtubule severing, which results in local disassembly of the microtubule cytoskeleton and loss of axonal transport in branches that will subsequently dismantle...
October 18, 2016: Neuron
Jennifer E Posey, Rebecca Martinez, Jeremy E Lankford, James R Lupski, Mohammed T Numan, Ian J Butler
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic intolerance is typically thought to be sporadic and attributed to cerebral autonomic dysfunction. We sought to identify families with inherited autonomic dysfunction manifest as symptomatic orthostatic intolerance to characterize mode of inheritance and clinical features. METHODS: Sixteen families with two or more first- or second-degree relatives with autonomic dysfunction and orthostatic intolerance were enrolled. A clinical diagnosis of autonomic dysfunction defined by symptomatic orthostatic intolerance diagnosed by head-up tilt table testing was confirmed for each proband...
September 24, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
John D Chan, Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Magdalena Z Zarowiecki, Matthew Berriman, Jonathan S Marchant
The robust regenerative capacity of planarian flatworms depends on the orchestration of signaling events from early wounding responses through the stem cell enacted differentiative outcomes that restore appropriate tissue types. Acute signaling events in excitable cells play an important role in determining regenerative polarity, rationalized by the discovery that sub-epidermal muscle cells express critical patterning genes known to control regenerative outcomes. These data imply a dual conductive (neuromuscular signaling) and instructive (anterior-posterior patterning) role for Ca(2+) signaling in planarian regeneration...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Christine Altmann, Verica Vasic, Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Annett Häussler, Ilka Wittig, Mirko H H Schmidt, Irmgard Tegeder
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury is a frequent cause of lasting motor deficits and chronic pain. Although peripheral nerves are capable of regrowth they often fail to re-innervate target tissues. RESULTS: Using newly generated transgenic mice with inducible neuronal progranulin overexpression we show that progranulin accelerates axonal regrowth, restoration of neuromuscular synapses and recovery of sensory and motor functions after injury of the sciatic nerve...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Timur Dubovoy, Michelle Housey, Scott Devine, Sachin Kheterpal
BACKGROUND: Using electronic health record data, we hypothesized that larger reversal doses are used for patients with deeper levels of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) as evidenced by the last recorded TOF measurement. We also examined if dosing regimens reflect current practice guidelines of using ideal body weight (IBW) for NMB agents and total body weight (TBW) for neostigmine. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of adult, ASA 1-4 patients who underwent general anaesthesia and received non-depolarizing NMB agents between 01/01/2004 and 12/31/2013...
October 22, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Minyeop Nahm, Sunyoung Park, Jihye Lee, Seungbok Lee
Fasciclin II (FasII), the Drosophila ortholog of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), plays a critical role in synaptic stabilization and plasticity. Although this molecule undergoes constitutive cycling at the synaptic membrane, how its membrane trafficking is regulated to ensure proper synaptic development remains poorly understood. In a genetic screen, we recovered a mutation in Drosophila mical-like that displays an increase in bouton numbers and a decrease in FasII levels at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
October 21, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Andrei Tsentsevitsky, Leniz Nurullin, Evgeny Nikolsky, Artem Malomouzh
There is some evidence that glutamate (Glu) acts as a signaling molecule at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions where acetylcholine (ACh) serves as a neurotransmitter. In this study, performed on the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog Rana ridibunda, Glu receptor mechanisms that modulate ACh release processes were analyzed. Electrophysiological experiments showed that Glu reduces both spontaneous and evoked quantal secretion of ACh and synchronizes its release in response to electrical stimulation. Quisqualate, an agonist of ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptors and metabotropic Group I mGlu receptors, also exerted Glu-like inhibitory effects on the secretion of ACh but had no effect on the kinetics of quantal release...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Maitê M Russo, Thiago Lemos, Luís A Imbiriba, Nathalia L Ribeiro, Claudia D Vargas
Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Dayana P Rosa, John D Borstad, Lívia S Pogetti, Paula R Camargo
STUDY DESIGN: Parallel-group intervention with repeated measures. INTRODUCTION: Shortening of the pectoralis minor (PM) may contribute to alterations in scapular kinematics. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effects of a stretching protocol on function, muscle length, and scapular kinematics in subjects with and without shoulder pain. METHODS: A sample of 25 patients with shoulder pain and 25 healthy subjects with PM tightness performed a daily stretching protocol for 6 weeks...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Matej Voglar, Jeffrey Wamerdam, Idsart Kingma, Nejc Sarabon, Jaap H van Dieën
The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of prolonged, intermittent flexion on trunk neuromuscular control. Furthermore, the potential beneficial effects of passive upper body support during flexion were investigated. Twenty one healthy young volunteers participated during two separate visits in which they performed 1 hour of intermittent 60 seconds flexion and 30 seconds rest cycles. Flexion was set at 80% lumbar flexion and was performed with or without upper body support. Before and after intermittent flexion exposure, lumbar range of motion was measured using inertial measurement units and trunk stability was assessed during perturbations applied in the forward direction with a force controlled actuator...
2016: PloS One
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Erika Roddy, Mohammad Diab
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Short-term readmission rates are becoming widely utilized as a quality and performance metrics for hospitals. Data on unplanned short-term readmission after spine fusion for deformity in pædiatric patients is limited. PURPOSE: To characterize the rate and risk factors for short-term readmission after spine fusion for deformity in pædiatric patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study PATIENT SAMPLE: State In-Patient Databases from NY, UT, NE, FL, NC (years 2006-2010) and CA (years 2006-2011)...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Katja Rezonja, Tomaz Mars, Ales Jerin, Gordana Kozelj, Neva Pozar-Lukanovic, Maja Sostaric
BACKGROUND: Sugammadex reverses neuromuscular block (NMB) through binding aminosteroid neuromuscular blocking agents. Although sugammadex appears to be highly selective, it can interact with other drugs, like corticosteroids. A prospective single-blinded randomized clinical trial was designed to explore the significance of interactions between dexamethasone and sugammadex. METHODS: Sixty-five patients who were anesthetized for elective abdominal or urological surgery were included...
October 21, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Domenico Intiso, Andrea Santamato, Filomena Di Rienzo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether electrical stimulation (ES) as an adjunct to BTX-A boosts botulinum activity and whether the combined therapeutic procedure is more effective than BTX-A alone in reducing spasticity in adult subjects. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and CINAHL from January 1966 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomized controlled studies (RCT) involving the combination of BTX-A and ES were considered...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Jillian Lye, Stephanie Parkinson, Nicola Diamond, Jenny Downs, Susan Morris
The strategy used to generate power for forward propulsion in walking and running has recently been highlighted as a marker of gait maturation and elastic energy recycling. This study investigated ankle and hip power generation as a propulsion strategy (PS) during the late stance/early swing phases of walking and running in typically developing (TD) children (15: six to nine years; 17: nine to 13years) using three-dimensional gait analysis. Peak ankle power generation at push-off (peakA2), peak hip power generation in early swing (peakH3) and propulsion strategy (PS) [peakA2/(peakA2+peakH3)] were calculated to provide the relative contribution of ankle power to total propulsion...
October 17, 2016: Human Movement Science
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