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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214297/advancing-neuromuscular-ultrasound-through-research-finding-common-sound
#1
Lisa Hobson-Webb, Michael S Cartwright
INTRODUCTION: Neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) is an accepted, but underutilized, diagnostic tool in the evaluation of neuromuscular disorders. The lack of uniform high-quality standards in published research and in clinical practice has been a limitation to its growth. METHODS: This article aims to address the shortcomings of NMUS research and establish basic standards to guide further work in the field. RESULTS: A review of the basic types of NMUS research papers is presented, along with the elements that each should include...
February 18, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213588/a-differential-autophagy-dependent-response-to-dna-double-strand-brakes-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-sporadic-als-patients
#2
Shane Wald-Altman, Edward Pichinuk, Or Kakhlon, Miguel Weil
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable motor neurodegenerative disease caused by a diversity of genetic and environmental factors leading to neuromuscular degeneration and pathophysiological implications in non-neural systems. Our previous work showed abnormal transcriptional expression levels of biomarker genes in non-neuronal cell samples from ALS patients. The same genes proved to be differentially expressed in brain, spinal cord and muscle of the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. These observations support the pathophysiological relevance of the ALS biomarkers discovered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from bone marrow samples of ALS patients (ALS-hMSC)...
February 16, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213447/the-drosophila-postsynaptic-deg-enac-channel-ppk29-contributes-to-excitatory-neurotransmission
#3
Alexis Hill, Xingguo Zheng, Xiling Li, Ross McKinney, Dion Dickman, Yehuda Ben-Shahar
The protein family of Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channels (DEG/ENaC) is comprised of diverse animal-specific, non-voltage-gated ion channels that play important roles in regulating cationic gradients across epithelial barriers. Some family members are also enriched in neural tissues in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the specific neurophysiological functions of most DEG/ENaC-encoding genes remain poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for deciphering the functions of DEG/ENaC genes because its genome encodes an exceptionally large number of DEG/ENaC subunits termed pickpocket (ppk) 1-31 Here we demonstrate that ppk29 contributes specifically to the postsynaptic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213440/muscle-yap-is-a-regulator-of-neuromuscular-junction-formation-and-regeneration
#4
Kai Zhao, Chengyong Shen, Yisheng Lu, Zhihui Huang, Lei Li, Christopher D Rand, Jinxiu Pan, Xiang-Dong Sun, Zhibing Tan, Hongsheng Wang, Guanglin Xing, Yu Cao, Guoqing Hu, Jiliang Zhou, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Yes-associated protein (Yap) is a major effector of the Hippo pathway that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation during development and restricts tissue growth in adult animals. However, its role in synapse formation remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized Yap's role in the formation of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In HSA-Yap(-/-) mice where Yap was mutated specifically in muscle cells, AChR clusters were smaller and were distributed in a broader region in the middle of muscle fibers, suggesting that muscle Yap is necessary for the size and location of AChR clusters...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213156/myotonic-dystrophy-disease-repeat-range-penetrance-age-of-onset-and-relationship-between-repeat-size-and-phenotypes
#5
REVIEW
Kevin Yum, Eric T Wang, Auinash Kalsotra
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disease primarily characterized by myotonia and progressive muscle weakness. The pathogenesis of DM involves microsatellite expansions in noncoding regions of transcripts that result in toxic RNA gain-of-function. Each successive generation of DM families carries larger repeat expansions, leading to an earlier age of onset with increasing disease severity. At present, diagnosis of DM is challenging and requires special genetic testing to account for somatic mosaicism and meiotic instability...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213045/identification-of-the-causes-for-chronic-hypokalemia-importance-of-urinary-sodium-and-chloride-excretion
#6
Kun-Lin Wu, Chih-Jen Cheng, Chih-Chen Sung, Ming-Hua Tseng, Yu-Juei Hsu, Sung-Sen Yang, Tom Chau, Shih-Hua Lin
BACKGROUND: Uncovering the correct diagnosis of chronic hypokalemia with potassium (K(+)) wasting from the kidneys or gut can be fraught with challenges. We identified clinical and laboratory parameters helpful for differentiating the causes of chronic hypokalemia. METHODS: Normotensive patients referred to our tertiary academic medical center for the evaluation of chronic hypokalemia were prospectively enrolled over five years. Clinical features, laboratory examinations-including blood and spot urine electrolytes, acid-base status, biochemistries and hormones-as well as genetic analysis were determined...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212264/correlated-emg-oscillations-between-antagonists-during-cocontraction-in-men
#7
Yasuhide Yoshitake, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Minoru Shinohara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the modulation of common low-frequency oscillations in pools of motor units across antagonistic muscles because of the difference in the activation level of pools of spinal motor neurons and the presence of neuromuscular fatigue during intended cocontraction. METHODS: Ten healthy young men (21.8 ± 1.5 yr) performed intended steady cocontractions of elbow flexors and extensors at maximal and a submaximal (10% of maximal EMG) effort...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212216/in-response-effective-doses-of-neuromuscular-blockers-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-and-the-effect-of-ect-parameters
#8
Hooman Mirzakhani, Matthias Eikermann, Edward Bittner, Ala Nozari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212212/neuromuscular-blocking-agents-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-was-the-crossover-design-appropriate-and-valid
#9
Mahmoud Daoud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212163/multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-children-mechanically-ventilated-for-acute-respiratory-failure
#10
Scott L Weiss, Lisa A Asaro, Heidi R Flori, Geoffrey L Allen, David Wypij, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVES: The impact of extrapulmonary organ dysfunction, independent from sepsis and lung injury severity, on outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory failure is unclear. We sought to determine the frequency, timing, and risk factors for extrapulmonary organ dysfunction and the independent association of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory failure. DESIGN: Secondary observational analysis of the Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure cluster-randomized prospective clinical trial conducted between 2009 and 2013...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211240/phenotypic-spectrum-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-due-to-litaf-simple-mutations-a-study-of-18-patients
#11
R Guimarães-Costa, R Iancu Ferfoglia, S Leonard-Louis, F Ziegler, L Magy, E Fournier, O Dubourg, P Bouche, T Maisonobe, A Lacour, A Moerman, P Latour, T Stojkovic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) 1C due to mutations in LITAF/SIMPLE is a rare subtype amongst the autosomal dominant demyelinating forms of CMT. Our objective was to report the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of 18 CMT1C patients and compare them to 20 patients with PMP22 mutations: 10 CMT1A patients and 10 patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). METHODS: Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1C patients were followed-up in referral centres for neuromuscular diseases or were identified by familial survey...
March 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210905/hypermagnesemia-disturbances-in-rats-no-related-pentadecapeptide-bpc-157-abrogates-l-name-and-l-arginine-worsen
#12
Maria Medvidovic-Grubisic, Vasilije Stambolija, Danijela Kolenc, Jadranka Katancic, Tamara Murselovic, Ivna Plestina-Borjan, Sanja Strbe, Domagoj Drmic, Ivan Barisic, Aleksandra Sindic, Sven Seiwerth, Predrag Sikiric
AIM: Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, administered before a high-dose magnesium injection in rats, might be a useful peptide therapy against magnesium toxicity and the magnesium-induced effect on cell depolarization. Moreover, this might be an NO-system-related effect. Previously, BPC 157 counteracts paralysis, arrhythmias and hyperkalaemia, extreme muscle weakness; parasympathetic and neuromuscular blockade; injured muscle healing and interacts with the NOS-blocker and NOS-substrate effects...
February 16, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210859/effectiveness-of-peloid-therapy-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-single-blind-study
#13
Burcu Metin Ökmen, Meliha Kasapoğlu Aksoy, Aygül Güneş, Riza Eröksüz, Lale Altan
Carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) is the most common neuromuscular cause of upper extremity disability. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of peloid therapy in patients with CTS. This randomized, controlled, single-blind study enrolled 70 patients between the ages of 30 to 65 who had a diagnosis of either mild, mild-to-moderate, or moderate CTS. The patients were randomized into two groups using random number table. In the first group, (Group 1)(n = 35), patients were given splint (every night for 6 weeks) + peloid treatment(five consecutive days a week for 2 weeks) and in the second group, (Group 2)(n = 28), patients received splint treatment(every night for 6 weeks) alone...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210804/ankle-valgus-following-non-vascularized-fibular-grafts-in-children-an-outcome-evaluation-minimum-two%C3%A2-years-after-fibular-harvest
#14
Anil Agarwal, Deepak Kumar, Nargesh Agrawal, Neeraj Gupta
BACKGROUND: The literature on ankle valgus development after procuring non-vascularised fibular grafts in children is still scanty. The non-vascularised fibular graft has distinction of fibular regeneration occurring at the donor site. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the valgus deformities at the donor leg following harvest of non-vascularised fibular graft to determine the various contributing factors in growing children. All these patients had minimum two years post index procedure follow up...
February 16, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210449/oral-mucosal-lesions-in-a-chilean-elderly-population-a-retrospective-study-with-a-systematic-review-from-thirteen-countries
#15
César Rivera, Daniel Droguett, María-Jesús Arenas-Márquez
BACKGROUND: The oral examination is an essential part of the multidisciplinary medical care in elderly people. Oral mucosal lesions and normal variations of oral anatomy (OMLs) are very common in this people, but few studies have examined the frequency and prevalence of these conditions worldwide and less in Chile. The aim of this research was to evaluate the frequency of OMLs in a Chilean elderly population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was conducted a retrospective study (Talca, Chile)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210068/use-of-an-arm-weight-bearing-combined-with-upper-limb-reaching-apparatus-to-facilitate-motor-paralysis-recovery-in-an-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-patient-a-single-case-report
#16
Takashi Hoei, Kazumi Kawahira, Hidefumi Fukuda, Keizo Sihgenobu, Megumi Shimodozono, Tadashi Ogura
[Purpose] Training using an arm weight-bearing device combined with upper-limb reaching apparatus to facilitate motor paralysis recovery, named the "Reaching Robot", as well as Repetitive Facilitation Exercise were applied to a patient with severe impairment of the shoulder and elbow due to incomplete spinal cord injury and the effects were examined. [Subjects and Methods] A 66-year-old man with incomplete spinal cord injury participated in an upper extremity rehabilitation program involving a Reaching Robot...
January 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210065/the-effects-of-therapeutic-exercise-using-pnf-on-the-size-of-calcium-deposits-pain-self-awareness-and-shoulder-joint-function-in-a-calcific-tendinitis-patient-a-case-study
#17
Dong-Gun Oh, Kyung-Tae Yoo
[Purpose] The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of independent and intensive therapeutic exercise using Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on the size of calcium deposits, pain self-awareness, and shoulder joint function in a patient with calcific tendonitis. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 42-year-old female patient with calcific tendonitis and acute pain who had difficulty with active movement and problems with general function. The independent and intensive Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise was applied for 40 min twice a day five times a week for two weeks for a total of 20 times...
January 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210049/the-immediate-effect-of-neuromuscular-joint-facilitation-on-the-rotation-of-the-tibia-during-walking
#18
Desheng Li, Qiuchen Huang, Ming Huo, Yukinobu Hiiragi, Hitoshi Maruyama
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in tibial rotation during walking among young adults after neuromuscular joint facilitation therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were twelve healthy young people (6 males, 6 females). A neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention and nonintervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other, separated by a 1-week interval. The order of the interventions was completely randomized. The rotation of the tibia during walking was evaluated before and after treatment...
January 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209997/antisense-mir-132-blockade-via-the-ache-r-splice-variant-mitigates-cortical-inflammation
#19
Nibha Mishra, Lyndon Friedson, Geula Hanin, Uriya Bekenstein, Meshi Volovich, Estelle R Bennett, David S Greenberg, Hermona Soreq
MicroRNA (miR)-132 brain-to-body messages suppress inflammation by targeting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but the target specificity of 3'-AChE splice variants and the signaling pathways involved remain unknown. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we identified preferential miR-132 targeting of soluble AChE-R over synaptic-bound AChE-S, potentiating miR-132-mediated brain and body cholinergic suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inversely, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduced multiple miR-132 targets, suppressed AChE-S more than AChE-R and elevated inflammatory hallmarks...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209743/skeletal-muscle-bioenergetics-during-all-out-exercise-mechanistic-insight-into-the-oxygen-uptake-slow-component-and-neuromuscular-fatigue
#20
Ryan M Broxterman, Gwenael Layec, Thomas J Hureau, Markus Amann, Russell S Richardson
Although commonly used, the physiological mechanisms underlying all-out exercise performance are still unclear and an in-depth assessment of skeletal muscle bioenergetics is lacking. Therefore, phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) was utilized to assess skeletal muscle bioenergetics during a 5-min all-out intermittent isometric knee-extensor protocol in 8 healthy men. The metabolic perturbation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates, ATP cost of contraction, and mitochondrial capacity were determined from intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4⁻ ), and pH...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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