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HPV, head and neck cancer

Vjekoslav Tomaić
Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at various anatomical sites, especially anogenital and head-and-neck cancers. Of these the most important is cervical cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in many parts of the world. Beta HPV types infect cutaneous epithelia and may contribute towards the initiation of non-melanoma skin cancers...
October 19, 2016: Cancers
Peter V Chin-Hong
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common infection in kidney transplant recipients. HPV causes cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and head and neck cancers. Kidney transplant recipients have a disproportionate burden of disease given prolonged immunosuppression. Given the long pre-invasive state of precancer lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) most HPV-cancers are preventable with screening and targeted treatment of disease. Pre-transplant vaccination of age-eligible kidney transplant recipients is otherwise ideal...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Anil Prasad, Nagina Khudaynazar, Ramana V Tantravahi, Amanda M Gillum, Benjamin S Hoffman
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Treatment failure, drug resistance and chemoradiation toxicity have necessitated the development of alternative treatment strategies. Styryl benzyl sulfones, a family of novel small molecule inhibitors, are being evaluated as anti-neoplastic agents in multiple clinical trials. The activity of these compounds has been well characterized in several preclinical tumor studies, but their activity has yet to be fully examined in HNSCC...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Jacqueline R Kelly, Zain A Husain, Barbara Burtness
Increasingly, squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (OPSCC) is attributable to transformation resulting from high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Such cancers are significantly more responsive to treatment than traditional tobacco- and alcohol-associated squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Conventional management with definitive chemoradiation, surgery and adjuvant radiation, or radiation given with altered fractionation schemes, while effective, incurs long-term morbidity that escalates with treatment intensity and significantly impairs quality of life...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Kathrin Günther, Ronja Foraita, Juliane Friemel, Frauke Günther, Jörn Bullerdiek, Rolf Nimzyk, Dominique Nadine Markowski, Thomas Behrens, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor high-mobility AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is involved in stem cell renewal and is expressed in many tumor tissues. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) comprise tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and are characterized by high recurrence rates that represent a challenge to patient management. The study addresses the potential of HMGA2 as a molecular biomarker for HNSCC patient survival. METHODS: Patients with HNSCC of the larynx, pharynx, tonsils, or oral cavity were recruited in a hospital-based case-control study (n=202)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
P Morbini, M Benazzo
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is a well-defined entity mostly affecting young to middle-aged male non-smokers. It is generally associated with a favourable outcome, and for this reason a less intensive therapeutic approach has been proposed for this subset of patients. The incidence of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers is rapidly increasing in most Western countries, but detailed epidemiological data are not available for the Italian population. Furthermore, among other head and neck regions, a smaller proportion of oral high-grade dysplasia and cancers seems to depend on HPV infection, whereas its role in laryngeal cancer is recognised as less relevant...
August 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
R L Ferris, J L Geiger, S Trivedi, N C Schmitt, D E Heron, J T Johnson, S Kim, U Duvvuri, D A Clump, J E Bauman, J P Ohr, W E Gooding, A Argiris
BACKGROUND: Treatment intensification for resected, high-risk, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an area of active investigation with novel adjuvant regimens under study. In this trial, the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) pathway was targeted using the IgG2 monoclonal antibody panitumumab in combination with cisplatin chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in high-risk, resected HNSCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients included resected pathologic stage III or IVA squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, hypopharynx, or human-papillomavirus (HPV)-negative oropharynx, without gross residual tumor, featuring high-risk factors (margins <1 mm, extracapsular extension, perineural or angiolymphatic invasion, or ≥2 positive lymph nodes)...
October 11, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, Eric Adjei Boakye, Betty Y Chen, Jennifer Clancy, Patrice L Vallot, Jonathan L Su, Geoffrey E Beck, Mark A Varvares
Importance: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing in the United States and may be underestimated among black individuals. Characterizing the current knowledge level among black individuals is critical to developing interventions to increase awareness. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic correlates of knowledge and risk perception of HPV and HPV-associated OPSCC among a predominantly black population...
October 6, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
H Z Zhang, C G Shan, A P Huang, J M Wang
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has become one of the most common forms of cancer worldwide. Hypermethylation-induced silencing of tumor-associated gene has been proposed as an important cofactor in cancer pathology. This paper aimed to characterize the gene methylation patterns in human papillomavirus (HPV) associated-HNSCC. TIMP3 and APC methylation status in neoplastic (N = 92) and non-neoplastic tissues (N = 92) of HNSCC as well as their association with HPV infection were investigated via methylation-specific PCR assays...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Stina Syrjänen, Jaana Rautava
HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), more specifically the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer, is dramatically increasing in industrialized countries. According to what has been learned from anogenital vaccination programs, there are reasons to believe that current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations may be potentially effective also against HNSCC. However, before specific results on HNSCC are available, one must keep in mind that carcinogenesis in the head and neck region may differ from that of the anogenital tract...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Damian T Rieke, Ulrich Keilholz
Recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer describes tumor deposits that arise locally, regionally, or at distant sites after treatment or distant metastases at the time of primary diagnosis. Prognosis for R/M squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) is poor and treatment options are limited in this situation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important risk factor for HNSCC. About 40 % of all HNSCC have been attributed to HPV in Europe. HPV positivity at initial diagnosis is the single best prognostic factor for survival...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Jan B Vermorken
When deciding how to treat patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), several factors have to be taken into account: disease factors, patient factors, treatment factors, and the wish of the patient. This symposium article is summarizing the information on HPV (p16) in the context of decision making in SCCHN patients with locoregionally advanced disease and those with recurrent/metastatic disease. The literature data suggest that HPV(p16) has prognostic significance, both in locoregionally advanced disease (in particular, in oropharynx cancer) and in recurrent/metastatic disease, while there are only limited data on its predictive significance...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Gunnar Wichmann
The human papillomavirus (HPV) comprises a heterogeneous group of double-strand DNA viruses with variable potential to infect human epithelial cells and trigger neoplastic transformation. Its 8 kb genome encodes proteins required for virus replication and self-organized formation of infectious particles but also for early proteins E6 and E7 able to trigger neoplastic transformation. E6 and E7 of high-risk (HR) HPV subtypes can bind to p53 or release E2F and abrogate replication control. Due to variable amino acid sequence (AAS) in the binding sites of E6 and E7 particular HR-HPV variants within subtypes are essentially heterogeneous in efficacy triggering neoplastic transformation and cancer development...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Max Robinson
The pathology laboratory has a central role in providing human papillomavirus (HPV) tests for patients with head and neck cancer. There is an extensive literature around HPV testing and a large number of proprietary HPV tests, which makes the field difficult to navigate. This review provides a concise contemporary overview of the evidence around HPV testing in head and neck cancer and signposts key publications, guideline documents and the most commonly used methods in clinical practice.
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Pawel Golusinski
Human papillomavirus has been identified as a causative factor for a subset of head and neck carcinomas (HNSCC). The majority of the HPV-positive tumors arises in the oropharyngeal region, and at present, the infection of the human papilloma type 16 is the major cause of the oropharyngeal cancer development. Patients with HPV DNA-positive tumors have been shown to be younger in age and are less likely to have a history of tobacco smoking or alcohol use. The tumors referred to the HPV positivity have been proven to more likely confer better prognosis...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Ruud H Brakenhoff, Steffen Wagner, Jens P Klussmann
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The large majority are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) that develop in the mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract. These tumors develop either by exogenous carcinogen exposure (smoking, alcohol drinking) or by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly those in the oropharynx (OPSCC). HPV-positive (HPV+ve) and HPV-negative (HPV-ve) OPSCC are considered different disease entities. HPV+ve tumors are different at the molecular level and likely as a consequence have a much more favorable prognosis than HPV-ve tumors, despite their generally advanced stage at presentation...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Xavier Castellsagué, Marisa Mena, Laia Alemany
Strong evidence has accumulated in the last 15 years showing that infection by certain human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is etiologically involved in a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). In this chapter, epidemiologic-related topics on HNCs are reviewed: (i) HPV-attributable fractions and HPV-type distributions by different anatomical HNC sites, using not only HPV DNA but other more specific markers of causality; (ii) an update of the HPV-related HNCs burden worldwide and by regions; and finally, (iii) the determinants for HPV positivity in HNCs, focussing on gender, age, smoking habits, sexual behavior, and other related factors such as tonsillectomy performance...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Stina Syrjänen, Jaana Rautava, Kari Syrjänen
The interesting history of papillomavirus (PV) research has been reviewed before. The history of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck region starts in 1901 when the contagious transmission of warty lesions into the mouth via oral sex was described, although the confirmation of their viral etiology had to wait until 1907. Ullman was the first to associate the human wart virus with laryngeal warts. Parsons and Kidd described the natural history of oral PV infections in rabbits already in 1942, but these findings were corroborated in humans only recently...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Angela L Mazul, Nidia Rodriguez-Ormaza, James M Taylor, Dipan D Desai, Paul Brennan, Devasena Anantharaman, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino, Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani, Andrew F Olshan, Jose P Zevallos
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have found that cases with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) positive for HPV16 genotype have better overall survival compared with cases positive for other HPV genotypes. We sought to further replicate these studies and determine if this relationship is modified by expression of p16 tumor suppressor protein. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 238 OPSCC cases from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Study (CHANCE) study, a population based case-control study...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
Garren M Low, David S Thylur, Vicky N Yamamoto, Uttam K Sinha
Much of the current literature regarding the molecular pathophysiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has focused on the virus's effect on cell cycle modulation and cell proliferation. A second mechanism of pathogenicity employed by HPV, dysregulation of cellular DNA repair processes, has been more sparsely studied. The purpose of this review is to describe current understanding about the effect of HPV on DNA repair in HNSCC, taking cues from cervical cancer literature...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
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