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Constanze Hesse, Laura Koroknai, Jutta Billino
Coordinating both hands during bimanual reaching is a complex task that can generate interference during action preparation as often indicated by prolonged reaction times for movements that require moving the two hands at different amplitudes. Individual processing constraints are thought to contribute to this interference effect. Most importantly, however, the amount of interference seems to depend considerably on overall task demands suggesting that interference increases as the available processing resources decrease...
July 17, 2018: Psychological Research
Jennifer Sjaarda, Hertzel Gerstein, Michael Chong, Salim Yusuf, David Meyre, Sonia S Anand, Sibylle Hess, Guillaume Paré
BACKGROUND: Identification of biomarkers that cause coronary artery disease (CAD) has led to important advances in prevention and treatment. Epidemiological analyses have identified many biomarker-CAD relationships; however, these associations may arise from reverse causation and/or confounding and therefore may not represent true causal associations. Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses overcome these limitations. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify causal mediators of CAD through a comprehensive screen of 237 biomarkers using MR...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Vaibhav Gupta, Natalie Coburn, Biniam Kidane, Kenneth R Hess, Carolyn Compton, Jolie Ringash, Gail Darling, Alyson L Mahar
BACKGROUND: Clinical, pathological, and molecular information combined with cancer stage in prognostication algorithms can offer more personalized estimates of survival, which might guide treatment choices. Our aim was to evaluate the quality of prognostication tools in esophageal cancer. METHODS: We systematically searched MedLine and Embase from 2005 to 2017 for studies reporting development or validation of models predicting long-term survival in esophageal cancer...
August 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Aditya Vedantam, Eduardo Bruera, Kenneth R Hess, Patrick M Dougherty, Ashwin Viswanathan
BACKGROUND: Understanding spinothalamic tract anatomy may improve lesioning and outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous cordotomy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate somatotopy and anatomical organization of spinothalamic tracts in the human cervical spinal cord. METHODS: Patients with intractable cancer pain undergoing cordotomy underwent preoperative and postoperative quantitative sensory testing for sharp pain and heat pain on day 1 and 7 after cordotomy...
July 13, 2018: Neurosurgery
Bernhard J M Hess
When an observer scans the visual surround, the images cast on the two retinae are slightly different due to the different viewpoints of the two eyes. Objects in the horizontal plane of regard can be seen single by aligning the lines of sight without changing the torsional stance of the eyes. Due to the peculiar ocular kinematics this is not possible for objects above or below the horizontal plane of regard. We provide evidence that binocular fusion can be achieved independently of viewing direction by adjusting the mutual torsional orientation of the eyes in the frontal plane...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jens Georg, Wolfgang R Hess
Although bacterial genomes are usually densely protein-coding, genome-wide mapping approaches of transcriptional start sites revealed that a significant fraction of the identified promoters drive the transcription of noncoding RNAs. These can be trans -acting RNAs, mainly originating from intergenic regions and, in many studied examples, possessing regulatory functions. However, a significant fraction of these noncoding RNAs consist of natural antisense transcripts (asRNAs), which overlap other transcriptional units...
July 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Malte Fugel, Maxie F Hesse, Rumpa Pal, Jens Beckmann, Dylan Jayatilaka, Michael J Turner, Amir Karton, Patrick Bultinck, Graham S Chandler, Simon Grabowsky
Covalency and ionicity are orthogonal rather than antipodal concepts. We demonstrate for the case of siloxane systems that both covalency and ionicity of the Si-O bonds impact on the basicity of the Si-O-Si linkage. The relationship between the siloxane basicity and the Si-O bond character has been under debate: It has been shown with natural-bond-orbital methods that increased hyperconjugative interactions, i.e. increased orbital overlap and hence covalency, are responsible for the low siloxane basicity at large Si-O-Si angles...
July 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Diego R Da Silva, Kevin J Gaddis, Stephen Hess, Adam I Rubin
Glomus tumors are soft tissue neoplasms, which are most frequently encountered in the nail unit and generally straightforward to diagnose by histopathology. The typical clinical presentation is that of a circular violaceous or erythematous lesion within the nail bed. However, there are rare variants of glomus tumors which may pose diagnostic challenges because of the presence of unusual histologic features. Herein we report such a glomus tumor that demonstrates the rare combination of both myxoid and symplastic change...
April 2018: Dermatopathology (Basel, Switzerland)
Gul Yalcin-Cakmakli, Samuel J Rose, Rosa M Villalba, Lagena Williams, Hyder A Jinnah, Ellen J Hess, Yoland Smith
Striatal cholinergic dysfunction is a common phenotype associated with various forms of dystonia in which anti-cholinergic drugs have some therapeutic benefits. However, the underlying substrate of striatal cholinergic defects in dystonia remain poorly understood. In this study, we used a recently developed knock-in mouse model of dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD) with strong symptomatic responses to anti-cholinergic drugs, to assess changes in the prevalence and morphology of striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in a model of generalized dystonia...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Arthur Cássio de Lima Luna, Greice Kelle Viegas Saraiva, Gilberto Orivaldo Chierice, Henrique Hesse, Durvanei Augusto Maria
BACKGROUND: Current studies have demonstrated that DODAC/PHO-S (Dioctadecyldimethylammonium Chloride/Synthetic phosphoethanolamine) liposomes induces cytotoxicity in Hepa1c1c7 and B16F10 murine tumor cells, with a higher proportion than PHO-S. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the potential of DODAC/PHO-S to elucidate the mechanism of cell death whereby the liposomes induces cytotoxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1c1c7, compared to the PHO-S alone. METHODS: Liposomes (DODAC/PHO-S) were prepared by ultrasonication...
July 11, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Wolfgang R Hess, Shengwei Hou, Manuel Brenes-Álvarez, Viktoria Reimann, Omer S Alkhnbashi, Rolf Backofen, Alicia M Muro-Pastor
Novel CRISPR-Cas systems possess substantial potential for genome editing and manipulation of gene expression. The types and numbers of CRISPR-Cas systems vary substantially between different organisms. Some filamentous cyanobacteria harbor >40 different putative CRISPR repeat-spacer cassettes, while the number of cas gene instances is much lower. Here we addressed the types and diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems and of CRISPR-like repeat-spacer arrays in 171 publicly available genomes of multicellular cyanobacteria...
July 11, 2018: RNA Biology
Hanna Tolonen, Päivikki Koponen, Ala'a Al-Kerwi, Nada Capkova, Simona Giampaoli, Jennifer Mindell, Laura Paalanen, Maria Ruiz-Castell, Antonia Trichopoulou, Kari Kuulasmaa
Background: Representative and reliable data on health and health determinants of the population and population sub-groups are needed for evidence-informed policy making; planning and evaluation of prevention programmes; and research. Health examination surveys (HESs) including questionnaires, objective health measurements and analysis of biological samples, provide information on many health indicators that are available not at all or less reliably or completely through administrative registers or health interview surveys...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Lukas Bunse, Stefan Pusch, Theresa Bunse, Felix Sahm, Khwab Sanghvi, Mirco Friedrich, Dalia Alansary, Jana K Sonner, Edward Green, Katrin Deumelandt, Michael Kilian, Cyril Neftel, Stefanie Uhlig, Tobias Kessler, Anna von Landenberg, Anna S Berghoff, Kelly Marsh, Mya Steadman, Dongwei Zhu, Brandon Nicolay, Benedikt Wiestler, Michael O Breckwoldt, Ruslan Al-Ali, Simone Karcher-Bausch, Matthias Bozza, Iris Oezen, Magdalena Kramer, Jochen Meyer, Antje Habel, Jessica Eisel, Gernot Poschet, Michael Weller, Matthias Preusser, Minou Nadji-Ohl, Niklas Thon, Michael C Burger, Patrick N Harter, Miriam Ratliff, Richard Harbottle, Axel Benner, Daniel Schrimpf, Jürgen Okun, Christel Herold-Mende, Sevin Turcan, Stefan Kaulfuss, Holger Hess-Stumpp, Karen Bieback, Daniel P Cahill, Karl H Plate, Daniel Hänggi, Marion Dorsch, Mario L Suvà, Barbara A Niemeyer, Andreas von Deimling, Wolfgang Wick, Michael Platten
The oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2-HG) produced by isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations promotes gliomagenesis via DNA and histone methylation. Here, we identify an additional activity of R-2-HG: tumor cell-derived R-2-HG is taken up by T cells where it induces a perturbation of nuclear factor of activated T cells transcriptional activity and polyamine biosynthesis, resulting in suppression of T cell activity. IDH1-mutant gliomas display reduced T cell abundance and altered calcium signaling...
July 9, 2018: Nature Medicine
Jakub K Wunsch, Catharina Klausenitz, Henriette Janner, Thomas Hesse, Alexander Mustea, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Astrid Petersmann, Taras I Usichenko
OBJECTIVE: Auricular acupuncture (AA) is a promising alternative treatment for situational anxiety. The aim of this pilot investigation was to test the acceptability and feasibility of AA as a treatment for preoperative anxiety (PA) in preparation for a subsequent randomised controlled trial. METHODS: AA was offered for treatment of PA to female patients who were scheduled for ambulatory gynaecological surgery. In patients who agreed, indwelling fixed needles were applied bilaterally at the points MA-IC1, MA-TF1, MA-SC, MA-AH7 and MA-T the day before surgery...
July 9, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Dae Young Hong, Sin Young Kim, Jin Yong Kim, Jong Won Kim
OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to evaluate the association between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and 3-month mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study was performed from March 2007 to May 2017 in an emergency department. The baseline characteristics and clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively and analyzed. Clinical outcomes included 3-month mortality and poor functional outcome referred to as modified Rankin scale 3-6...
July 2, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Yongjin Lee, Senja D Barthel, Pawel Dlotko, S Mohamad Moosavi, Kathryn Hess, Berend Smit
The materials genome initiative has led to the creation of a large (over a million) database of different classes of nanoporous materials. As the number of hypothetical materials that can, in principle, be experimentally synthesized is infinite, a bottleneck in the use of these databases for the discovery of novel materials is the lack of efficient computational tools to analyze them. Current approaches use brute-force molecular simulations to generate thermodynamic data needed to predict the performance of these materials in different applications, but this approach is limited to the analysis of tens of thousands of structures due to computational intractability...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Khalil M Yousef, Elizabeth Crago, Yuefang Chang, Theodore F Lagattuta, Khadejah Mahmoud, Lori Shutter, Jeffrey R Balzer, Michael R Pinsky, Robert M Friedlander, Marilyn Hravnak
INTRODUCTION: Vasopressors are commonly used after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) to sustain cerebral pressure gradients. Yet, the relationship between vasopressors and the degree of cerebral microcirculatory support achieved remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the changes in cerebral and peripheral regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) as well as blood pressure (BP) before and after vasopressor infusion in patients with aSAH. METHODS: Continuous noninvasive cerebral and peripheral rSO2 was obtained using near-infrared spectroscopy for up to 14 days after aSAH...
August 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Jae Woo Chung, Roxana G Burciu, Edward Ofori, Stephen A Coombes, Evangelos A Christou, Michael S Okun, Christopher W Hess, David E Vaillancourt
We investigated the effect of acute levodopa administration on movement-related cortical oscillations and movement velocity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with PD on and off medication and age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed a ballistic upper limb flexion movement as fast and accurately as possible while cortical oscillations were recorded with high-density electroencephalography. Patients off medication were also studied using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a force control paradigm...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Katja Goetz, Marianne Jossen, Thomas Rosemann, Sigrid Hess, Marc Brodowski, Paula Bezzola
Objective: The study aimed to evaluate quality of care and to determine which aspects are associated with the willingness to recommend the general practitioner (GP) as a part of patient loyalty. Design: This was an exploratory study which collected patient data from ambulatory care in the German part of Switzerland between 2013 and 2016. Setting: Primary care in Switzerland. Participants: Included patients from 79 primary care practices who volunteered to participate in the quality management system European Practice Assessment...
July 3, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Cory W Morin, Benjamin Stoner-Duncan, Kevin Winker, Matthew Scotch, Jeremy J Hess, John S Meschke, Kristie L Ebi, Peter M Rabinowitz
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a major health threat to both avian and human populations. The ecology of the virus is driven by numerous factors, including climate and avian migration patterns, yet relatively little is known about these drivers. Long-distance transport of the virus is tied to inter- and intra-continental bird migration, while enhanced viral reassortment is linked to breeding habitats in Beringia shared by migrant species from North America and Asia. Furthermore, water temperature, pH, salinity, and co-existing biota all impact the viability and persistence of the virus in the environment...
July 3, 2018: Environment International
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