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Fat mass associated gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045349/male-specific-association-between-fat-free-mass-index-and-faecal-microbiota-in-2-to-3-year-old-australian-children
#1
Paula Smith-Brown, Mark Morrison, Lutz Krause, Peter S W Davies
OBJECTIVES: Maturation of the gut microbiota has been shown to influence childhood growth while alterations in microbiota composition are proposed to be causally related to the development of overweight and obesity. The objective of this study is to explore the association between microbiota profile, body size and body composition in young children. METHODS: Faecal microbiota was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing while body composition was assessed using the deuterium oxide dilution technique in a cohort of 37 well-nourished 2 to 3 year old Australian children...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034152/association-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-2-and-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-polymorphism-with-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#2
Shania Abbas, Syed Tasleem Raza, Anu Chandra, Luxmi Singh, Farzana Mahdi
PURPOSE: The present study was carried out to investigate the association of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphism with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study includes 122 POAG cases and 112 controls. FABP2 and FTO gene polymorphisms in cases and controls were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. RESULTS: The mean ages were 49...
July 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032145/genetic-association-analysis-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-obesity-related-phenotypes
#3
Correa-Rodríguez María, Carrillo-Ávila Jose Antonio, Schmidt-RioValle Jacqueline, González-Jiménez Emilio, Vargas Sofia, Martin Javier, Rueda-Medina Blanca
Vitamin D has been established as a key factor in the development of obesity through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the VDR gene to obesity-related phenotypes in a population of Caucasian young adults. The study population consisted of 701 healthy Spanish young adults (mean age 20.41±2.48). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR (TaqI, BsmI and FokI) were selected as genetic markers. Body composition measurements including weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), percentage of fat mass (PFM), fat-free mass (FFM) and visceral fat level (VFL) were analysed...
October 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022421/characterization-of-two-distinct-lipomas-a-comparative-analysis-from-surgical-perspective
#4
Hak Chang, Seong Oh Park, Ung Sik Jin, Ki Yong Hong
BACKGROUND: Lipomas are common benign soft tissue tumors that are well-circumscribed and encapsulated. However, adipose masses that are not demarcated from the surrounding fat are often encountered. Two distinct types of lipomas were analyzed from surgical perspective. METHODS: Thirty patients were enrolled after lipoma excision and diagnosed with either encapsulated (n = 20) or non-encapsulated lipoma (n = 10). Comparison of clinical variables, histologic analyses and characterization of the lipoma adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) between the two lipomas were performed...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993146/exercise-training-reverses-the-negative-effects-of-chronic-l-arginine-supplementation-on-insulin-sensitivity
#5
Rafael Barrera Salgueiro, Frederico Gerlinger-Romero, Lucas Guimarães-Ferreira, Thais de Castro Barbosa, Maria Tereza Nunes
L-Arginine has emerged as an important supplement for athletes and non-athletes in order to improve performance. Arginine has been extensively used as substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, leading to increased vasodilatation and hormonal secretion. However, the chronic consumption of arginine has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether chronic arginine supplementation associated with exercise training would have a beneficial impact on insulin sensitivity...
October 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988247/distinct-penetrance-of-obesity-associated-susceptibility-alleles-in-the-hungarian-general-and-roma-populations
#6
Károly Nagy, Szilvia Fiatal, János Sándor, Róza Ádány
AIMS: The aim of our study was to explore differences in genetic predisposition to obesity between the Hungarian general and Roma populations. METHODS: A total of 1,152 samples from the Hungarian Roma population and 1,743 samples from the Hungarian general population were genotyped for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of obesity. Two types of multilocus genetic risk scores were constructed to estimate the combined effect of selected SNPs...
October 7, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986399/objectively-measured-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-genetic-predisposition-to-obesity-in-us-hispanics-latinos-results-from-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol
#7
Jee-Young Moon, Tao Wang, Tamar Sofer, Kari E North, Carmen R Isasi, Jianwen Cai, Marc D Gellman, Ashley E Moncrieft, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Maria Argos, Robert C Kaplan, Qibin Qi
Studies using self-reported data suggest gene-physical activity interaction on obesity, yet the influence of sedentary behavior, distinct from lack of physical activity, on genetic associations with obesity remains unclear. We analyzed interactions of accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time with genetic variants on obesity among 9,645 US Hispanics/Latinos. An overall genetic risk score (GRS), central nervous system (CNS)-related GRS, and non-CNS GRS were calculated based on 97 BMI-associated SNPs...
October 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986396/ace-modulated-adiposity-is-related-to-higher-energy-expenditure-and-independent-of-lipolysis-and-glucose-incorporation-into-lipids-in-adipocytes
#8
Miriam Helena Fonseca-Alaniz, Talita Sayuri Higa, Tarcila Beatriz Ferraz-de-Campos, Julie Takada, Francisco L Torres-Leal, Fabiana Sant'Anna Evangelista, Fabio B Lima, José Eduardo Krieger
Emerging evidence suggests that both systemic and white adipose tissue (WAT)-renin-angiotensin system components influence body weight control. We previously demonstrated that higher angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression is associated with lower body adiposity in a rodent model. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a higher ACE gene dosage reduces fat accumulation by increasing energy expenditure and modulating lipolysis and glucose incorporation into lipids in adipocytes. After a 12-week follow-up period, transgenic mice harboring 3 ACE (3ACE) gene copies, displayed diminished WAT mass, lipid content in their carcasses, adipocyte hypotrophy, and higher resting oxygen uptake (VO2) in comparison with animals with 1 ACE gene copy (1ACE) after long fasting (12-hour)...
October 6, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984836/balanced-diet-fed-fat-1-transgenic-mice-exhibit-lower-hindlimb-suspension-induced-soleus-muscle-atrophy
#9
Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Gilson Masahiro Murata, Amanda Roque Martins, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Amanda Rabello Crisma, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Jing Xuan Kang, Rui Curi
The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle...
October 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978719/pharmacological-dual-inhibition-of-tumor-and-tumor-induced-functional-limitations-in-transgenic-model-of-breast-cancer
#10
Ruizhong Wang, Poornima Bhat-Nakshatri, Maria B Padua, Mayuri S Prasad, Manjushree Anjanappa, Max Jacobson, Courtney Finnearty, Victoria Sefcsik, Kyle McElyea, Rachael Redmond, George E Sandusky, Narsimha Penthala, Peter A Crooks, Jianguo Liu, Teresa Zimmers, Harikrishna Nakshatri
Breast cancer progression is associated with systemic effects including functional limitations and sarcopenia without the appearance of overt cachexia. Autocrine/paracrine actions of cytokines/chemokines produced by cancer cells mediate cancer progression and functional limitations. The cytokine-inducible transcription factor NF-κB could be central to this process, as it displays oncogenic functions and is integral to the Pax7:MyoD:Pgc-1β:miR-486 myogenesis axis. We tested this possibility using the MMTV-PyMT transgenic mammary tumor model and the NF-κB inhibitor dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT)...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973532/pcb126-exposure-increases-risk-for-peripheral-vascular-diseases-in-a-liver-injury-mouse-model
#11
Banrida Wahlang, Jazmyne Barney, Brendan Thompson, Chunyan Wang, Omer M Hamad, Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Andrew J Morris, Bernhard Hennig
The liver is vital for xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. Previously, we demonstrated that a compromised liver worsened toxicity associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through disruption of energy homeostasis. However, the role of a compromised liver in defining dioxin-like PCB126 toxicity on the peripheral vasculature and associated inflammatory diseases is yet to be studied. The current study investigated the effects of PCB126 on vascular inflammation linked to hepatic dysfunction utilizing a liver injury mouse model...
August 31, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972119/loss-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-1-alters-the-hepatic-endocannabinoid-system-response-to-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Gregory G Martin, Danilo Landrock, Sarah Chung, Lawrence J Dangott, Avery L McIntosh, John T Mackie, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Upregulation of hepatic endocannabinoid receptor (CB1) and arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male mice fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum also exhibit NAFLD, increased hepatic AEA, and obesity. But, preference for HFD complicates interpretation and almost nothing is known about these effects in females. These issues were addressed by pair-feeding HFD. Similarly to ad libitum fed HFD, pair-fed HFD also increased WT male and female mouse fat tissue mass (FTM), but preferentially at the expense of lean tissue mass (LTM)...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958218/effects-of-obesity-energy-restriction-and-neutering-on-the-faecal-microbiota-of-cats
#13
Manuela M Fischer, Alexandre M Kessler, Dorothy A Kieffer, Trina A Knotts, Kyoungmi Kim, Alfreda Wei, Jon J Ramsey, Andrea J Fascetti
Surveys report that 25-57 % of cats are overweight or obese. The most evinced cause is neutering. Weight loss often fails; thus, new strategies are needed. Obesity has been associated with altered gut bacterial populations and increases in microbial dietary energy extraction, body weight and adiposity. This study aimed to determine whether alterations in intestinal bacteria were associated with obesity, energy restriction and neutering by characterising faecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in eight lean intact, eight lean neutered and eight obese neutered cats before and after 6 weeks of energy restriction...
October 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#14
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924247/low-level-activity-thresholds-for-changes-in-nmr-biomarkers-and-genes-in-high-risk-subjects-for-type-2-diabetes
#15
Karl-Heinz Herzig, Juhani Leppäluoto, Jari Jokelainen, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Sandra Pesenti, Harri Selänne, Kari A Mäkelä, Riikka Ahola, Timo Jämsä, Hubert Vidal, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Our objectives were to determine if there are quantitative associations between amounts and intensities of physical activities (PA) on NMR biomarkers and changes in skeletal muscle gene expressions in subjects with high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) performing a 3-month PA intervention. We found that PA was associated with beneficial biomarker changes in a factor containing several VLDL and HDL subclasses and lipids in principal component analysis (P = <0.01). Division of PA into quartiles demonstrated significant changes in NMR biomarkers in the 2nd - 4th quartiles compared to the 1st quartile representing PA of less than 2850 daily steps (P = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921462/bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-cect-7765-ameliorates-neuroendocrine-alterations-associated-with-an-exaggerated-stress-response-and-anhedonia-in-obese-mice
#16
Ana Agusti, A Moya-Pérez, I Campillo, S Montserrat-de la Paz, V Cerrudo, A Perez-Villalba, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity, besides being a problem of metabolic dysfunction, constitutes a risk factor for psychological disorders. Experimental models of diet-induced obesity have revealed that obese animals are prone to anxious and depressive-like behaviors. The present study aimed to evaluate whether Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 could reverse the neurobehavioral consequences of obesity in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed mouse model via regulation of the gut-brain axis. Adult male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed a standard diet or HFD, supplemented with either placebo or the bifidobacterial strain for 13 weeks...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919064/genetics-of-obesity-what-genetic-association-studies-have-taught-us-about-the-biology-of-obesity-and-its-complications
#17
REVIEW
Mark O Goodarzi
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and other adiposity traits have identified more than 300 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although there is reason to hope that these discoveries will eventually lead to new preventive and therapeutic agents for obesity, this will take time because such developments require detailed mechanistic understanding of how an SNP influences phenotype (and this information is largely unavailable). Fortunately, absence of functional information has not prevented GWAS findings from providing insights into the biology of obesity...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915859/the-fto-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-risk-in-egyptian-females-a-case-control-study
#18
Mina S Khella, Nadia M Hamdy, Ashraf I Amin, Hala O El-Mesallamy
BACKGROUND: Variations within fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene had crosstalk with obesity risk in European and some Asian populations. This study was designed to investigate FTO rs9939609 association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as biochemical parameters as plasma glucose, serum triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol (TC) and transaminases enzymes in Arab female population from Egypt. METHODS: In order to achieve that, FTO gene rs9939609 (A < T) was genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay in a total of 197 females which were enrolled in this study...
September 16, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914195/polymorphism-rs9939609-of-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-correlation-with-leptin-level-of-obese-women-suffered-from-type-2-diabetes
#19
Mehdi Niknam Moghanloo, Naser Aga Mohammadzadeh, Hajie Lotfi, Rasoul Mahmoudi, Maryam Abbasi, Farzaneh Ghafarian Alipour, Fatemeh Shool, Sadegh Porfar, Nosratollah Zarghami
Background Recent studies reported that Fat Mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs), especially rs9939609, have association with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, many researches confirmed that leptin, an adipocytokine, is related to the obesity and body mass index (BMI) in patients who suffered from type 2 diabetes(T2DM). Objective In this study, the correlation of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and leptin level was investigated in the obese women who suffered from T2DM...
September 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913408/hepatocyte-specific-deletion-of-mouse-lamin-a-c-leads-to-male-selective-steatohepatitis
#20
Raymond Kwan, Graham F Brady, Maria Brzozowski, Sujith V Weerasinghe, Hope Martin, Min-Jung Park, Makayla J Brunt, Ram K Menon, Xin Tong, Lei Yin, Colin L Stewart, M Bishr Omary
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lamins are nuclear intermediate filament proteins that comprise the major components of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in LMNA, which encodes lamins A/C, cause laminopathies, including lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and premature aging syndromes. However, the role of lamins in the liver is unknown, and it is unclear whether laminopathy-associated liver disease is caused by primary hepatocyte defects or systemic alterations. METHODS: To address these questions, we generated mice carrying a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Lmna (knockout [KO] mice) and characterized the KO liver and primary hepatocyte phenotypes by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, microarray analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Oil Red O and Picrosirius red staining...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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