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Fat mass associated gene

Mariya Markova, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Turid Frahnow, Katrin Wegner, Jürgen Machann, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Johannes Hierholzer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Michael Roden, Natalia Rudovich, Susanne Klaus, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat but may induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein vs plant protein, which differ in levels of methionine and BCAA, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
C Cortes-Oliveira, C F Nicoletti, M A de Souza Pinhel, B A P de Oliveira, D C G Quinhoneiro, N Y Noronha, J S Marchini, W A da Silva Júnior, W S Júnior, C B Nonino
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although energy restriction contributes to weight loss, it may also reduce energy expenditure, limiting the success of weight loss in the long term. Studies have described how genetics contributes to the development of obesity, and uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 (UCP1 and UCP2) and beta-3-adrenoceptor (ADRB3) have been implicated in the metabolic pathways that culminate in this condition. This study aimed to evaluate how the UCP1, UCP2 and ADRB3 genes influence weight loss in severely obese women submitted to hypocaloric dietary intervention...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yoo Kim, Daeyoung Kim, Yeonhwa Park
Previously, it was reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with exercise training potentially improved endurance capacity via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)-mediated mechanism in mice. This study determined the role of exercise and/or CLA in endurance capacity and PPARδ-associated regulators. Male 129Sv/J mice were fed either control (soybean oil) or CLA (0.5%) containing diets for 4 weeks and were further divided into sedentary or training regimes. CLA supplementation significantly reduced body weight and fat mass independent of exercise during the experimental period...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Atefeh Rabiee, Veit Schwämmle, Simone Sidoli, Jie Dai, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Susanne Mandrup, Ole N Jensen
Mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics applied to monitor the alteration of nuclear proteins during the early stages (4 hours) of preadipocyte differentiation. A total of 4072 proteins including 2434 phosphorylated proteins identified, a majority of which were assigned as regulators of gene expression. Among 288 identified transcriptional regulators, 49 were regulated within four hours of adipogenic stimulation including several known and many novel potential adipogenic regulators...
September 26, 2016: Proteomics
Stefan Z Lutz, Andreas Peter, Fausto Machicao, Apostolia Lamprinou, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Ingmar Königsrainer, Alfred Königsrainer, Andreas Fritsche, Harald Staiger, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan, Konstantinos Kantartzis
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Acute pharmacological inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts cortisone into the much more potent cortisol in peripheral tissues, results in reduction of total-, visceral- and liver fat, but not of insulin resistance. We now investigated whether lifelong alterations of 11β-HSD1 activity similarly affect these cardiometabolic risk parameters, by studying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 11β-HSD1-coding gene (HSD11B1)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Cuizhe Wang, Xiaodan Ha, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Yajuan Gu, Tingting Wang, Yan Wang, Jianxin Xie, Jun Zhang
Objective Recent studies have revealed a link between toll-like receptors (TLRs), Kruppel-like factors (KLFs), and the adipose tissue inflammation associated with obesity. TLR4 is associated with chronic inflammation in obesity. KLF7 is known to play an important role in the differentiation of adipocytes, but its role in visceral adipose tissue inflammation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the correlation of TLR4 and KLF7 in inflammation induced by obesity. Methods A total of 32 Wistar male rat subjects were fed in the center for experimental animals of Shihezi University...
October 6, 2016: Inflammation
Indumathi Chennamsetty, Michael Coronado, Kévin Contrepois, Mark P Keller, Ivan Carcamo-Orive, John Sandin, Giovanni Fajardo, Andrew J Whittle, Mohsen Fathzadeh, Michael Snyder, Gerald Reaven, Alan D Attie, Daniel Bernstein, Thomas Quertermous, Joshua W Knowles
We recently identified human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) as an insulin resistance (IR) gene. Here, we examine the cellular mechanism linking NAT2 to IR and find that Nat1 (mouse ortholog of NAT2) is co-regulated with key mitochondrial genes. RNAi-mediated silencing of Nat1 led to mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial fragmentation as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, biogenesis, mass, cellular respiration, and ATP generation...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Hong Wang, Yongping Wang, Matthew D Taussig, Robert H Eckel
OBJECTIVE: Compared to men, postmenopausal women suffer from a disproportionate burden of many co-morbidities associated with obesity, e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. The underlying mechanism for this sex difference is not well understood but is believed to relate to absence of the protective effect of estrogen through the action of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the central nervous system. With the recently developed neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice (NEXLPL-/-) (Wang et al...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Hejiao Bian, Jean Z Lin, Chendi Li, Stephen R Farmer
OBJECTIVE: Arising from common progenitors in the bone marrow, adipogenesis and osteogenesis are closely associated yet mutually exclusive during bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) development. Previous studies have shown that morphological changes can affect the early commitment of pluripotent BMSCs to the adipose versus osteoblastic lineage via modulation of RhoA activity. The RhoA pathway regulates actin polymerization to promote the incorporation of globular actin (G-actin) into filamentous actin (F-actin)...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Zulaykho Shamansurova, Paul Tan, Basma Ahmed, Emilie Pepin, Ondrej Seda, Julie L Lavoie
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. METHODS: An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Rachel K Crowley, Michael W O'Reilly, Iwona J Bujalska, Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Jonathan M Hazlehurst, Danielle R Foucault, Paul M Stewart, Jeremy W Tomlinson
AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess depot-specific expression and secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) by adipose tissue and its effect on adipocyte biology. We measured serum sFRP2 concentrations in 106 patients in vivo to explore its relationship to fat mass, glycaemia and insulin resistance. METHODS: Expression of sFRP2 in mouse and human tissues was assessed using polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Western blot confirmed secretion of sFRP2 by adipose tissue into cell culture medium...
2016: PloS One
Gregory Lacraz, Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Sebastien M Labbé, Mathieu Vernier, Christophe Noll, Marian Mayhue, Jana Stankova, Adel Schwertani, Guillaume Grenier, André Carpentier, Denis Richard, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Julie Fradette, Marek Rola-Pleszczynski, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Sheela Ramanathan
OBJECTIVE: IL-15 is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by many cell types. IL-15 is also produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscle and has been reported to reduce weight gain in mice. Contrarily, our findings on IL-15 knockout (KO) mice indicate that IL-15 promotes obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pro-obesity role of IL-15 in adipose tissues. METHODS: Control and IL-15 KO mice were maintained on high fat diet (HFD) or normal control diet...
2016: PloS One
Ana María Leal-Díaz, Lilia G Noriega, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Nimbe Torres, Gabriela Alemán-Escondrillas, Patricia López-Romero, Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Azalia Avila-Nava, Guillermo Ordáz, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Armando R Tovar
Obesity and its comorbidities are a severe public health problem worldwide. The use of bioactive compounds found in some foods has been demonstrated to ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the bioactive compounds present in aguamiel concentrate (AC) from Agave salmiana could attenuate glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. HPLC-ELSD analysis showed that AC contained several saponins. The consumption of an AC extract rich in saponins reduced weight gain and fat mass and lowered serum glucose, insulin and LDL-cholesterol levels in mice fed a HF diet...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Karen B Kelly, John P Kennelly, Marta Ordonez, Randal Nelson, Kelly Leonard, Sally Stabler, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz, Catherine J Field, René L Jacobs
Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet...
2016: Nutrients
Guanlin Wang, John R Speakman
The "thrifty gene hypothesis" suggests genetic susceptibility to obesity arises because of positive selection for alleles that favored fat deposition and survival during famines. We used public domain data to locate signatures of positive selection based on derived allele frequency, genetic diversity, long haplotypes, and differences between populations at SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for BMI. We used SNPs near the lactase (LCT), SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 genes as positive controls and 120 randomly selected SNPs as negative controls...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Michelle Beaumont, Julia K Goodrich, Matthew A Jackson, Idil Yet, Emily R Davenport, Sara Vieira-Silva, Justine Debelius, Tess Pallister, Massimo Mangino, Jeroen Raes, Rob Knight, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley, Tim D Spector, Jordana T Bell
BACKGROUND: Variation in the human fecal microbiota has previously been associated with body mass index (BMI). Although obesity is a global health burden, the accumulation of abdominal visceral fat is the specific cardio-metabolic disease risk factor. Here, we explore links between the fecal microbiota and abdominal adiposity using body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a large sample of twins from the TwinsUK cohort, comparing fecal 16S rRNA diversity profiles with six adiposity measures...
2016: Genome Biology
Tun-Jen Hsiao, Eugene Lin
It is a key challenge to conduct reproducibility in genetic research, especially association studies in obesity. While susceptibility of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene to obesity has been reported in various populations, data from Asians is less conclusive. This replication study was carried out to test whether the FTO rs9939609 SNP is a predictive factor for obesity and obesity-related metabolic traits in a Taiwanese population. A total of 1188 Taiwanese subjects were recruited for this study...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Andrea Lim, Jin Zhou, Rohit A Sinha, Brijesh K Singh, Sujoy Ghosh, Kiat-Hon Lim, Pierce Kah-Hoe Chow, Esther C Y Woon, Paul M Yen
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common causes of liver failure worldwide. It is characterized by excess fat accumulation, inflammation, and increased lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. Currently, there are limited treatment options for NASH due to lack of understanding of its molecular etiology. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression of fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is significantly increased in the livers of NASH patients and in a rodent model of NASH. Furthermore, using human hepatic cells, we show that genetic silencing of FTO protects against palmitate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress, and apoptosis in vitro...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
P F Todendi, L G Possuelo, E I Klinger, C P Reuter, M S Burgos, D J Moura, M Fiegenbaum, Andréia Rosane de Moura Valim
Overweight and obesity are associated with chronic and subclinical inflammation due to an imbalance of inflammatory mediators. However, the association with gene polymorphism has been rarely studied in children. The aim of this study was to determine if serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are related to the IL6 rs1800795, IL6 rs2069845 and CRP rs1205 polymorphisms (SNPs) according to body mass index (BMI) in a sample of children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study in 470 students between 7 and 17yearsof age of anthropometric characteristics, high sensitivity-CRP (Hs-CRP) and IL-6 levels and three SNPs genotyped...
December 2016: Cytokine
Eun-Young Hwang, Mi-Hee Yu, Yeon-Seop Jung, Sam-Pin Lee, Jin Han Shon, Syng-Ook Lee
In the present study, we hypothesized that defatted safflower seed which is known to be rich in polyphenols might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders, and therefore the anti-adipogenic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract from defatted safflower (Cathamus tinctorius L.) seeds (CSE) were investigated both in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice fed a high-fat diet. CSE inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreased expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, SREBP1c and PPARγ, and their target genes...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
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