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Fat mass associated gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428045/sco2-deficient-mice-develop-increased-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#1
Shauna Hill, Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Kavithalakshmi Sataranatarajan, Pavithra Premkumar, Daniel Pulliam, Yuhong Liu, Vanessa Y Soto, Kathleen E Fischer, Holly Van Remmen
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is an essential transmembrane protein complex (Complex IV) in the mitochondrial respiratory electron chain. Mutations in genes responsible for the assembly of COX are associated with Leigh syndrome, cardiomyopathy, spinal muscular atrophy and other fatal metabolic disorders in humans. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the COX assembly protein Surf1 (Surf1(-/-) mice) paradoxically show a number of beneficial metabolic phenotypes including increased insulin sensitivity, upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, induction of stress response pathways and increased lifespan...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420164/the-angiogenesis-inhibitor-als-l1023-from-lemon-balm-leaves-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-regulating-the-visceral-adipose-tissue-function
#2
Jeongjun Kim, Haerim Lee, Jonghoon Lim, Jaeho Oh, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
Similar to neoplastic tissues, growth and development of adipose tissue are thought to be angiogenesis-dependent. Since visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we hypothesized that angiogenesis inhibition would attenuate obesity-induced NAFLD. We fed C57BL/6J mice a low-fat diet (LFD, chow 10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or HFD supplemented with the lemon-balm extract ALS-L1023 (HFD-ALS) for 15 weeks. ALS-L1023 reduced endothelial cell-tube formation in vitro...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415622/is-fto-gene-variant-related-to-cancer-risk-independently-of-adiposity-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-129-467-cases-and-290-633-controls
#3
Yu Kang, Fang Liu, Yao Liu
Previous studies have examined the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variant and risk of cancer in diverse populations. However, the results have been inconsistent. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for the eligible publications in English language by July, 2016. The associations of FTO variants with cancer risk were estimated by calculating the pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals by meta-analyses. A total of 27 publications (129,467 cancer cases and 290,633 normal controls) were included in our meta-analysis...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411266/genetic-variation-at-the-sulfonylurea-receptor-type-2-diabetes-and-coronary-heart-disease
#4
Connor A Emdin, Derek Klarin, Pradeep Natarajan, Jose C Florez, Sekar Kathiresan, Amit V Khera
Despite widespread clinical use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the impact of sulfonylurea therapy on cardiovascular outcomes remains uncertain. Studies of naturally occurring genetic variation can be used to anticipate the expected clinical consequences of a pharmacologic therapy. A common missense variant in the gene encoding a component of the sulfonylurea receptor (ABCC8 p.A1369S) promotes closure of the target channel of sulfonylurea therapy and is associated with increased insulin secretion, thus mimicking the effects of sulfonylurea therapy...
April 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411009/skeletal-muscle-morphology-and-regulatory-signalling-in-endurance-trained-and-sedentary-individuals-the-influence-of-ageing
#5
U R Mikkelsen, J Agergaard, C Couppé, J F Grosset, A Karlsen, S P Magnusson, P Schjerling, M Kjaer, A L Mackey
Muscle mass in humans is inversely associated with circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, but the interaction between ageing and training on muscle composition and the intra-muscular signalling behind inflammation and contractile protein synthesis and degradation is unknown. We studied 15 healthy life-long endurance runners, 12 age-matched untrained controls, 10 young trained and 12 young untrained individuals. Thigh muscle composition was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where non-contractile intramuscular tissue (NCIT) area (fat and connective tissue) was found to be greater in older but lower in trained individuals...
April 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402022/steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-star-overexpression-reduces-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-mice
#6
Yanyan Qiu, Xianxian Sui, Shengxuan Cao, Xiaobo Li, Yanxia Ning, Songmei Wang, Lianhua Yin, Xiuling Zhi
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, plays a beneficial role in hyperlipidemia, NAFLD and endothelial inflammation. Elevated circulating fatty acids and low grade inflammation are known as key risk factors of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, C57BL/6J mice were fed with a HFD and infected with recombinant adenovirus expressing StAR by tail-vein injection. Intraperitoneal glucose/insulin tolerance test was performed to assess the insulin sensitivity...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400497/c57bl-6j-mice-as-a-polygenic-developmental-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#7
Dinh-Toi Chu, Elzbieta Malinowska, Magdalena Jura, Leslie P Kozak
Susceptibility to obesity changes during the course of life. We utilized the C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S mouse as a genetic model for variation in diet-induced obesity to define the adiposity phenotypes from birth to maturity at 8 weeks-of-age. From birth to 8 weeks-of-age, both male and female 129S mice had significantly higher fat mass and adiposity index than B6 mice, although they were not obese. After 8 weeks-of-age, B6 had greater adiposity/obesity than 129S mice in response to a high fat (HF). We sought to determine the mechanism activating the fat accumulation in B6 mice at 8-weeks-of-age...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398475/fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-protein-regulates-adult-neurogenesis
#8
Liping Li, Liqun Zang, Feiran Zhang, Junchen Chen, Hui Shen, Liqi Shu, Feng Liang, Chunyue Feng, Deng Chen, Huikang Tao, Tianlei Xu, Ziyi Li, Yunhee Kang, Hao Wu, Lichun Tang, Pumin Zhang, Peng Jin, Qiang Shu, Xuekun Li
Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is a member of the Fe (II)- and oxoglutarate-dependent AlkB dioxygenase family and is linked to both obesity and intellectual disability. The role of FTO in neurodevelopment and neurogenesis, however, remains largely unknown. Here we show that FTO is expressed in adult neural stem cells and neurons and displays dynamic expression during postnatal neurodevelopment. The loss of FTO leads to decreased brain size and body weight. We find that FTO deficiency could reduce the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of adult neural stem cells in vivo, which leads to impaired learning and memory...
April 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396286/altered-mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-integrity-in-lipocalin-2-deficient-mice-with-hepatic-steatosis
#9
Anastasia Asimakopoulou, Annabelle Fülöp, Erawan Borkham-Kamphorst, Eddy Van de Leur, Nikolaus Gassler, Thorsten Berger, Birte Beine, Helmut E Meyer, Tak W Mak, Carsten Hopf, Corinna Henkel, Ralf Weiskirchen
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a secreted adipokine that transports small hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids and steroids. LCN2 limits bacterial growth by sequestering iron-containing siderophores and in mammalian liver protects against inflammation, infection, injury and other stressors. Because LCN2 modulates hepatic fat metabolism and homeostasis, we performed a comparative profiling of proteins and lipids of wild type (WT) and Lcn2-deficient mice fed either standard chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet...
April 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395542/targetting-ped-pea-15-for-diabetes-treatment
#10
Francesca Fiory, Rosa Spinelli, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Luca Parrillo, Vittoria D'Esposito, Pietro Formisano, Claudia Miele, Francesco Beguinot
PED/PEA-15 is an ubiquitously expressed protein, involved in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. It is commonly overexpressed in Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and in different T2D-associated comorbidities, including cancer and certain neurodegenerative disorders. Areas covered: In mice, Ped/Pea-15 overexpression impairs glucose tolerance and, in combination with high fat diets, further promotes insulin resistance and T2D. It also controls β-cell mass, altering caspase-3 activation and the expression of pro- and antiapoptotic genes...
April 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385800/an-exome-chip-association-analysis-in-chinese-reveals-a-functional-missense-variant-of-gckr-that-regulates-fgf21-levels
#11
Chloe Yy Cheung, Clara S Tang, Aimin Xu, Chi-Ho Lee, Ka-Wing Au, Lin Xu, Carol Hy Fong, Kelvin Hm Kwok, Wing-Sun Chow, Yu-Cho Woo, Michele Yuen, Stacey S Cherny, JoJo Hai, Bernard My Cheung, Kathryn Tan, Tai-Hing Lam, Hung-Fat Tse, Pak-Chung Sham, Karen Sl Lam
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is increasingly recognized as an important metabolic regulator of glucose homeostasis. Here, we conducted an exome-chip association analysis by genotyping 5169 Chinese individuals from a community-based cohort and two clinic-based cohorts. A custom Asian Exome-chip was used to detect genetic determinants influencing circulating FGF21 levels. Single-variant association analysis interrogating 70,444 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified a novel locus, GCKR, significantly associated with circulating FGF21 levels at genome-wide significance...
April 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385522/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-effects-of-chitosan-on-the-hyperlipidemia-and-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#12
Bin Wang, Sicong Zhang, Xiaoya Wang, Shuo Yang, Qixing Jiang, Yanshun Xu, Wenshui Xia
Transcriptome analysis was performed to investigate the alterations in gene expression after chitosan (CS) treatment on the liver of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results showed that the body weight, the liver weight and the epididymal fat mass of HFD mice, which were 62.98%, 46.51% and 239.37%, respectively, higher than those of control mice, could be significantly decreased by chitosan supplementation. Also, high-fat diet increased both plasma lipid and liver lipid as compared with the control mice...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382456/effect-of-fabp1-scp-2-scp-x-ablation-on-whole-body-and-hepatic-phenotype-of-phytol-fed-male-mice
#13
Danilo Landrock, Sherrelle Milligan, Gregory G Martin, Avery L McIntosh, Kerstin K Landrock, Friedhelm Schroeder, Ann B Kier
Liver fatty acid binding protein (Fabp1) and sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) genes encode proteins that enhance hepatic uptake, cytosolic transport, and peroxisomal oxidation of toxic branched-chain fatty acids derived from dietary phytol. Since male wild-type (WT) mice express markedly higher levels of these proteins than females, the impact of ablating both genes (TKO) was examined in phytol-fed males. In WT males, high phytol diet alone had little impact on whole body weight and did not alter the proportion of lean tissue mass (LTM) versus fat tissue mass (FTM)...
April 5, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381478/can-genetic-based-advice-help-you-lose-weight-findings-from-the-food4me-european-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Carlos Celis-Morales, Cyril Fm Marsaux, Katherine M Livingstone, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Rodrigo San-Cristobal, Rosalind Fallaize, Anna L Macready, Clare O'Donovan, Clara Woolhead, Hannah Forster, Silvia Kolossa, Hannelore Daniel, George Moschonis, Christina Mavrogianni, Yannis Manios, Agnieszka Surwillo, Iwona Traczyk, Christian A Drevon, Keith Grimaldi, Jildau Bouwman, Mike J Gibney, Marianne C Walsh, Eileen R Gibney, Lorraine Brennan, Julie A Lovegrove, J Alfredo Martinez, Wim Hm Saris, John C Mathers
Background: There has been limited evidence about whether genotype-tailored advice provides extra benefits in reducing obesity-related traits compared with the benefits of conventional one-size-fits-all advice.Objective: We determined whether the disclosure of information on fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype risk had a greater effect on a reduction of obesity-related traits in risk carriers than in nonrisk carriers across different levels of personalized nutrition.Design: A total of 683 participants (women: 51%; age range: 18-73 y) from the Food4Me randomized controlled trial were included in this analysis...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381288/maternal-urinary-phthalates-and-sex-specific-placental-mrna-levels-in-an-urban-birth-cohort
#15
Jennifer J Adibi, Jessie P Buckley, Myoung Keun Lee, Paige L Williams, Allan C Just, Yaqi Zhao, Hari K Bhat, Robin M Whyatt
BACKGROUND: Prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalates in women participants in an urban birth cohort were associated with outcomes in their children related to neurodevelopment, autoimmune disease risk, and fat mass at 3,5,7, and 8 years of life. Placental biomarkers and outcomes at birth may offer biologic insight into these associations. This is the first study to address these associations with candidate genes from the phthalate and placenta literature, accounting for sex differences, and using absolute quantitation methods for mRNA levels...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367142/diurnal-dynamics-of-gaseous-and-dissolved-metabolites-and-microbiota-composition-in-the-bovine-rumen
#16
Henk J van Lingen, Joan E Edwards, Jueeli D Vaidya, Sanne van Gastelen, Edoardo Saccenti, Bartholomeus van den Bogert, André Bannink, Hauke Smidt, Caroline M Plugge, Jan Dijkstra
Diurnal patterns of ruminal fermentation metabolites and microbial communities are not commonly assessed when investigating variation in ruminal CH4 production. The aims of this study were to monitor diurnal patterns of: (i) gaseous and dissolved metabolite concentrations in the bovine rumen, (ii) H2 and CH4 emitted, and (iii) the rumen microbiota. Furthermore, the effect of dietary inclusion of linseed oil on these patterns was assessed. Four rumen cannulated multiparous cows were used in a cross-over design with two 17 days periods and two dietary treatments: a control diet and a linseed oil supplemented diet [40% maize silage, 30% grass silage, 30% concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis for both diets; fat contents of 33 vs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360946/associations-of-lep-crh-icam-1-and-line-1-methylation-measured-in-saliva-with-waist-circumference-body-mass-index-and-percent-body-fat-in-mid-childhood
#17
Jocelyn Dunstan, Joseph P Bressler, Timothy H Moran, Jonathan S Pollak, Annemarie G Hirsch, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Thomas A Glass, Brian S Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Genetics explains a small proportion of variance in body mass index at the population level. Epigenetics, commonly measured by gene methylation, holds promise for understanding obesity risk factors and mechanisms. METHODS: Participants were 431 adolescents aged 10-15 years. BMI z-score, waist circumference z-score, and percent body fat were measured. Saliva samples were collected and methylation of promoter regions of four candidate genes or sequences (LEP, ICAM-1, CRH, and LINE-1) were measured in 3-4 CpG sites each...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357924/association-study-of-the-fto-gene-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-sample-of-iranian-population
#18
Mohammad Naderi, Mohammad Hashemi, Nahid Dejkam, Gholamreza Bahari, Maryam Rezaei, Mohsen Taheri
AIM: The aim of the present study was to find out the impact of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene on risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a sample of Iranian population. METHODS: This case-control study was carried out on a total of 354 subjects including 185 PTB patients and 169 healthy subjects. Genotyping of FTO rs9939609 and rs8050136 variants was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. RESULTS: FTO rs9939609 variant showed no statistically significant difference in allele and genotype frequencies between PTB patients and controls...
March 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333151/fto-is-required-for-myogenesis-by-positively-regulating-mtor-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-mediated-mitochondria-biogenesis
#19
Xiaobo Wang, Ning Huang, Min Yang, Dandan Wei, Haoran Tai, Xiaojuan Han, Hui Gong, Jiao Zhou, Jianqiong Qin, Xiawei Wei, Honghan Chen, Tingting Fang, Hengyi Xiao
Global germ line loss of fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene results in both the reduction of fat mass and lean mass in mice. The role of FTO in adipogenesis has been proposed, however, that in myogenesis has not. Skeletal muscle is the main component of body lean mass, so its connection with FTO physiologic significance need to be clarified. Here, we assessed the impact of FTO on murine skeletal muscle differentiation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. We found that FTO expression increased during myoblasts differentiation, while the silence of FTO inhibited the differentiation; in addition, skeletal muscle development was impaired in skeletal muscle FTO-deficient mice...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326339/glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-gip-and-gip-receptor-gipr-genes-an-association-analysis-of-polymorphisms-and-bone-in-young-and-elderly-women
#20
Gaurav Garg, Fiona E McGuigan, Jitender Kumar, Holger Luthman, Valeriya Lyssenko, Kristina Akesson
INTRODUCTION: The gastro-intestinal hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion, with bone anabolic effects through GIP receptor (GIPR) in animal models. We explore its potential in humans by analyzing association between polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GIP and GIPR genes with bone phenotypes in young and elderly women. METHODS: Association between GIP (rs2291725) and GIPR (rs10423928) and BMD, bone mineral content (BMC), bone microarchitecture, fracture and body composition was analyzed in the OPRA (75y, n = 1044) and PEAK-25 (25y; n = 1061) cohorts and serum-GIP in OPRA...
June 2016: Bone Reports
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