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cytokines antipsychotic metabolic

Trehani M Fonseka, Daniel J Müller, Sidney H Kennedy
Antipsychotic medications (APs), particularly second-generation APs, are associated with significant weight gain in schizophrenia patients. Recent evidence suggests that the immune system may contribute to antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) via AP-mediated alterations of cytokine levels. Antipsychotics with a high propensity for weight gain, such as clozapine and olanzapine, influence the expression of immune genes, and induce changes in serum cytokine levels to ultimately down-regulate neuroinflammation...
May 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Yu-Chen Kao, Chih-Yuan Ko, Sheng-Chiang Wang, Yia-Ping Liu
Inflammation has been considered important in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increasing evidence reveals that patients with schizophrenia have abnormal expression of cytokines, which are related to development of metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic abnormality has become a critical issue, though its longitudinal relationship with the disorder, such as the antipsychotics influence, is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether abnormalities of metabolic parameters and cytokine levels in acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients existed, and whether intervention of antipsychotic could help...
April 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Norbert Müller, Elif Weidinger, Bianka Leitner, Markus J Schwarz
High levels of pro-inflammatory substances such as cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenia patients. Animal models of schizophrenia show that under certain conditions an immune disturbance during early life, such as an infection-triggered immune activation, might trigger lifelong increased immune reactivity. A large epidemiological study clearly demonstrated that severe infections and autoimmune disorders are risk factors for schizophrenia. Genetic studies have shown a strong signal for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p22...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ivo Emílio da Cruz Jung, Alencar Kolinski Machado, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Fernanda Barbisan, Verônica Farina Azzolin, Thiago Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Pedro Antônio Schmidt do Prado-Lima, Guilherme Vargas Bochi, Gustavo Scola, Rafael Noal Moresco
Antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol and risperidone, are used in long-term treatment of psychiatric patients and thus increase the risk of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions. Available evidence suggests that these drugs have pro-inflammatory effect, which contributes to the establishment of endocrine disturbances. However, results yielded by extant studies are inconsistent. Therefore, in this work, we tested the in vitro effects of different high concentrations of haloperidol and risperidone on the activation of isolated macrophages (RAW 264...
May 2016: Psychopharmacology
Chih-Yuan Ko, Yia-Ping Liu
The pathogenesis of schizophrenia in patients with metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that isolation rearing (IR) induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels and metabolic abnormalities with a developmental origin. However, the general consensus, believes that these abnormalities are caused by antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenic patients. The IR paradigm presents with face, construct, and predictive validity for schizophrenia...
January 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hubertus Himmerich, Juliane Minkwitz, Kenneth C Kirkby
Weight gain and metabolic disturbances are common side effects during psychopharmacological treatment with specific antipsychotics and antidepressants. The antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine, and antidepressants tricyclics and mirtazapine have a high risk of inducing weight gain. Recently discovered pathophysiological mechanisms include antihistaminergic effects, activation of hypothalamic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), modulation of hormonal signaling of ghrelin and leptin, changes in the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha and adipokines such as adiponektin, and the impact of genes, in particular the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C), leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) genes...
2015: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Jarosław Sobiś, Monika Rykaczewska-Czerwińska, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Piotr Gorczyca
BACKGROUND: Weight gain and metabolic abnormalities occur in chronic schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. The purpose of the study was to evaluate changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin and cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, sTNF-R1, IL-12, IL-23, IL-1Ra, TGF-β1, IL-4, and IL-10) after switching to aripiprazole. METHODS: Cytokine, hsCRP and insulin measurements were performed in patients (n=17) on day 0 and day 28 of the study using standard ELISA assays...
April 2015: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Simone Piva, Victoria A McCreadie, Nicola Latronico
Sepsis-associated delirium (SAD) is a clinical manifestation of the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) during sepsis. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise overview of SAD including the epidemiology and current diagnostic criteria for SAD. We present in detail the pathophysiology with regards to blood-brain-barrier breakdown, cytokine activation and neurotransmitter deregulation. Treatment and prognosis for SAD are also briefly discussed. SAD is the most common form of delirium acquired in the ICU (Intensive Care Unit), and is described in about 50% of septic patients...
2015: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Jana Kucerova, Zuzana Babinska, Katerina Horska, Hana Kotolova
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in metabolic alterations in patients with psychiatric disorders due to their increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. Inflammation is known to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and depression as well as MetS. Vulnerability factors for schizophrenia/depression and MetS hence appear to be shared. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on a Web of Science search, this review examines current evidence for MetS pathophysiology involving dysregulation of adipose tissue signaling - adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokine, both also known to be aberrant in schizophrenia/depression...
June 2015: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
J-P Klemettilä, O Kampman, N Seppälä, M Viikki, M Hämäläinen, E Moilanen, N Mononen, T Lehtimäki, E Leinonen
Clozapine treatment is associated with weight gain and cardio-metabolic consequences among patients with schizophrenia. Polymorphisms of leptin, serotonin receptor HTR2C and adiponectin genes have been associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic comorbidity. However, the results of the studies so far are inconclusive. The aim of the present study was first to test for a possible role of serum leptin and adiponectin levels as a marker of weight gain in association with inflammatory cytokines/adipokines (IL-6, IL-1Ra, hs-CRP and adipsin), and second to study associations between SNPs LEP rs7799039 (-2548 A/G), ADIPOQ rs1501299 and HTR2C rs1414334 and weight gain and levels of leptin and adiponectin, in 190 patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment, with retrospectively assessed weight change and cross-sectionally measured cytokine levels...
February 2015: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Anitta K Sárvári, Zoltán Veréb, Iván P Uray, László Fésüs, Zoltán Balajthy
Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, potentially causing systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis. In the clinical setting, antipsychotic treatment may differentially lead to weight gain among individual patients, although the molecular determinants of such adverse effects are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression levels of critical regulatory genes of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and proinflammatory genes during the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)...
August 8, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jari-Pekka Klemettilä, Olli Kampman, Niko Seppälä, Merja Viikki, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Esa Leinonen
Metabolic syndrome is associated with both schizophrenia and antipsychotic medication, especially clozapine, with alterations in inflammatory cytokines and adipokines. However, the data in this field is heterogeneous and the sample sizes of the patients are limited. In this study we assessed the serum levels of cytokines/adipokines IL-6, IL-1Ra, hs-CRP and adiponectin, and components of metabolic syndrome in 190 patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia treated with clozapine. Substantial metabolic comorbidity was found in this patient group; overweight/obesity, smoking, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, high HOMA-IR, low adiponectin levels, elevated hs-CRP levels and elevated IL-1Ra levels...
August 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
Kara E O'Connell, Jogin Thakore, Kumlesh K Dev
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the neurotrophic factor, S100B, is raised in serum samples of female patients with schizophrenia, but not male patients, compared to controls, and this may be associated with raised BMI. Here we analysed the levels of additional proinflammatory cytokines in patients with schizophrenia to further investigate these gender differences. METHODS: The levels of six cytokines (IL1β, IL6, IL8, IL17, IL23, TNFα) were measured in serum samples obtained from patients with schizophrenia, treated with clozapine (n=91) and compared with healthy controls (n=50)...
June 2014: Schizophrenia Research
Sawsan Aboul-Fotouh, Nesreen Elgayar
Schizophrenia doubles the odds of diabetes, and atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) also increase risk of diabetes. Indeed, little is known about the effects of AAPs on vascular dysfunctions associated with diabetes. This study aimed to determine the effects of risperidone (RISP) and paliperidone (PALI) on the vascular function of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding with a high-fat diet followed by the administration of streptozotocin (35 mg·(kg body mass)(-1), by intraperitoneal injection). Rats received RISP or PALI (1...
December 2013: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Daniela Krause, Elif Weidinger, Catherine Dippel, Michael Riedel, Markus J Schwarz, Norbert Müller, Aye-Mu Myint
BACKGROUND: An imbalance of tryptophan metabolites plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Also cytokines seem to be involved and are able to enhance the tryptophan metabolism. In this study the impact of cytokines, tryptophan metabolites and antipsychotics was evaluated in schizophrenic patients/ healthy controls and correlated with the psychopathology of schizophrenia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study investigated 12 patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched controls...
December 2013: Psychiatria Danubina
M Mizuno, H Sotoyama, H Namba, M Shibuya, T Eda, R Wang, T Okubo, K Nagata, Y Iwakura, H Nawa
Ligands for ErbB receptors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulin-1, have a neurotrophic activity on midbrain dopaminergic neurons and are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Although ErbB kinase inhibitors ameliorate behavioral deficits of the schizophrenia model that was established by hippocampal lesioning of rat pups, the antipsychotic action of ErbB kinase inhibitors and its general applicability to other models are not fully characterized. Using a different animal model, here, we examined whether and how ErbB kinase inhibitors ameliorate the behavioral endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia...
2013: Translational Psychiatry
Luise Schmidt, Uta Ceglarek, Linda Kortz, Marcus Hoop, Kenneth Clifford Kirkby, Joachim Thiery, Hubertus Himmerich
The pathophysiology of schizophrenia has not been fully elucidated but there are converging leads to understanding this complex psychiatric disorder. One family of molecules that may play a crucial role in the development of schizophrenia is the eicosanoids. Review of the literature on eicosanoids in patients with schizophrenia points to findings in three areas: precursor molecules such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and specifically arachidonic acid (AA), the actions of specific eicosanoids such as thromboxane A2 (TxA2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and enzymes with important functions in eicosanoid metabolism such as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)...
September 2013: Medicinal Chemistry
Verόnica Contreras-Shannon, Dylan L Heart, R Madelaine Paredes, Erica Navaira, Gabriel Catano, Shivani Kaushal Maffi, Consuelo Walss-Bass
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of factors including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemias, and hypertension that increase morbidity and mortality from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and affects more than a third of the population in the US. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, has been found to cause drug-induced metabolic syndrome (DIMS) and may be a useful tool for studying cellular and molecular changes associated with MetS and DIMS...
2013: PloS One
Marlis Herberth, Hassan Rahmoune, Emanuel Schwarz, Dagmar Koethe, Laura W Harris, Laura Kranaster, Stephanie H Witt, Michael Spain, Anthony Barnes, Manfred Schmolz, Markus F Leweke, Paul C Guest, Sabine Bahn
OBJECTIVES: Alterations in immunological parameters have been reported for schizophrenia although little is known about the effects of inflammatory status on immune-related functional changes at disease onset. Here, we have investigated such T cell-dependent molecular changes in first-onset, antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients using a novel ex vivo blood culture system. METHODS: Blood samples from patients (n=17) and controls (n=17) were collected into stimulant-containing or null control TruCulture™ tubes, incubated 24 hours and the concentrations of 107 immune and metabolic molecules measured in the conditioned media using the HumanMAP™ immunoassay system...
January 2014: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
Marisa Möller, Jan L Du Preez, Francois P Viljoen, Michael Berk, Robin Emsley, Brian H Harvey
Apart from altered dopamine (DA) function, schizophrenia displays mitochondrial and immune-inflammatory abnormalities, evidenced by oxidative stress, altered kynurenine metabolism and cytokine release. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutamate modulator, is effective in the adjunctive treatment of schizophrenia. Social isolation rearing (SIR) in rats is a valid neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia. This study evaluated whether SIR-induced behavioural deficits may be explained by altered plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, kynurenine metabolism, and cortico-striatal DA and mitochondrial function (via adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release), and if clozapine or NAC (alone and in combination) reverses these changes...
May 2013: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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