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cytokines antipsychotic metabolic

Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Amanda da Silva, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Astrocytes are glial cells that are essential for the maintenance of central nervous system functions, modulating neurotransmitters, providing metabolic, trophic and antioxidant support, and producing a wide range of cytokines to modulate the inflammatory response. These cells can be targets for antipsychotics, medications used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this regard, several studies have shown that antipsychotics are able to modulate peripheral cytokine release, but their effects on astroglial inflammatory response need to be further investigated...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Anita Calevro, Marie-Caroline Cotel, Sridhar Natesan, Michel Modo, Anthony C Vernon, Valeria Mondelli
The precise effect of antipsychotic drugs on either central or peripheral inflammation remains unclear. An important issue in this debate is to what extent the known peripheral metabolic effects of antipsychotics, including increased adiposity, may contribute to increased inflammation. Adipose tissue is known to contribute to the development of systemic inflammation, which can eventually lead to insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation. As a first step to address this question, we evaluated whether chronic exposure to clinically comparable doses of haloperidol or olanzapine resulted in the immune activation of rat adipose tissue...
May 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Xu-Feng Huang, Xueqin Song
Although antipsychotic drugs are mainly used for treating schizophrenia, they are widely used for treating various psychiatric diseases in adults, the elderly, adolescents and even children. Today, about 1.2% of the worldwide population suffers from psychosis and related disorders, which translates to about 7.5 million subjects potentially targeted by antipsychotic drugs. Neurites project from the cell body of neurons and connect neurons to each other to form neural networks. Deficits in neurite outgrowth and integrity are implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Yezhe Lin, Yanmin Peng, Shen He, Jinjie Xu, Yuan Shi, Yousong Su, Cuizhen Zhu, Xinyi Zhang, Rubai Zhou, Donghong Cui
Olanzapine (OLZ) is efficacious whereas leads to adverse metabolic effects thus lead to higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) on schizophrenia. Cytokines have been found associated with metabolic disorders. Therefore, pretreatment prediction of OLZ-induced adverse metabolic effects is urgently needed. To investigate if baseline cytokine levels could become biomarkers for pathogenesis of schizophrenia or prediction for OLZ-induced adverse metabolic effects, we recruited 75 participants, including 23 schizophrenia inpatients, who were antipsychotic-free over the past 6 months or first episode and drug-naive and 52 matched health controls, in our prospective cohort study and cross-sectional study...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Thiago Duarte, Fernanda Barbisan, Pedro Antônio Schmidt do Prado-Lima, Verônica Farina Azzolin, Ivo Emílio da Cruz Jung, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Cibele Ferreira Teixeira, Moises Henrique Mastella, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz
Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. However, most of these drugs present side effects causing obesity and other serious metabolic alterations that correlate with grade of chronic inflammation. In contrast, ziprasidone's (ZIP) metabolic side effects are attenuated relative to those of other antipsychotic drugs, but some reports suggest that this drug could cause allergic, hypersensitive reactions in susceptible patients. At present, the mechanism of ZIP's effect on peripheral inflammatory metabolism is not well characterized...
June 2018: Cytokine
Tatjana Nikolić, Milan Petronijević, Jelena Sopta, Milica Velimirović, Tihomir Stojković, Gordana Jevtić Dožudić, Milan Aksić, Nevena V Radonjić, Nataša Petronijević
BACKGROUND: The presentation of schizophrenia (SCH) symptoms differs between the sexes. Long-term treatment with antipsychotics is frequently associated with decreased bone mineral density, increased fracture risk and metabolic side effects. Perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) administration to rodents represents an animal model of SCH. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic haloperidol and clozapine treatment on bone mass, body composition, corticosterone, IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations and metabolic parameters in male and female rats perinatally treated with PCP...
October 11, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Petros Petrikis, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Alexandros T Tzallas, Vassiliki A Boumba, Dimitra T Archimandriti, Dimitrios Zambetas, Ioannis Papadopoulos, Ioannis Tsoulos, Petros Skapinakis, Venetsanos Mavreas
An increasing body of evidence suggests that antipsychotic medication can cause immunological changes that could be attributed to the amelioration of psychotic symptoms or the metabolic side effects of the drugs. So far, the results of the studies remain controversial. Our aim was to compare the levels of interleukin (IL) IL-2, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) in drug-naïve, first-episode patients with psychosis before and after six weeks of antipsychotic medication. Thirty-nine first-episode patients with psychosis were enrolled in the study...
October 2017: Psychiatry Research
Katerina Horska, Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Eva Drazanova, Michal Karpisek, Regina Demlova, Tomas Kasparek, Hana Kotolova
Schizophrenia appears to be linked to higher incidence of metabolic syndrome even in the absence of antipsychotic treatment. Atypical antipsychotics substantially differ in their propensity to induce metabolic alterations. Aripiprazole is considered to represent an antipsychotic drug with low risk of metabolic syndrome development. The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic phenotype of neurodevelopmental polyI:C rat model and assess metabolic effects of chronic aripiprazole treatment with regard to complex neuroendocrine regulations of energy homeostasis...
September 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Norbert Müller
Schizophrenia and major depression (MD) have been associated with immune system dysfunction. One example of this is the altered level of cytokines-important inflammatory mediators-in blood, and a proinflammatory immune state has been described in some subgroups of patients. A knock to the immune system in early life might trigger a life-long increased immune reactivity, and infections and autoimmune disorders are now known to be risk factors for development of schizophrenia and MD. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines mediate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity; this enzyme drives metabolism of tryptophan and kynurenin in the central nervous system and degrades serotonin...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Yin Cui, Vishwanath Vasudev Prabhu, Thong Ba Nguyen, Subramaniam Mohana Devi, Young-Chul Chung
Objective: To investigate pathological conditions that act as sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic substances to examine telomere length (TL) in patients with either early (duration of illness [DI] ≤5 years) or chronic (DI >5 years) psychosis using T lymphocytes. Methods: Based on these factors and the important role that T lymphocytes play in inflammation, the present study measured the TL of T lymphocytes in patients with either early or chronic psychosis...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Trehani M Fonseka, Daniel J Müller, Sidney H Kennedy
Antipsychotic medications (APs), particularly second-generation APs, are associated with significant weight gain in schizophrenia patients. Recent evidence suggests that the immune system may contribute to antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) via AP-mediated alterations of cytokine levels. Antipsychotics with a high propensity for weight gain, such as clozapine and olanzapine, influence the expression of immune genes, and induce changes in serum cytokine levels to ultimately down-regulate neuroinflammation...
May 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Yu-Chen Kao, Chih-Yuan Ko, Sheng-Chiang Wang, Yia-Ping Liu
Inflammation has been considered important in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increasing evidence reveals that patients with schizophrenia have abnormal expression of cytokines, which are related to development of metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic abnormality has become a critical issue, though its longitudinal relationship with the disorder, such as the antipsychotics influence, is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether abnormalities of metabolic parameters and cytokine levels in acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients existed, and whether intervention of antipsychotic could help...
April 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Norbert Müller, Elif Weidinger, Bianka Leitner, Markus J Schwarz
High levels of pro-inflammatory substances such as cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenia patients. Animal models of schizophrenia show that under certain conditions an immune disturbance during early life, such as an infection-triggered immune activation, might trigger lifelong increased immune reactivity. A large epidemiological study clearly demonstrated that severe infections and autoimmune disorders are risk factors for schizophrenia. Genetic studies have shown a strong signal for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p22...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ivo Emílio da Cruz Jung, Alencar Kolinski Machado, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Fernanda Barbisan, Verônica Farina Azzolin, Thiago Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Pedro Antônio Schmidt do Prado-Lima, Guilherme Vargas Bochi, Gustavo Scola, Rafael Noal Moresco
Antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol and risperidone, are used in long-term treatment of psychiatric patients and thus increase the risk of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions. Available evidence suggests that these drugs have pro-inflammatory effect, which contributes to the establishment of endocrine disturbances. However, results yielded by extant studies are inconsistent. Therefore, in this work, we tested the in vitro effects of different high concentrations of haloperidol and risperidone on the activation of isolated macrophages (RAW 264...
May 2016: Psychopharmacology
Chih-Yuan Ko, Yia-Ping Liu
The pathogenesis of schizophrenia in patients with metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that isolation rearing (IR) induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels and metabolic abnormalities with a developmental origin. However, the general consensus, believes that these abnormalities are caused by antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenic patients. The IR paradigm presents with face, construct, and predictive validity for schizophrenia...
January 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hubertus Himmerich, Juliane Minkwitz, Kenneth C Kirkby
Weight gain and metabolic disturbances are common side effects during psychopharmacological treatment with specific antipsychotics and antidepressants. The antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine, and antidepressants tricyclics and mirtazapine have a high risk of inducing weight gain. Recently discovered pathophysiological mechanisms include antihistaminergic effects, activation of hypothalamic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), modulation of hormonal signaling of ghrelin and leptin, changes in the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha and adipokines such as adiponektin, and the impact of genes, in particular the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C), leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) genes...
2015: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Jarosław Sobiś, Monika Rykaczewska-Czerwińska, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Piotr Gorczyca
BACKGROUND: Weight gain and metabolic abnormalities occur in chronic schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. The purpose of the study was to evaluate changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin and cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, sTNF-R1, IL-12, IL-23, IL-1Ra, TGF-β1, IL-4, and IL-10) after switching to aripiprazole. METHODS: Cytokine, hsCRP and insulin measurements were performed in patients (n=17) on day 0 and day 28 of the study using standard ELISA assays...
April 2015: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Simone Piva, Victoria A McCreadie, Nicola Latronico
Sepsis-associated delirium (SAD) is a clinical manifestation of the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) during sepsis. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise overview of SAD including the epidemiology and current diagnostic criteria for SAD. We present in detail the pathophysiology with regards to blood-brain-barrier breakdown, cytokine activation and neurotransmitter deregulation. Treatment and prognosis for SAD are also briefly discussed. SAD is the most common form of delirium acquired in the ICU (Intensive Care Unit), and is described in about 50% of septic patients...
2015: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Jana Kucerova, Zuzana Babinska, Katerina Horska, Hana Kotolova
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in metabolic alterations in patients with psychiatric disorders due to their increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. Inflammation is known to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and depression as well as MetS. Vulnerability factors for schizophrenia/depression and MetS hence appear to be shared. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on a Web of Science search, this review examines current evidence for MetS pathophysiology involving dysregulation of adipose tissue signaling - adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokine, both also known to be aberrant in schizophrenia/depression...
June 2015: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
J-P Klemettilä, O Kampman, N Seppälä, M Viikki, M Hämäläinen, E Moilanen, N Mononen, T Lehtimäki, E Leinonen
Clozapine treatment is associated with weight gain and cardio-metabolic consequences among patients with schizophrenia. Polymorphisms of leptin, serotonin receptor HTR2C and adiponectin genes have been associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic comorbidity. However, the results of the studies so far are inconclusive. The aim of the present study was first to test for a possible role of serum leptin and adiponectin levels as a marker of weight gain in association with inflammatory cytokines/adipokines (IL-6, IL-1Ra, hs-CRP and adipsin), and second to study associations between SNPs LEP rs7799039 (-2548 A/G), ADIPOQ rs1501299 and HTR2C rs1414334 and weight gain and levels of leptin and adiponectin, in 190 patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment, with retrospectively assessed weight change and cross-sectionally measured cytokine levels...
February 2015: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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