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cytokines metabolic

Hossein Sendi, Ivy Mead, Meimei Wan, Marjan Mehrab-Mohseni, Kenneth Koch, Anthony Atala, Herbert L Bonkovsky, Colin E Bishop
To investigate the role of miR-122 in the development and regression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vitro, we used multicellular 3D human liver organoids developed in our laboratory. These organoids consist of primary human hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, quiescent stellate cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. They remain viable and functional for 4 weeks expressing typical markers of liver function such as synthesis of albumin, urea, and alpha-1 p450 drug metabolism. Before mixing, hepatic cells were transduced with lentivirus to inhibit miR122 expression (ABM, CA)...
2018: PloS One
Zedong Yan, Pan Wang, Junjie Wu, Xue Feng, Jing Cai, Mingming Zhai, Juan Li, Xiyu Liu, Maogang Jiang, Erping Luo, Da Jing
The effects of load-induced interstitial fluid shear stress (FSS) on instantaneous signaling response of osteocytes (e.g., calcium signaling) have been well documented. FSS can also initiate the release of many important messenger molecules of osteocytes (e.g., ATP and PGE2 ). However, the effects of FSS on cellular function and bone metabolism-modulating cytokine expression of osteocytes have not been fully identified (some inconsistent/conflicting results have been documented). Herein, osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells were stimulated with 1 Pa, 2-hour FSS, and the effects of FSS on cellular morphology, cytoskeletal microstructure, biological activity, and gene and protein expression of important cytokines were investigated...
July 18, 2018: Cell Biology International
Fernanda A C Takeuti, Fernando de S F Guimaraes, Paulo de S F Guimaraes
Vitamin D (VD) is a steroid prohormone that regulates the body's calcium and phosphate levels in bone mineralization. It is also well described as a fat-soluble vitamin playing an important role in immunomodulation, regulation of cytokines, and cell proliferation. Thus, VD is a powerful hormone with pleiotropic effects, which acts to maintain optimal health. Recent studies demonstrate that VD deficiency is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune disorders, and various types of cancer, each associated with increased mortality rates...
June 2018: Discovery Medicine
Ana C L Hachul, Valter T Boldarine, Nelson I P Neto, Mayara F Moreno, Eliane B Ribeiro, Claudia M O do Nascimento, Lila M Oyama
INTRODUCTION: Green tea extract has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects which improve dyslipidemia and decrease adipose tissue depots associated with hyperlipidic diet consumption. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of green tea extract consumption by rats during pregnancy and lactation on the metabolism of their offspring that received control or high-fat diet with water during 10 weeks after weaning. METHODS: Wistar rats received water (W) or green tea extract diluted in water (G) (400 mg/kg body weight/day), and control diet (10 animals in W and G groups) during pregnancy and lactation...
2018: PloS One
Madhur Agrawal, Chia Rou Yeo, Asim Shabbir, Vanna Chhay, David L Silver, Faidon Magkos, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Sue-Anne Toh
Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) aids in partitioning of cellular triacylglycerol into lipid droplets. A genome-wide association study reported FITM2-R3H domain containing like-HNF4A locus to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in East Asian populations. Mice with adipose tissue (AT)-specific FIT2 knockout exhibited lipodystrophic features, with reduced AT mass, insulin resistance, and greater inflammation in AT when fed a high-fat diet. The role of FIT2 in regulating human adipocyte function is not known...
July 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Zhi Zhang, Lindsey Rasmussen, Manda Saraswati, Raymond Koehler, Courtney L Robertson, Sujatha Kannan
Neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to widespread cell death and tissue loss. Here we evaluated the sequential inflammatory response in the brain, as well as inflammation-induced changes in brain tryptophan metabolism over time in a rabbit pediatric TBI model. On postnatal day 5-7 (P5-7), New Zealand white rabbit littermates were randomized into three groups, naïve (no injury), sham (craniotomy alone) and TBI (controlled cortical impact). Animals were sacrificed at 6 h, 1, 3, 7 and 21 days post-injury for evaluating levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as the major components in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Francesca Leonardis, Viviana De Angelis, Francesca Frisardi, Chiara Pietrafitta, Ivano Riva, Tino Martino Valetti, Valentina Broletti, Gianmariano Marchesi, Lorenza Menato, Roberto Nani, Franco Marson, Mirca Fabbris, Luca Cabrini, Sergio Colombo, Alberto Zangrillo, Carlo Coniglio, Giovanni Gordini, Lucia Stalteri, Giovanni Giuliani, Vittorio Dalmastri, Gaetano La Manna
Bacterial meningitis and septicemia are invasive bacterial diseases, representing a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both conditions are characterized by an impressive inflammatory response, resulting rapidly in cerebral edema, infarction, hydrocephalus, and septic shock with multiple organ failure. Despite advances in critical care, outcome and prognosis remain critical. Available adjunctive treatments to control the inflammatory response have shown encouraging results in the evolution of patients with sepsis and systemic inflammation, but meningococcal or pneumococcal infection has not been investigated...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
Zining Jin, Lu Xu, Lei Zhang, Min Zhao, Dongbao Li, Lijun Ye, Ying Ma, Siyu Ren, Hailan Yu, Danyu Wang, Chunyan Liang, Bo Chen
Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2) participates in several aspects of DNA and RNA metabolism and regulates gene expression at multiple levels; however, its role in breast cancer remains undefined. The variant statuses of ILF2 in human breast cancer were evaluated using the COSMIC database. Altered ILF2 expression in normal breast tissue relative to cancer tissue and in breast cancer patients with different clinicopathological characteristics, molecular subtypes, clinical outcomes and chemotherapy responses were examined using the Oncomine, GOBO, Kaplan-Meier plotter and GEO datasets...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Yashika Bansal, Raghunath Singh, Priyanka Saroj, Rupinder Kaur Sodhi, Anurag Kuhad
Oxido-inflammatory aberrations play a substantial role in the pathophysiology of depression. Oxido-inflammatory stress increases catabolism of tryptophan into kynurenine which leads to imbalance in kynurenine and serotonin levels in the brain. Naringenin a flavonoid, has been reported to possess antidepressant property by restoring serotonin and noradrenaline levels in the brain. Its effects on oxido-inflammatory aberrations in depression has not been investigated. With this background, the present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like potential of naringenin in olfactory bulbectomy (OBX)-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, altered kynurenine pathway, and behavioural deficits in BALB/C mice...
July 11, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Guoqiang Chang, Jia-Shiun Leu, Li Ma, Keping Xie, Suyun Huang
Among myriads of distinct chemical modification in RNAs, the dynamic, reversible and fine-tuned methylation of N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) is the most prevalent modification in eukaryotic mRNAs. This RNA mark is generated by proteins that act as m6 A writers and can be reversed by proteins that act as m6 A erasers. The RNA m6 A modification is also mediated by another group of proteins capable of recognizing m6 A that act as m6 A readers. The m6 A modification exerts direct control over the RNA metabolism including mRNA processing, mRNA exporting, translation initiation, mRNA stability and the biogenesis of long-non-coding RNA (LncRNA), thereby can influence various aspects of cell function...
July 12, 2018: Cytokine
Dawid Szczepankiewicz, Marek Skrzypski, Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Paweł A Kołodziejski, Maciej Sassek, Barbara Stefańska, Krzysztof W Nowak, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz
Chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to diseases associated with fat tissue metabolism such as obesity and diabetes by the disturbed production of adipose tissue proteins, both pro- and anti-inflammatory. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is one of the main inflammatory cytokines that activates Th2-dependent immune response and its increased expression was observed in the course of diseases characterized by chronic low-grade systemic inflammation such as obesity and asthma. We aimed to investigate if IL-4 may influence lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses in primary mature rat adipocytes...
July 9, 2018: Immunobiology
J Kaur, H S Mattu, H S Randeva
Adipose tissue, initially known only for storing excess fat, produces a number of active cytokine-like hormones, collectively known as adipokines or adipocytokines. These molecules are further known to elicit auto-, para- and endocrine functions in the body. In healthy bodies, the cardiovascular endothelium maintains vascular health by critically controlling the interplay between various factors. However, in diseased states such as obesity, owing to numerous metabolic malfunctions, this vascular homeostasis is disrupted...
July 14, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Idalia Cura-Esquivel, Paula Cordero-Pérez, Liliana Torres-González, Linda E Muñoz-Espinosa
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a worldwide public health problem and the most common non-communicable chronic disease. It is associated with an increase in inflammatory acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of acute phase proteins in obese children and adolescents with hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome. Methodology. Forty-five children with a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile aged 5.0-15.5 years were included. The following acute phase reactants were determined: C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and apolipoprotein A-1; besides, an ultrasound was done to assess hepatic steatosis...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Ma José Muñoz Alférez, Alberto Muñoz-García, Jorge Moreno-Fernández, Inmaculada López-Aliaga, Javier Díaz-Castro
BACKGROUND: Iron plays a crucial role in several fundamental processes, including erythropoiesis, cellular metabolism and in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this work was to contribute to a better understanding of the physiology of and recovery from iron deficiency, by studying how fermented milk consumption affects vascular biomarkers during iron repletion. RESULTS: The deleterious cardiovascular biomarkers cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1/GRO/KC), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator 1 total (tPAI-1), metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), s-E-Selectin and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) decreased after fermented goat milk consumption in both groups of animals either with normal-Fe or Fe-overload with respect to rats fed with fermented cow milk...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Shijie Geng, Saisai Cheng, Yuan Li, Zhengshun Wen, Xin Ma, Xuemei Jiang, Yizhen Wang, Xinyan Han
Background and Aims: Fecal microbiota transplantation [FMT] has shown promise as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Using a piglet model, our previous study indicated that exogenous fecal microbiota can enhance gastrointestinal health through enhancing intestinal barrier. However, specific connections between FMT-induced microbial changes and modulation of intestinal barrier still remain to be fully illustrated. Here, we aimed to determine the potential role of metabolic function of gut microbiota in the beneficial effects of FMT...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Ilvana Ziko, Luba Sominsky, Simone N De Luca, Francis Lelngei, Sarah J Spencer
Ghrelin, one of the major metabolic hormones involved in controlling energy balance, has recently been shown to have other properties including regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to psychological stress and being a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Ghrelin's HPA axis and anti-inflammatory actions have previously been identified as principally due to the acylated form (AG). However, our recent work has also suggested a role for des-acylated ghrelin (DAG) in these functions. Here we hypothesized ghrelin's anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by the HPA axis and this effect is differentially executed by AG and DAG...
July 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Galina D Mironova, Maxim O Khrenov, Eugenie Iu Talanov, Olga V Glushkova, Svetlana B Parfenyuk, Tatyana V Novoselova, Sergey M Lunin, Natalia V Belosludtseva, Elena G Novoselova, John J Lemasters
In this study, we examined the effects of uridine on plasma cytokine levels, heat shock protein (HSP) 72 expression, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling in spleen lymphocytes after exposure of male BALB/c mice to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were treated with uridine (30 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal injection [i.p.]) or saline solution of LPS (2.5 mg/kg, i. p.). Endotoxin increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, and IL-6 by 2...
July 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Beatriz Tavira, Hugo Barcenilla, Jeannette Wahlberg, Peter Achenbach, Johnny Ludvigsson, Rosaura Casas
GAD-alum given into lymph nodes to type 1 diabetes patients participating in an open-label pilot trial resulted in preservation of C-peptide similar to promising results from other trials. Here, we compared the immunomodulatory effect of giving GAD-alum directly into lymph nodes versus that induced by subcutaneous administration. Samples from T1D patients ( n = 6) who received 4  μ g GAD-alum into lymph nodes (LNs), followed by two booster injections one month apart, and from patients ( n = 6) who received two subcutaneous injections (SC) (20  μ g) given one month apart were compared...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Mengjia Tang, Li Tian, Guojing Luo, Xijie Yu
Osteoimmunology is the interdiscipline that focuses on the relationship between the skeletal and immune systems. They are interconnected by shared signal pathways and cytokines. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) plays important roles in immune responses and bone metabolism. IFN-γ enhances macrophage activation and antigen presentation. It regulates antiviral and antibacterial immunity as well as signal transduction. IFN-γ can promote osteoblast differentiation and inhibit bone marrow adipocyte formation. IFN-γ plays dual role in osteoclasts depending on its stage...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Patricia Gabbi, Viviane Nogueira, Fernanda Haupental, Fernanda Silva Rodrigues, Patricia Severo do Nascimento, Sílvia Barbosa, Josi Arend, Ana Flávia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Adair Roberto Soares Dos Santos, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Michele Rechia Fighera
Hyperammonemia is a common finding in patients with methylmalonic acidemia. However, its contribution to methylmalonate (MMA)-induced neurotoxicity is poorly understood. The aim of this study was evaluate whether an acute metabolic damage to brain during the neonatal period may disrupt cerebral development, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders, as memory deficit. Mice received a single intracerebroventricular dose of MMA and/or NH4 Cl, administered 12 hs after birth. The maze tests showed that MMA and NH4 Cl injected animals (21 and 40 days old) exhibited deficit in the working memory test, but not in the reference memory test...
July 7, 2018: Toxicology Letters
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