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cytokines metabolic

Maria Luz Fernandez, Minu Sara Thomas, Bruno S Lemos, Diana M DiMarco, Amanda Missimer, Melissa Melough, Ock K Chun, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Hana Alyousef, Isabel Medina-Vera
BACKGROUND: Telomerase Activator 65 (TA-65), a compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for extending life span. Scarce information exists on the effects of TA-65 on parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We recruited 40 patients with MetS to determine the effects of TA-65 on dyslipidemias, hypertension, and oxidative stress in this at-risk population. The study was a double-blind, randomized crossover design in which patients were allocated to consume either 16 mg daily of a TA-65 supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks...
March 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Li Yin, Xueqiang Guo, Chunyan Zhang, Zhihui Cai, Cunshuan Xu
The priming stage is the first step of liver regeneration (LR). This stage is characterized by the transition from G0 to cell cycle for 4 hours in rat. In this study, individual gene level and gene set level (GSEA) was performed to identify the candidate genes and significantly changed biological processes at 2 h after partial hepatectomy (PH). The leading edge analysis is performed to identify the key genes and iRegulon was employed for transcription factor (TF) analysis. A total of 53 differentially expressed genes were identified using RMA package based on R language at 2 h after PH, including the transcription factor, enzyme and cytokine...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Jian Zhang, Junhong Li, Junwei Ma, Hongxin Wang, Yin Yi
Hepatitis B cirrhosis is caused by liver cell necrosis, residual liver cell nodular regeneration, connective tissue hyperplasia and fiber formation, which frequently leads to adrenal insufficiency. Previous reports have demonstrated that human fibroblast growth factor (hFGF)-21 is a multifunctional protein that exhibits potential therapeutic value for metabolic diseases. The present study investigated the diagnostic value of hFGF-21 and analyzed the potential molecular mechanism in the progression of hepatitis B cirrhosis combined with adrenal insufficiency...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Oscar Illescas, Juan C Gomez-Verjan, Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Tzipe Govezensky, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa
Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a role in several metabolic and inflammatory processes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -173 G/C (rs755622) on MIF gene has been associated with numerous diseases, such as arthritis and cancer. However, most of the reports concerning the association of MIF with these and other pathologies are inconsistent and remain quite controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis from 96 case-control studies on -173 G/C MIF SNP and stratified the data according to the subjects geographic localization or the disease pathophysiology, in order to determine a more meaningful significance to this SNP...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Holger Winkels, Erik Ehinger, Melanie Vassallo, Konrad Buscher, Huy Dinh, Kouji Kobiyama, Anouk Hamers, Clément Cochain, Ehsan Vafadarnejad, Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba, Alma Zernecke, Akula Pramod, Amlan Ghosh, Nathaly Anto Michel, Natalie Hoppe, Ingo Hilgendorf, Andreas Zirlik, Catherine Hedrick, Klaus Ley, Dennis Wolf
<u>Rationale:</u> Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is driven by the interplay of pro- and anti-inflammatory leukocytes in the aorta. Yet, the phenotypic and transcriptional diversity of aortic leukocytes is only poorly understood. <u>Objective:</u> We characterized leukocytes from healthy and atherosclerotic mouse aortas in-depth by single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNAseq) and mass cytometry (CyTOF) to define an atlas of the immune cell landscape in atherosclerosis...
March 15, 2018: Circulation Research
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Mayila Yiliyasi, Akira Kuwahara, Sumika Matsui, Minoru Irahara
Energy balance and reproductive functions are closely linked in some species. The sex hormones (estrogens and androgens) are involved in the regulation of appetite, metabolism, body weight (BW), and body composition in mammals. Previously, we showed that the effects of testosterone on BW, appetite, and fat weight were markedly affected by alterations to the gonadal hormonal milieu. In this study, we examined whether testosterone administration changes food preferences and whether these effects of testosterone depend on gonadal status in female rats...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Paola Cipriani, Vasiliky Liakouli, Francesco Carubbi, Onorina Berardicurti, Paola Di Benedetto, Francesco Ciccia, Giuliana Guggino, Saverio Alvaro, Giovanni Triolo, Roberto Giacomellia, Piero Ruscitti
BACKGROUND: Although in the past, prevention of the joint destruction and disability were strongly emphasised in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), at present, a growing body of evidence is focused at identifying the best management of associated comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, the hypothesis that blocking pro-inflammatory activity may be helpful in the treatment of some comorbidities has been proposed in RA patients. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the role of IL-1β during RA and T2D, the efficacy of IL-1 blocking agents in controlling both diseases and, possible, decreasing the concomitant enhanced atherosclerotic process...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Augusta Pisanu, Laura Boi, Giovanna Mulas, Saturnino Spiga, Sandro Fenu, Anna R Carta
Neuroinflammation is a main component of Parkinson's disease (PD) neuropathology, where unremitting reactive microglia and microglia-secreted soluble molecules such as cytokines, contribute to the neurodegenerative process as part of an aberrant immune reaction. Besides, pro-inflammatory cytokines, predominantly TNF-α, play an important neuromodulatory role in the healthy and diseased brain, being involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, synaptic scaling and brain plasticity. Recent preclinical studies have evidenced an exacerbated neuroinflammatory reaction in the striatum of parkinsonian rats that developed dyskinetic responses following L-DOPA administration...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Jiaqiang Ren, Dawn Ward, Steven Chen, Katherine Tran, Ping Jin, Marianna Sabatino, Pamela G Robey, David F Stroncek
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have classically been cultured in media supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). As an alternative to FBS, pooled solvent detergent apheresis platelets, HPGF-C18, was evaluated for BMSC culture. METHODS: A comparison of passage 2 BMSC growth revealed that 10% HPGF-C18 produced similar cell numbers as 20% FBS. Marrow aspirates from 5 healthy subjects were cultured for 4 passages in 10% HPGF-C18 or 20% FBS and were analyzed for proliferation, colony formation efficiency (CFE), surface marker expression, suppression of mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs), global gene and microRNA expression analysis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Xia Jin, Hua Xu, Michael S McGrath
Monocyte activation and polarization play essential roles in many chronic inflammatory diseases. An imbalance of M1 and M2 macrophage activation (pro-inflammatory and alternatively activated, respectively) is believed to be a key aspect in the etiology of these diseases, thus a therapeutic approach that regulates macrophage activation could be of broad clinical relevance. Methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a regulator of polyamine metabolism, has recently been shown to be concentrated in monocytes and macrophages, and interfere with HIV integration into the DNA of these cells in vitro...
2018: PloS One
Danh T Tran, Scott Esckilsen, Jennifer Mulligan, Shikhar Mehrotra, Carl Atkinson, Satish N Nadig
BACKGROUND: Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are central to an allograft's immunogenicity. Cold ischemia and reperfusion injury associated with static cold storage and warm reperfusion activates ECs and increases the immunogenicity of the allograft. Following reperfusion, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in the allograft, which correlates to alloimmune rejection. Current understanding of this relationship, however, centers on the whole allograft instead of ECs...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Vida Abedi, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Interactions among the gut microbiome, dysregulated immune responses, and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nlrx1 -/- mice have exacerbated disease severity, colonic lesions, and increased inflammatory markers. Global transcriptomic analyses demonstrate enhanced mucosal antimicrobial defense response, chemokine and cytokine expression, and epithelial cell metabolism in colitic Nlrx1 -/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Cell-specificity studies using cre-lox mice demonstrate that the loss of NLRX1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recapitulate the increased sensitivity to DSS colitis observed in whole body Nlrx1 -/- mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Giovanni Matera, Maria Teresa Loria, Cinzia Peronace, Tatiana Catanzariti, Pio Settembre, Aida Giancotti, Angelo G Lamberti, Giorgio S Barreca, Luisa Galati, Gessica Dodaro, Maria Mazzitelli, Alessio Strazzulla, Carlo Torti, Angela Quirino, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà
We aim to investigate some of the pathogenetic mediators of the human echinococcosis and to obtain updated epidemiological findings on cases of echinococcosis in Calabria, Southern Italy. Echinococcosis diagnosis was based on imaging, serological investigations, and molecular assay. Indeed, real-time PCR indicated the presence of G2/G3 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus complex. Regarding pathogenesis, a relevant novel tool of immune depression should be deemed the reduced level of serum MCP-1. Also, we found a previously unreported VEGF, possibly associated with neovascularization requested by the parasite cyst metabolism...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Tuerhongjiang Tuxun, Shadike Apaer, Hai-Zhang Ma, Jin-Ming Zhao, Ren-Yong Lin, Tuerganaili Aji, Ying-Mei Shao, Hao Wen
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by alveolar echinococcosis (AE) liver lesions is a signal of their metabolic activity and of disease progression. In order to find a surrogate marker for this status, we investigated whether parameters of the peripheral and/or periparasitic immune responses were associated with metabolic activity in a prospective case-control study of 30 AE patients and 22 healthy controls. Levels of 18 cytokines and chemokines, representative of innate and adaptive immune responses, were assessed in plasma and peripheral cells of two groups of patients with (MAAE) and without (MIAE) metabolically active lesions, and in the liver of MAAE patients...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yara Suliman, Frank Becker, Klaus Wimmers
Poor fertility of breeding stallions is a recognised problem in the equine industry. The aim of the present study was to detect molecular pathways using two groups of stallions that differed in pregnancy rates as well as in the proportion of normal and motile spermatozoa. RNA was isolated from spermatozoa of each stallion and microarray data were analysed to obtain a list of genes for which transcript abundance differed between the groups (P ≤0.05, fold change ≥1.2). In all, there were 437 differentially expressed (DE) genes between the two groups (P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Mattia P Arena, Coen Govers, Concetta Lotti, Luigi Ricciardi, Harry J Wichers, Jurriaan J Mes
More understanding of the risk-benefit effect of the glycoalkaloid tomatine is required to be able to estimate the role it might play in our diet. In this work, we focused on effects towards intestinal epithelial cells based on a Caco-2 model in order to analyze the influence on the cell monolayer integrity and on the expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol/sterol biosynthesis (LDLR), lipid metabolism (NR2F2), glucose and amino acid uptake (SGLT1, PAT1), cell cycle (PCNA, CDKN1A), apoptosis (CASP-3, BMF, KLF6), tight junctions (CLDN4, OCLN2) and cytokine-mediated signaling (IL-8, IL1β, TSLP, TNF-α)...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ami R Zota, Ruth J Geller, Laura E Romano, Kimberly Coleman-Phox, Nancy E Adler, Emily Parry, Miaomiao Wang, June-Soo Park, Angelo F Elmi, Barbara A Laraia, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can target immune and metabolic pathways. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined the influence of EDCs on measures of inflammation and cellular aging during pregnancy and postpartum. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDE metabolites (OH-PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and per- and polyfluorochemicals (PFASs) with repeated biomarker measurements of inflammation and cellular aging in women during pregnancy and the postpartum period...
March 10, 2018: Environment International
Joseph J Knapik, Sheryl A Bedno
Surveys indicated that 24% of military personnel are current cigarette smokers. Smoking is well known to increase the risk of cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, reproductive problems, and other medical maladies, but one of the little known effects of smoking is that on injuries. There is considerable evidence from a variety of sources that (1) smoking increases overall injury risk, (2) the greater the amount of smoking, the higher is the injury risk, and (3) smoking is an independent injury risk factor...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sonam Gupta, Joyshree Biswas, Neeraj Joshi, K Sivarama Raju, Mu Wahajuddin, Sarika Singh
Piracetam, a nootropic drug, has been clinically used for decades; however, its mechanism of action still remains enigmatic. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of mitochondrion-specific factors of caspase-independent pathway like apoptotic-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease-G (endo-G) in piracetam-induced neuroprotection. N2A cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exhibited significant cytotoxicity, impaired mitochondrial activity, and reactive oxygen species generation which was significantly attenuated with piracetam co-treatment...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
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