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cytokines metabolic

Michalina Alicka, Krzysztof Marycz
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly associated with a modern lifestyle. The prevalence of MetS has reached epidemic proportion and is still rising. The main cause of MetS and finally type 2 diabetes occurrence is excessive nutrient intake, lack of physical activity, and inflammatory cytokines secretion. These factors lead to redistribution of body fat and oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurrence, resulting in insulin resistance, increase adipocyte differentiation, and much elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines...
2018: Stem Cells International
Andrea M Chambers, Jiao Wang, Kyle B Lupo, Hao Yu, Nadia M Atallah Lanman, Sandro Matosevic
Adenosine is a potent immunosuppressive purine metabolite contributing to the pathogenesis of solid tumors. Extracellular adenosine signals on tumor-infiltrating NK cells to inhibit their proliferation, maturation, and cytotoxic function. Cytokine priming imparts upon NK cells distinct activation statuses, which modulate NK anti-tumor immunity and responses to purinergic metabolism. Here, for the first time, we investigated human NK cell responses to adenosinergic signaling in the context of distinct cytokine priming programs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Justin Mastroianni, Natalie Stickel, Hana Andrlová, Kathrin Hanke, Wolfgang Melchinger, Sandra Duquesne, Dominik Schmidt, Martina Falk, Geoffroy Andrieux, Dietmar Pfeifer, Heide Dierbach, Annette Schmitt-Graeff, Frank Meiss, Melanie Boerries, Robert Zeiser
Micro-RNAs (miR) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, post-transcription, and manipulate immune responses in different types of cancer. In this study, we identify miR-146a as a negative regulator of immune activation, comparable to immune checkpoint molecules. miR-146a levels were increased in melanoma microenvironmental tissue, and miR-146a-/- mice survived longer and developed less metastases in comparison to wild type melanoma-bearing mice. T cells isolated from miR-146a-/- mice revealed higher expression levels of the miR-146a target gene Stat1 and the Stat1-regulated cytokine Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)...
November 13, 2018: Cancer Research
Eun-Young Kwon, Su-Kyung Shin, Myung-Sook Choi
The aim of the current study was to elucidate the effects of long-term supplementation with dietary ursolic acid (UR) on obesity and associated comorbidities by analyzing transcriptional and metabolic responses, focusing on the role of UR in the modulation of the circadian rhythm pathway in particular. C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed a normal diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat + 0.05% ( w / w ) UR diet for 16 weeks. Oligonucleotide microarray profiling revealed that UR is an effective regulator of the liver transcriptome, and canonical pathways associated with the "circadian rhythm" and "extracellular matrix (ECM)⁻receptor interactions" were effectively regulated by UR in the liver...
November 9, 2018: Nutrients
Jaak Jürimäe, Sille Vaiksaar, Priit Purge
This investigation examined the effects of acute rowing exercise on a panel of 12 different inflammatory cytokines. Fifteen female rowers (18.3±1.6 yrs; 172.0±5.0 cm; 67.5±8.8 kg; maximal oxygen consumption [VO2 max]: 47.2±7.9 ml.min.-1 kg-1 ) completed a 1-h endurance exercise (distance: 12.1±1.1 km; energy expenditure [EE]: 639±69 kcal; heart rate: 151±7 beats.min-1 ; intensity: 79.6±3.5% of the second ventilatory turn point). Venous blood samples were analysed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1α, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Monica de Gaetano, Eibhlín Butler, Kevin Gahan, Andrea Zanetti, Mariam Marai, Jianmin Chen, Antonino Cacace, Emily Hams, Catherine Maingot, Alisha McLoughlin, Eoin Brennan, Xavier Leroy, Christine E Loscher, Padraic Fallon, Mauro Perretti, Catherine Godson, Patrick J Guiry
Lipoxins (LXs) are endogenously generated eicosanoids with potent bio-actions consistent with attenuation of inflammation. The costly synthesis and metabolic instability of LXs may limit their therapeutic potential. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of novel imidazole-/oxazole-containing synthetic-LX-mimetics (sLXms). The key steps of asymmetric synthesis of putative sLXms include a Suzuki reaction and an asymmetric ketone reduction. The effect of the novel compounds on inflammatory responses was assessed using a human monocyte cell line stably expressing a Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NFkB) reporter gene, by investigating downstream cytokine secretion...
October 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Lara Console, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Cesare Indiveri
Exosomes are endosomal-derived nano-vesicles. They are considered vehicles through which donor cells transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids to target cells thus influencing their metabolism. Exosomes are involved in inflammatory processes that play a pivotal role in a large number of pathologic states including cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. The association between inflammation and change in nature or expression level of some exosomal cargos is the fundamental step for identifying possible novel biomarkers of inflammatory-based diseases...
November 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Elena Chiappini, Martina Bianconi, Annalisa Dalzini, Maria Raffaella Petrara, Luisa Galli, Carlo Giaquinto, Anita De Rossi
BACKGROUND: Premature aging and related diseases have been documented in HIV-infected adults. Data are now emerging also regarding accelerated aging process in HIV-infected children. METHODS: A narrative review was performed searching studies on PubMed published in English language in 2004-2017, using appropriate key words, including "aging", "children", "HIV", "AIDS", "immunosenescence", "pathogenesis", "clinical conditions"...
November 11, 2018: Aging
Santos Castañeda, Sara Remuzgo-Martínez, Raquel López-Mejías, Fernanda Genre, Jaime Calvo-Alén, Irene Llorente, Elena Aurrecoechea, Ana M Ortiz, Ana Triguero, Ricardo Blanco, Javier Llorca, Miguel A González-Gay
OBJECTIVES: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), insulin resistance (IR), a component of the metabolic syndrome, is closely linked to the systemic inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6. In the present study, we aimed to assess if an intravenous administration of the anti-IL-6 receptor tocilizumab may yield a rapid improvement of IR in RA. METHODS: 50 consecutive non-diabetic patients with RA refractory to methotrexate, undergoing periodic treatment with tocilizumab, were studied...
November 7, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Muddasir Basheer, Seema Rai, Hindole Ghosh, Younis Ahmad Hajam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrinological and metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age which leads to infertility/subfertility. The present study was commenced to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of melatonin in the pathogenesis of letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Wistar rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Letrozole was administered orally (1 mg kg-1) to induce PCOS condition in Wistar female rats for a period of 2-3 weeks followed by a dose of melatonin (200 µg/100 g b...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Mohamad Nurul Azmi, Khairul Anuar Shariff, Joo Shun Tan
Withaferin A (WA), a bioactive constituent derived from Withania somnifera plant, has been shown to exhibit many qualifying properties in attenuating several metabolic diseases. The current investigation sought to elucidate the protective mechanisms of WA (1.25 mg/kg/day) on pre-existing obese mice mediated by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Following dietary administration of WA, significant metabolic improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines with enhanced glucose tolerance were observed...
November 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
JuHwan Kim, Euitaek Jung, Jihye Choi, Dong Yeong Min, Young Han Lee, Soon Young Shin
Leptin is a cytokine that regulates energy metabolism. Leptin can promote breast cancer progression in obese women. However, the mechanism of regulation of leptin expression in breast cancer cells is unclear. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) stimulated the transcription of the leptin gene. Using mutant promoter constructs, we demonstrated that the EGR1-binding motif in the proximal region of the leptin gene is required for leptin transcription by TNF-α. Forced expression of EGR1 stimulated leptin promoter activity, whereas silencing of EGR1 by RNA interference reduced TNF-α-induced leptin protein accumulation...
November 11, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Huikuan Chu, Brandon Williams, Bernd Schnabl
Intestinal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently developed microbial profiling techniques are beginning to shed light on the nature of the changes in the gut microbiota that accompany NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this review, we summarize the role of gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD, NASH, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We highlight the mechanisms by which gut microbiota contribute to NAFLD/NASH, including through alterations in gut epithelial permeability, choline metabolism, endogenous alcohol production, release of inflammatory cytokines, regulation of hepatic Toll-like receptor (TLR), and bile acid metabolism...
March 2018: Liver Research
Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Luca Rinaldi, Riccardo Nevola
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with extrahepatic manifestations, among these there is an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease as well as an increased cardiovascular mortality. Several direct and indirect HCV pro-atherogenic mechanisms have been proposed. HCV lives and replicates within carotid plaques, promoting a local environment of pro-atherogenic factors. In addition, it causes conditions such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hepatic steatosis, cryoglobulinemia and endotoxinemia that are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease...
November 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Nikki L Farnsworth, Rachelle Walter, Robert Piscopio, Wolfgang E Schleicher, Richard K P Benninger
The pancreatic islets of Langerhans maintain glucose homeostasis through insulin secretion, where insulin secretion dynamics are regulated by intracellular Ca2+ signaling and electrical coupling of the insulin producing β-cells in the islet We have previously shown that cytokines decrease β-cell coupling and that compounds which increase cAMP can increase coupling In both mouse and human islets Exendin-4, which increases cAMP, protected against cytokine-induced decreases in coupling and in mouse islets preserved glucose-stimulated calcium signaling by increasing connexin36 gap junction levels on the plasma membrane Our data indicates that PKA regulates β-cell coupling through a fast mechanism such as channel gating or membrane organization, while Epac2 regulates slower mechanisms of regulation, such as gap junction turnover Increases in β-cell coupling with Exendin-4 may protect against cytokine mediated β-cell death as well as preserve insulin secretion dynamics during the development of diabetes ABSTRACT: The pancreatic islets of Langerhans maintain glucose homeostasis...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Agnieszka Magryś, Kamil Deryło, Agnieszka Bogut, Alina Olender, Marek Tchórzewski
Staphylococcus epidermidis small colony variants can survive inside macrophages and their survival has been proposed as a pivotal process in the pathogenesis of biomaterial associated infections. In the present study the intracellular location of clinical isolates of SCV and parental wild type strains inside macrophages was determined. Furthermore, the effect of IFN-γ and rapamycin on the level of SCV/WT as well as lysosomes colocalisation and iNOS induction in THP-activated macrophages in response to WT and SCV strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were examined...
2018: PloS One
Xichuan Zhai, Dehui Lin, Yan Zhao, Wenwen Li, Xingbin Yang
This work was to assess possible impacts of novel insoluble fiber BC (8% bacterial cellulose), soluble fiber KGM (8% Konjac glucomannan) and their mixture (4% BC/4% KGM) on fatty acid metabolism and intestinal microbiota of C57BL/6J mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). HFD-fed mice receiving the dietary fibers (DFs) for 16 weeks exhibited an improvement in lipid-associated cytokines and a decrease in inflammation factors, which was associated with the improved the hepatic and serum fatty acids composition. The DFs, notably the mixed BC/KGM, elevated the HFD-caused decrease in the contents of acetic acid (from 23...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Oliver Glass, Ricardo Henao, Keyur Patel, Cynthia D Guy, Hans J Gruss, Wing-Kin Syn, Cynthia A Moylan, Robert Streilein, Russell Hall, Anna Mae Diehl, Manal F Abdelmalek
The severity of hepatic fibrosis is the primary predictor of liver-related morbidity and mortality in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Unfortunately, noninvasive serum biomarkers for NAFLD-associated fibrosis are limited. We analyzed baseline serum samples for 24 cytokines of 97 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. These patients were prospectively enrolled in a clinical study ( NCT00794716) to identify cytokines associated with liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
November 2018: Hepatology communications
Peng Wu, Jing Li, Xianxian Zhang, Fuling Zeng, Yingwan Liu, Weifeng Sun
The study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the effect of Compound Tufuling Granules (CTG) to lower the serum uric acid level in a rat model of hyperuricemia. The rat model was established by administering hypoxanthine through oral gavage and potassium oxonate through intraperitoneal injection. Rats were divided into the normal group, model group, CTG group, and allopurinol group. Serum uric acid, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and inflammatory cytokine levels were determined in each group. In the model group, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the metabolic profiles and delineate the action mechanism of CTG; in addition, the orthogonal projection method was used to perform latent structure-discrimination analysis to screen the related metabolites...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Sandra Rutting, Dia Xenaki, Monique Malouf, Jay C Horvat, Lisa G Wood, Philip M Hansbro, Brian G Oliver
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced as by-products of dietary fibre metabolism by gut bacteria, have anti-inflammatory properties and could potentially be used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including asthma. The direct effects of SCFAs on inflammatory responses in primary human lung mesenchymal cells have not been assessed. We investigated whether SCFAs can protect against TNFα-induced inflammation in primary human lung fibroblasts (HLFs) and airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in vitro. HLFs and ASM cells were exposed to SCFAs, acetate (C2:0), propionate (C3:0) and butyrate (C4:0) (0...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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