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cytokines metabolic

Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Zamaneh Kassiri, Dickson Leung
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a 72-kDa zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidase with intracellular and extracellular functions ranging from the modulation of extracellular matrix remodeling to cell growth and migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. An upregulation of MMP-2 activity has the potential to deregulate lipid metabolism through the cleavage of numerous metabolic mediators including plasma lipoproteins and cell surface receptors of lipoproteins. Paradoxically, MMP-2 deficiency induces inflammation and deregulates metabolism...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Muna Sapkota, Kusum K Kharbanda, Todd A Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Reactive aldehydes such as acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde generated as a result of alcohol metabolism and cigarette smoke exposure lead to the formation of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducted proteins (MAA adducts). These aldehydes can adduct to different proteins such as bovine serum albumin and surfactant protein A or surfactant protein D (SPD). Macrophages play an important role in innate immunity, but the effect of MAA adducts on macrophage function has not yet been examined...
October 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
D L Misner, M A Kauss, J Singh, H Uppal, A Bruening-Wright, B M Liederer, T Lin, B McCray, N La, T Nguyen, D Sampath, P S Dragovich, T O'Brien, T S Zabka
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein that functions as an enzyme, cytokine, growth factor and hormone. As a target for oncology, NAMPT is particularly attractive, because it catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway to generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a universal energy- and signal-carrying molecule involved in cellular energy metabolism and many homeostatic functions. Inhibition of NAMPT generally results in NAD depletion, followed by ATP reduction and loss of cell viability...
October 25, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Lauren Tracy Daly, David M Tsai, Mansher Singh, Kristo Nuutila, Raquel A Minasian, Cameron C Y Lee, Elizabeth Kiwanuka, Florian Hackl, Andrew B Onderdonk, Johan P E Junker, Elof Eriksson, Edward J Caterson
BACKGROUND: Wound infection can impair postoperative healing. Topical antibiotics have potential to treat wound infection and inflammation and minimize the adverse effects associated with systemic antibiotics. METHODS: Full-thickness porcine wounds were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Using polyurethane wound enclosure devices, wounds were treated with topical 100 μg/ml minocycline, topical 1000 μg/ml minocycline, topical saline control, or 4 mg/kg intravenous minocycline...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher, Jacob E Friedman
Changes in the maternal environment leading to an altered intrauterine milieu can result in subtle insults to the fetus, promoting increased lifetime disease risk and/or disease acceleration in childhood and later in life. Particularly worrisome is that the prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing among children and adults, and is being diagnosed at increasingly younger ages, pointing towards an early-life origin. A wealth of evidence, in humans and non-human primates, suggests that maternal nutrition affects the placenta and fetal tissues, leading to persistent changes in hepatic metabolism, mitochondrial function, the intestinal microbiota, liver macrophage activation and susceptibility to NASH postnatally...
October 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Robert I Menzies, Frederick W Tam, Robert J Unwin, Matthew A Bailey
Nucleotides are key subunits for nucleic acids and provide energy for intracellular metabolism. They can also be released from cells to act physiologically as extracellular messengers or pathologically as danger signals. Extracellular nucleotides stimulate membrane receptors in the P2 and P1 family. P2X are ATP-activated cation channels; P2Y and P1 are G-protein coupled receptors activated by ATP, ADP, UTP, and UDP in the case of P2 or adenosine for P1. Renal P2 receptors influence both vascular contractility and tubular function...
October 22, 2016: Kidney International
Masaya Kozono, Hirofumi Uto, Rie Ibusuki, Shiho Arima, Kohei Oda, Hiroki Taguchi, Fumisato Sasaki, Yuichiro Nasu, Shinichi Hashimoto, Hitoshi Setoyama, Shuji Kanmura, Masatsugu Numata, Hirohito Tsubouchi, Akio Ido
Metabolic syndrome based on insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension is a risk factor for advanced liver disease and cardiovascular disease in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The present study investigated the effects of severe hypertension induced by a high‑salt (HS) diet and antihypertensive therapy on the pathophysiological condition of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with steatohepatitis. Steatohepatitis was induced using a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet (CDAA)...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yu Wu, Bin Yue, Jia Liu
Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health and extensive increase in body mass index (BMI). Childhood obesity may occur due to disturbances in metabolic regulation, which lead to metabolic syndrome and other diseases. Peripheral blood suspended immune cells are responsible for immune surveillance. The aim of the present study was to map the inflammatory cytokine expression pattern of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in vitro and clinical chemistry parameters in the plasma of subjects...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Maria Giovanna Sabbieti, Alessandra Dubbini, Fulvio Laus, Emanuele Paggi, Andrea Marchegiani, Melania Capitani, Luigi Marchetti, Fabrizio Dini, Tina Vermonden, Piera Di Martino, Dimitrios Agas, Roberta Censi
The present study reports on the biocompatibility in vivo after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in Balb/c mice of vinyl sulphone bearing p(HPMAm-lac1-2)-PEG-p(HPMAm-lac1-2)/thiolated hyaluronic acid hydrogels, designed as novel injectable biomaterials for potential application in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Ultrasonography, used as a method to study hydrogel gelation and residence time in vivo, showed that, upon injection, the biomaterial efficiently formed a hydrogel by simultaneous thermal gelation and Michael Addition cross-linking forming a viscoelastic spherical depot at the injection site...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Amiya Kumar Ghosh, Theresa Mau, Martin O'Brien, Sanjay Garg, Raymond Yung
Adipose tissue dysfunction in aging is associated with inflammation, metabolic syndrome and other diseases. We propose that impaired protein homeostasis due to compromised lysosomal degradation (micro-autophagy) might promote aberrant ER stress response and inflammation in aging adipose tissue. Using C57BL/6 mouse model, we demonstrate that adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells from old (18-20 months) mice have reduced expression of autophagy markers as compared to the younger (4-6 months) cohort...
October 24, 2016: Aging
Julia Nicolau, Thierry Lequerré, Hélène Bacquet, Olivier Vittecoq
Recent progress in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is turning attention toward comorbidities, such as diabetes. The objectives of this review are to clarify the links between RA and diabetes and to assess potential effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) on diabetes. The increased insulin resistance seen in RA is closely linked to the systemic inflammation induced by certain proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in patients with RA...
October 21, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Mahfoozur Rahman, Sarwar Beg, Amita Verma, Fahad A Al Abbasi, Firoz Anwar, Sumant Saini, Sohail Akhter, Vikas Kumar
OBJECTIVES: The present review explores the therapeutic application of herbals in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy, and how nano/submicromedicine can be fit in the scope of its therapeutic delivery in RA has been addressed. KEY FINDINGS: Incorporation of bioactive such as polyphenols, thymoquinone, resveratrol, hesperidin, curcumin, celastrol and gambogic acid in a dose-dependent manner showed quite high efficacy for the treatment of RA. It can be attributed to their targeting ability against various inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, NF-kβ, lipoxygenase (LOXs) and arachidonic acid (AA)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed Nadeem, Mohammed M Al-Harbi, Khairy M A Zoheir, Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed M El-Sherbeeny, Khalid M Alanazi, Moureq R Alotaibi, Sheikh F Ahmad
Psoriatic inflammation has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and systemic inflammation. Recently, psoriasis has also been linked to hepatic disorders, however underlying mechanism connecting the two are unknown. IL-17A being a central pro-inflammatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis may be involved in hepatic inflammation through its receptor and downward signaling; however so far no study has investigated IL-17A related signaling in the liver during psoriasis in a murine model...
October 18, 2016: Immunobiology
Ricardo Fernandes, Vinicius A do Rosario, Michel C Mocellin, Marilyn G F Kuntz, Erasmo B S M Trindade
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies in humans with overweight or obesity have reported that some prebiotics and synbiotics have beneficial effects on metabolic endotoxaemia and immune function. However, to date, no systematic review of controlled clinical trials assessed this topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inulin-type fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides and related synbiotics on inflammatory markers in adults with overweight or obesity. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed until November 6, 2015 in four electronic databases and reference lists of all included articles and relevant reviews in the field, without using any filter...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Matthijs T W Veltmeijer, Dineke Veeneman, Coen C C W Bongers, Mihai G Netea, Jos W van der Meer, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, Maria T E Hopman
PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature setpoint. We aimed to investigate whether the exercise-induced increase in TC is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature setpoint. METHODS: 15 healthy, active male subjects aged 36±14 years were recruited...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Fengna Li, Yinghui Li, Yehui Duan, Chien-An A Hu, Yulong Tang, Yulong Yin
Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are the two largest organs in the body. Skeletal muscle is an effector organ, and adipose tissue is an organ that stores energy; in addition, they are endocrine organs that secrete cytokines, namely myokines and adipokines, respectively. Myokines consist of myostatin, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-15, irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21, and myonectin; adipokines include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, and visfatin. Furthermore, certain cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, are released by both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and exhibit a bioactive effect; thus, they are called adipo-myokines...
October 13, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Siroon Bekkering, Inge van den Munckhof, Tim Nielen, Evert Lamfers, Charles Dinarello, Joost Rutten, Jacqueline de Graaf, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Marc E R Gomes, Niels P Riksen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We have recently reported that monocytes can undergo functional and transcriptional reprogramming towards a long-term pro-inflammatory phenotype after brief in vitro exposure to atherogenic stimuli such as oxidized LDL. This process is termed 'trained immunity', and is mediated by epigenetic remodeling and a metabolic switch towards increased aerobic glycolysis. We hypothesize that trained immunity contributes to atherogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the inflammatory phenotype and epigenetic remodeling of monocytes from patients with and without established atherosclerosis...
October 12, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
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