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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342107/honokiol-improves-liver-steatosis-in-ovariectomized-mice
#1
Yeon-Hui Jeong, Haeng Jeon Hur, Eun-Joo Jeon, Su-Jin Park, Jin Taek Hwang, Ae Sin Lee, Kyong Won Lee, Mi Jeong Sung
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease, and is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency are at a higher risk of progression to NAFLD. Estrogen has a protective effect against the progression of the disease. Currently, there are no safe and effective treatments for these liver diseases in postmenopausal women. Honokiol (Ho), a bioactive natural product derived from Magnolia spp, has anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-oxidative properties...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341890/periodontal-diseases-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-is-there-a-role-for-vitamin-d
#2
REVIEW
Anne Marie Uwitonze, Peace Uwambaye, Moses Isyagi, Chrispinus H Mumena, Alice Hudder, Afrozul Haq, Kamrun Nessa, Mohammed S Razzaque
Studies have shown a relationship between maternal periodontal diseases (PDs) and premature delivery. PDs are commonly encountered oral diseases which cause progressive damage to the periodontal ligament and alveolar bones, leading to loss of teeth and oral disabilities. PDs also adversely affect general health by worsening cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Moreover, maternal PDs are thought to be related to increasing the frequency of preterm-birth with low birth weight (PBLBW) new-borns. Prematurity and immaturity are the leading causes of prenatal and infant mortality and is a major public health problem around the world...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339775/anti-apoptotic-a1-is-not-essential-for-lymphoma-development-in-e%C3%A2%C2%B5-myc-mice-but-helps-sustain-transplanted-e%C3%A2%C2%B5-myc-tumour-cells
#3
Mark Mensink, Natasha S Anstee, Mikara Robati, Robyn L Schenk, Marco J Herold, Suzanne Cory, Cassandra J Vandenberg
The transcription factor c-MYC regulates a multiplicity of genes involved in cellular growth, proliferation, metabolism and DNA damage response and its overexpression is a hallmark of many tumours. Since MYC promotes apoptosis under conditions of stress, such as limited availability of nutrients or cytokines, MYC-driven cells are very much dependent on signals that inhibit cell death. Stress signals trigger apoptosis via the pathway regulated by opposing fractions of the BCL-2 protein family and previous genetic studies have shown that the development of B lymphoid tumours in Eµ-Myc mice is critically dependent on expression of pro-survival BCL-2 relatives MCL-1, BCL-W and, to a lesser extent, BCL-XL, but not BCL-2 itself, and that sustained growth of these lymphomas is dependent on MCL-1...
January 16, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338749/interleukin-6-induces-fat-loss-in-cancer-cachexia-by-promoting-white-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-browning
#4
Jun Han, Qingyang Meng, Lei Shen, Guohao Wu
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a progressive and multi-factorial metabolic syndrome characterized by loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. White adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis and white-to-brown transdifferentiation of WAT (WAT browning) are proposed to contribute to WAT atrophy in cancer cachexia. Chronic inflammation, mediated by cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been reported to promote cancer cachexia. However, whether chronic inflammation promotes cancer cachexia by regulating WAT metabolism and the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
January 16, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338074/adaptive-immune-education-by-gut-microbiota-antigens
#5
REVIEW
Qing Zhao, Charles O Elson
Host-microbiota mutualism has been established during long-term co-evolution. A diverse and rich gut microbiota plays an essential role in the development and maturation of the host immune system. Education of the adaptive immune compartment by gut microbiota antigens is important in establishing immune balance. In particular, a critical time frame right after birth provides a "window of opportunity" for the development of lymphoid structures, differentiation and maturation of T and B cells, and most importantly, establishment of immune tolerance to gut commensals...
January 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333574/unique-metabolic-activation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-in-obesity-promotes-inflammatory-responses
#6
Lily Boutens, Guido J Hooiveld, Sourabh Dhingra, Robert A Cramer, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent studies have identified intracellular metabolism as a fundamental determinant of macrophage function. In obesity, proinflammatory macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue and trigger chronic low-grade inflammation, that promotes the development of systemic insulin resistance, yet changes in their intracellular energy metabolism are currently unknown. We therefore set out to study metabolic signatures of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in lean and obese conditions...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332012/classical-adiponectin-leptin-resistin-and-new-chemerin-vaspin-omentin-adipocytokines-in-patients-with-prediabetes
#7
Antoaneta Gateva, Yavor Assyov, Adelina Tsakova, Zdravko Kamenov
Background In the last decade, there has been an increased interest toward fat tissue as an endocrine organ that secretes many cytokines and bioactive mediators that play a role in insulin sensitivity, inflammation, coagulation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate classical (adiponectin, leptin, resistin) and new (chemerin, vaspin, omentin) adipocytokine levels in subjects with prediabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)] and obese subjects with normoglycemia...
January 15, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331887/idh1r132h-promotes-malignant-transformation-of-benign-prostatic-epithelium-by-dysregulating-micrornas-involvement-of-igf1r-akt-stat3-signaling-pathway
#8
Lili Zhang, Mei Qi, Tingting Feng, Jing Hu, Lin Wang, Xinjun Li, Wei Gao, Hui Liu, Meng Jiao, Zhen Wu, Xinnuo Bai, Yifan Bie, Long Liu, Bo Han
Risk stratification using molecular features could potentially help distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) acquire an abnormal enzymatic activity, resulting in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate and alterations in cellular metabolism, histone modification, and DNA methylation. Mutant IDH1 has been identified in various human malignancies, and IDH1R132H constituted the vast majority of mutational events of IDH1. Most recent studies suggested that IDH1 mutations define a methylator subtype in PCa...
January 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331088/significance-of-circulatory-dpp4-activity-in-metabolic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Titli Nargis, Partha Chakrabarti
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as CD26 is a type II transmembrane protein that is released from the cell membrane in a nonclassical secretory mechanism. This exopeptidase selectively degrades varieties of substrates including incretin hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. A significant detectable amount of DPP4 activity can be measured in plasma as well as in different tissues such as intestinal epithelium, vascular endothelium, lymphocytes, monocytes, kidney, liver, adipose, lung, thymus, spleen, prostate, etc...
January 13, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330663/human-cytomegalovirus-encoded-mir-ul112-contributes-to-hcmv-mediated-vascular-diseases-by-inducing-vascular-endothelial-cell-dysfunction
#10
Kai Shen, Liyun Xu, Dongdong Chen, Weiguo Tang, Yanyan Huang
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been linked to the pathogenesis of vasculopathy by inducing dysfunction of vascular cells such as endothelial cells. Hcmv-miR-UL112 is the most well-characterized HCMV-encoded microRNA occurring in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, while the specific underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are yet to be defined. The current study investigated the effect of hcmv-miR-UL112 on the growth and proliferation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs); it might also be associated with signaling pathways...
January 12, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330025/the-role-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-cancer-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-perspectives-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Maria Dalamaga, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Christos S Mantzoros
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (Nampt) or pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin represents a pleiotropic molecule acting as an enzyme, a cytokine and a growth factor. Intracellular Nampt plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, particularly NAD biosynthesis. NAD biosynthesis is critical in DNA repair, oncogenic signal transduction, transcription, genomic integrity and apoptosis. Although its insulin-mimetic function remains a controversial issue, extracellular Nampt presents proliferative, anti-apoptotic, pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic and metastatic properties...
January 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329322/methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase-contributes-to-allergic-airway-disease
#12
Kenneth R Eyring, Brent S Pedersen, Kenneth N Maclean, Sally P Stabler, Ivana V Yang, David A Schwartz
RATIONALE: Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors) in modifying allergic airway disease. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329289/burkholderia-pseudomallei-modulates-host-iron-homeostasis-to-facilitate-iron-availability-and-intracellular-survival
#13
Imke H E Schmidt, Claudia Gildhorn, Martha A L Böning, Vera A Kulow, Ivo Steinmetz, Antje Bast
BACKGROUND: The control over iron homeostasis is critical in host-pathogen-interaction. Iron plays not only multiple roles for bacterial growth and pathogenicity, but also for modulation of innate immune responses. Hepcidin is a key regulator of host iron metabolism triggering degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. Although iron overload in humans is known to increase susceptibility to Burkholderia pseudomallei, it is unclear how the pathogen competes with the host for the metal during infection...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328388/gw4064-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-hepatic-inflammation-and-apoptosis-through-inhibition-of-the-toll%C3%A2-like-receptor-4%C3%A2-mediated-p38-mitogen%C3%A2-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-mice
#14
Hsuan-Miao Liu, Tzung-Yan Lee, Jyh-Fei Liao
Liver injury is associated with devastating consequences caused by inflammation and apoptosis. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that has an essential role in hepatoprotection by maintaining the homeostasis of liver metabolism. The present study investigated the capacity of the FXR agonist GW4064 to protect the livers of mice from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced inflammation and apoptosis. Male C57BL/6J [wild‑type (WT)] and FXR knockout (KO) mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS or saline...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325128/relationship-between-twelve-adipocytokines-and-distinct-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Thomas Ebert, Claudia Gebhardt, Markus Scholz, Tobias Wohland, Dorit Schleinitz, Mathias Fasshauer, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Peter Kovacs, Anke Tönjes
Objective: Adipose tissue-derived signals potentially link obesity and adipose tissue dysfunction with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Although some adipocytokines have been closely related to metabolic and cardiovascular traits, it remains open which adipocytokine or adipocytokine cluster serve as meaningful marker of metabolic syndrome (MS) components. Therefore, this study investigates the associations of twelve adipocytokines with components of the MS to identify the most relevant cytokines potentially related to specific metabolic profiles...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324697/association-between-fetal-adipokines-and-child-behavioral-problems-at-preschool-age-the-hokkaido-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health
#16
Machiko Minatoya, Sachiko Itoh, Atsuko Araki, Naomi Tamura, Keiko Yamazaki, Chihiro Miyashita, Reiko Kishi
Studies have suggested associations between maternal obesity and mental health problems of their children. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. A possible mechanism can be via inflammatory states and the other possible mechanism is metabolic hormone-induced programming. Cross-talk between adipokines, including inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormones secreted from adipose tissue and the central nervous system needs to be further investigated to elucidate the mechanism. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between fetal adipokine levels and child behavioral problems at preschool age...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322691/raspberry-supplementation-improves-insulin-signaling-and-promotes-brown-like-adipocyte-development-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#17
Tong Xing, Yifei Kang, Xinglian Xu, Bo Wang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
SCOPE: Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenolics and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322631/cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Daniel A Lujan, Joey L Ochoa, Rebecca S Hartley
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play key roles in RNA dynamics, including subcellular localization, translational efficiency and metabolism. Cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) is a stress-induced protein that was initially described as a DNA damage-induced transcript (A18 hnRNP), as well as a cold-shock domain containing cold-stress response protein (CIRBP) that alters the translational efficiency of its target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). This review summarizes recent work on the roles of CIRP in the context of inflammation and cancer...
January 11, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319419/in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-inflammatory-markers-of-common-metabolic-phenotypes-in-humans
#19
Rasmus Baadsgaard Mærkedahl, Hanne Frøkiær, Marie Grøntved Stenbæk, Camilla Betak Nielsen, Mads V Lind, Christian Lundtoft, Marietta Boje Bohr, Sabine Ibrügger, Stine Broeng Metzdorff, Henrik Vestergaard, Oluf Pedersen, Lotte Lauritzen
BACKGROUND: Low-grade systemic inflammation (LGSI) is often characterized by elevated levels of interleukin (IL)6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Other serum proteins, ex vivo-stimulated cytokine production, and leukocyte count have, however, also been suggested LGSI-markers, but their associations with the metabolic syndrome (MS) are less clear. We aimed to evaluate mutual relationships between in vivo and ex vivo inflammatory markers and their association with MS and its subcomponents...
January 10, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319160/macrophage-plasticity-polarization-and-function-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Abbas Shapouri Moghaddam, Saeed Mohammadian, Hossein Vazini, Mahdi Taghadosi, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Fatemeh Mardani, Bita Seifi, Asadollah Mohammadi, Jalil Tavakol Afshari, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Macrophages are heterogeneous and their phenotype and functions are regulated by the surrounding micro-environment. Macrophages commonly exist in two distinct subsets: 1) Classically activated or M1 macrophages, which are pro-inflammatory and polarized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either alone or in association with Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ, GM-CSF and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α, and 2) Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages, which are anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory and polarized by Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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