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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#1
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730859/molecular-targeting-of-inosine-5-monophosphate-dehydrogenase-by-ff-10501-promotes-erythropoiesis-via-ros-mapk-pathway
#2
Michiko Ichii, Kenji Oritani, Motohiko Murase, Kensuke Komatsu, Mao Yamazaki, Rie Kyoden, Nobuko Kito, Yusuke Nozaki, Motoki Saito, Hiroyuki Iwamura, Yuzuru Kanakura
One of the major symptoms of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is severe cytopenia. Despite cytokine therapies, such as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, many patients still require blood transfusions, and the development of new therapeutic approaches is needed. In this work, we studied the effects of the inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor FF-10501 on erythropoiesis of human hematopoietic cells. Differentiation of K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells to an erythroid lineage was promoted by FF-10501 in a dose-dependent manner...
July 21, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728928/gtf-231-a-mixture-of-gymnemic-acid-trigonelline-and-ferulic-acid-significantly-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-type-2-diabetes-in-rats
#3
Roshana Devi Vellai, Sharmila Chandiran, Subramanian Sorimuthu Pillai
OBJECTIVES: According to a report by the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, nearly 60% of patients with diabetes have more than one complication caused by chronic diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial metabolic disorder that accounts for more than 95% of people with diabetes and usually requires multitargeted therapeutic interventions. It arises due to insufficient insulin secretion or its action or both. Recently, we reported that the oral administration of gymnemic acid, trigonelline and ferulic acid in the ratio of 2:3:1 (GTF-231), a mixture of 3 phytoingredients at a concentration of 300 mg/kg body weight significantly improved the glucose homeostasis in rats with low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes that were fed with high-fat diet...
July 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726774/interleukin-22-ameliorated-renal-injury-and-fibrosis-in-diabetic-nephropathy-through-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#4
Shaofei Wang, Yubin Li, Jiajun Fan, Xuyao Zhang, Jingyun Luan, Qi Bian, Tao Ding, Yichen Wang, Ziyu Wang, Ping Song, Daxiang Cui, Xiaobin Mei, Dianwen Ju
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most lethal complications of diabetes mellitus with metabolic disorders and chronic inflammation. Although the cytokine IL-22 was initially implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, recent studies suggested that IL-22 could suppress inflammatory responses and alleviate tissue injury. Herein, we examined the role of IL-22 in DN. We found that serum levels of IL-22 were significantly downregulated in both patients and mice with DN. The expression of IL-22 was further decreased with the progression of DN, whereas IL-22 gene therapy significantly ameliorated renal injury and mesangial matrix expansion in mice with established nephropathy...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726741/magnolol-a-natural-polyphenol-attenuates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice
#5
Ling Zhao, Hai-Tao Xiao, Huai-Xue Mu, Tao Huang, Ze-Si Lin, Linda L D Zhong, Guang-Zhi Zeng, Bao-Min Fan, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Magnolol is a lignan with anti-inflammatory activity identified in Magnolia officinalis. Ulcerative colitis (UC), one of the types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a disease that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon. To investigate the effect of magnolol in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental UC model, male C57 mice were treated with 2% DSS drinking water for 5 consecutive days followed by intragastric administration with magnolol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. The results showed that magnolol significantly attenuated disease activity index, inhibited colonic shortening, reduced colonic lesions and suppressed myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity...
July 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726640/c1q-tnf-related-protein-6-ctrp6-links-obesity-to-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#6
Xia Lei, Marcus M Seldin, Hannah C Little, Nicholas Choy, Thomas Klonisch, G William Wong
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and metabolic regulators linking obesity to inflammation have therefore received much attention. Secreted C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) are one such group of regulators that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in peripheral tissues and modulate inflammation in adipose tissue. We have previously shown that expression of CTRP6 is up-regulated in leptin-deficient mice and, conversely, down-regulated by the anti-diabetic drug, rosiglitazone. Here, we provide evidence for a novel role of CTRP6 in modulating both inflammation and insulin sensitivity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725183/bile-acid-mediated-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2-signaling-promotes-neuroinflammation-during-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-mice
#7
Matthew McMillin, Gabriel Frampton, Stephanie Grant, Shamyal Khan, Juan Diocares, Anca Petrescu, Amy Wyatt, Jessica Kain, Brandi Jefferson, Sharon DeMorrow
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication that occurs due to deteriorating hepatic function and this syndrome influences patient quality of life, clinical management strategies and survival. During acute liver failure, circulating bile acids increase due to a disruption of the enterohepatic circulation. We previously identified that bile acid-mediated signaling occurs in the brain during HE and contributes to cognitive impairment. However, the influences of bile acids and their downstream signaling pathways on HE-induced neuroinflammation have not been assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725048/cd300f-il-5-cross-talk-inhibits-adipose-tissue-eosinophil-homing-and-subsequent-il-4-production
#8
Perri Rozenberg, Hadar Reichman, Israel Zab-Bar, Michal Itan, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Carine Bouffi, Udi Qimron, Ido Bachelet, Patricia C Fulkerson, Marc E Rothenberg, Ariel Munitz
Eosinophils and their associated cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 are emerging as central orchestrators of the immune-metabolic axis. Herein, we demonstrate that cross-talk between the Ig-superfamily receptor CD300f and IL-5 is a key checkpoint that modifies the ability of eosinophils to regulate metabolic outcomes. Generation of Il5 (Tg) /Cd300f (-/-) mice revealed marked and distinct increases in eosinophil levels and their production of IL-4 in the white and brown adipose tissues. Consequently, Il5 (Tg) /Cd300f (-/-) mice had increased alternatively activated macrophage accumulation in the adipose tissue...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724799/galantamine-alleviates-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-randomized-trial
#9
Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Carine T Sangaleti, Fernando O Costa, Tercio L Morais, Heno F Lopes, Josiane M Motta, Maria C Irigoyen, Luiz A Bortoloto, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Yael Tobi Harris, Sanjaya K Satapathy, Peder S Olofsson, Meredith Akerman, Sangeeta S Chavan, Meggan MacKay, Douglas P Barnaby, Martin L Lesser, Jesse Roth, Kevin J Tracey, Valentin A Pavlov
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an obesity-driven condition of pandemic proportions that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood, though inflammation has been implicated in MetS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of galantamine, a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with antiinflammatory properties, on markers of inflammation implicated in insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk, and other metabolic and cardiovascular indices in subjects with MetS...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724796/host-interleukin-6-production-regulates-inflammation-but-not-tryptophan-metabolism-in-the-brain-during-murine-gvhd
#10
Ludovic Belle, Vivian Zhou, Kara L Stuhr, Margaret Beatka, Emily M Siebers, Jennifer M Knight, Michael W Lawlor, Casey Weaver, Misato Hashizume, Cecilia J Hillard, William R Drobyski
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induces pathological damage in peripheral target organs leading to well-characterized, organ-specific clinical manifestations. Patients with GVHD, however, can also have behavioral alterations that affect overall cognitive function, but the extent to which GVHD alters inflammatory and biochemical pathways in the brain remain poorly understood. In the current study, we employed complementary murine GVHD models to demonstrate that alloreactive donor T cells accumulate in the brain and affect a proinflammatory cytokine milieu that is associated with specific behavioral abnormalities...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724737/stress-hormones-predict-a-host-superspreader-phenotype-in-the-west-nile-virus-system
#11
Stephanie S Gervasi, Sarah C Burgan, Erik Hofmeister, Thomas R Unnasch, Lynn B Martin
Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of host mortality during infection...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723556/peroxisome-mediated-metabolism-is-required-for-immune-response-to-microbial-infection
#12
Francesca Di Cara, Avinash Sheshachalam, Nancy E Braverman, Richard A Rachubinski, Andrew J Simmonds
The innate immune response is critical for animal homeostasis and is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. This response depends on specialized cells that recognize, internalize, and destroy microbial invaders through phagocytosis. This is coupled to autonomous or non-autonomous cellular signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine production. Lipids are known signaling factors in this process, as the acute phase response of macrophages is accompanied by systemic lipid changes that help resolve inflammation...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723554/hypoxia-sensitive-commd1-integrates-signaling-and-cellular-metabolism-in-human-macrophages-and-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis
#13
Koichi Murata, Celestia Fang, Chikashi Terao, Eugenia G Giannopoulou, Ye Ji Lee, Min Joon Lee, Se-Hwan Mun, Seyeon Bae, Yu Qiao, Ruoxi Yuan, Moritoshi Furu, Hiromu Ito, Koichiro Ohmura, Shuichi Matsuda, Tsuneyo Mimori, Fumihiko Matsuda, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Lionel B Ivashkiv
Hypoxia augments inflammatory responses and osteoclastogenesis by incompletely understood mechanisms. We identified COMMD1 as a cell-intrinsic negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis that is suppressed by hypoxia. In human macrophages, COMMD1 restrained induction of NF-κB signaling and a transcription factor E2F1-dependent metabolic pathway by the cytokine RANKL. Downregulation of COMMD1 protein expression by hypoxia augmented RANKL-induced expression of inflammatory and E2F1 target genes and downstream osteoclastogenesis...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721750/control-diet-in-a-high-fat-diet-study-in-mice-regular-chow-and-purified-low-fat-diet-have-similar-effects-on-phenotypic-metabolic-and-behavioral-outcomes
#14
Camila P Almeida-Suhett, Jonathan M Scott, Alice Graham, Yifan Chen, Patricia A Deuster
BACKGROUND: Differences in the composition of control diets may confound outcomes in studies investigating dietary effects. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of two control diets commonly used in mice studies, chow (SD) and a purified low-fat diet (LFD), in relation to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD). We hypothesized that SD and LFD will have similar effects on phenotypic, metabolic, and behavioral outcomes. METHODS: Fifty-four 5-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary interventions (SD, LFD, or HFD) for 18 weeks...
July 19, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721208/new-perspectives-on-the-regulation-of-type-ii-inflammation-in-asthma
#15
REVIEW
Mireya Becerra-Díaz, Marsha Wills-Karp, Nicola M Heller
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs which has been thought to arise as a result of inappropriately directed T helper type-2 (Th2) immune responses of the lungs to otherwise innocuous inhaled antigens. Current asthma therapeutics are directed towards the amelioration of downstream consequences of type-2 immune responses (i.e. β-agonists) or broad-spectrum immunosuppression (i.e. corticosteroids). However, few approaches to date have been focused on the primary prevention of immune deviation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714405/emerging-targets-to-relieve-fat-stress-induced-liver-diseases-udca-tocotrienol-%C3%AF-3-pufas-and-igy-targeted-npc1l1-cholesterol-transporter
#16
Ji-Young Cha, Jong-Min Park, Ho-Jae Lee, Jin-Sik Bae, Young-Min Han, Byung-Chul Oh, Kwang Hyun Ko, Ki-Baik Hahm
Fat stress-induced liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome initiated by excess fat accumulation and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a precursor lesion progressing to more aggressive liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the incidence of these fat stress-induced liver diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and metabolic diseases, its exact pathogenesis is not well defined...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713640/human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-respond-to-short-term-hypoxia-by-secreting-factors-beneficial-for-human-islets-in-vitro-and-potentiate-antidiabetic-effect-in-vivo
#17
Simen W Schive, Mohammad Reza Mirlashari, Grete Hasvold, Mengyu Wang, Dag Josefsen, Hans Petter Gullestad, Olle Korsgren, Aksel Foss, Gunnar Kvalheim, Hanne Scholz
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) release factors beneficial for islets in vitro and protect against hyperglycemia in rodent models of diabetes. Oxygen tension has been shown to induce metabolic changes and alter ASCs' release of soluble factors. The effects of hypoxia on the antidiabetic properties of ASCs have not been explored. To investigate this, we incubated human ASCs for 48 h in 21% (normoxia) or 1% O2 (hypoxia) and compared viability, cell growth, surface markers, differentiation capability, and soluble factors in the conditioned media (CM)...
2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713353/functional-characterization-of-novel-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-strains-isolated-from-healthy-volunteers-a-step-forward-in-the-use-of-f-prausnitzii-as-a-next-generation-probiotic
#18
Rebeca Martín, Sylvie Miquel, Leandro Benevides, Chantal Bridonneau, Véronique Robert, Sylvie Hudault, Florian Chain, Olivier Berteau, Vasco Azevedo, Jean M Chatel, Harry Sokol, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Muriel Thomas, Philippe Langella
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant bacteria in the healthy human microbiota. F. prausnitzii depletion has been reported in several intestinal disorders, and more consistently in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Despite its importance in human health, only few microbiological studies have been performed to isolate novel F. prausnitzii strains in order to better understand the biodiversity and physiological diversity of this beneficial commensal species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711717/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-immune-responses-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-lipoteichoic-acid
#19
Tu Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Eunjeong Seo, Juyong Choi, Oanh Thi Tu Le, Ji Yun Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Yoon Lee
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells...
July 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708885/pioglitazone-ameliorates-glomerular-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-with-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Yao Wang, Bo Yu, Li Wang, Ming Yang, Zhiyin Xia, Wei Wei, Fengyu Zhang, Xiaochen Yuan
OBJECTIVE: The NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Pioglitazone (PIO) has been found to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in patients with diabetes mellitus, but it is still unclear whether PIO exhibits a similar effect in DN. We aimed to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of PIO on DN, as well as investigate if NLRP3 is a pharmacologic target of PIO. METHODS: We divided 48 apolipoprotein E (apoE) (-/-) mice into 4 groups: apoE (-/-), apoE (-/-) with PIO, diabetic apoE (-/-), and diabetic apoE (-/-) with PIO...
2017: PloS One
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