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Tear ferning

Felipe Traipe-Salas, Leonidas Traipe-Castro, Daniela Salinas-Toro, Daniela López, Felipe Valenzuela, Christian Cartes, Héctor Toledo-Araya, Claudio Pérez, Remigio López Solís
BACKGROUND: Tear desiccation on a glass surface followed by transmitted-light microscopy has served as diagnostic test for dry eye. Four distinctive morphological domains (zones I, II, III and transition band) have been recently recognized in tear microdesiccates. Physicochemical dissimilarities among those domains hamper comprehensive microscopic examination of tear microdesiccates. Optimal observation conditions of entire tear microdesiccates are now investigated. One-μl aliquots of tear collected from individual healthy eyes were dried at ambient conditions on microscope slides...
2016: Biological Research
Sharanjeet-Kaur, Chien Yee Ho, Haliza Abdul Mutalib, Ahmad Rohi Ghazali
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between tear ferning patterns (TFP) and non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) in normal Asian subjects. METHODS: One hundred and forty-five adults with no ocular surface disorders were recruited. TFP and NIBUT were determined. Tears were collected using a capillary tube and allowed to air dry at room temperature for 10min. TFP was later observed using a light microscope and classified according to Rolando's classification...
July 2016: Journal of Optometry
Remigio López-Solís, Daniela Salinas-Toro, Daniela López, Christian Segovia, Katherine Villar, Paz Agüero, Felipe Valenzuela, Leonidas Traipe-Castro
PURPOSE: Tear desiccation on a horizontal glass surface followed by low-resolution light microscopy has been used as an expeditious diagnostic aid to evaluate patients suspected of dry eye. The presence of fern-like crystalloids in the dry specimen is the only feature taken into consideration. We demonstrate that different morphological domains of tear microdesiccates can be separated based on distinctive physicochemical properties. METHODS: Healthy subjects (Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, laboratory tests, and slit-lamp examination) and 74 young adults from a random student population were recruited as volunteer tear donors...
August 2015: Cornea
Laura R Silva, Anderson F Gouveia, Cleyber J T de Fátima, Letícia B Oliveira, Janildo L Reis, Renato F Ferreira, Concepta M Pimentel, Paula D Galera
OBJECTIVE: To describe the tear ferning test (TFT) in healthy horses and its correlation with other parameters for evaluating the ocular surface. ANIMALS STUDIED: Thirty male and female adult healthy horses (60 eyes), of no defined breed. PROCEDURES: Tear sample was collected with a microcapillary tube, placed on the surface of a glass slide, and allowed to dry at room temperature. The crystallization pattern was classified according to Rolando (Chibret International Journal Ophthamology, 1984; 2, 32)...
March 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Ali M Masmali, Jarallah M Al-Bahlal, Gamal A El-Hiti, Saeed Akhtar, Christine Purslow, Paul J Murphy, Turki Almubrad
OBJECTIVES: To investigate tear ferning (TF) test repeatability between sessions by observing changes in the tear fern pattern during the day. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy young adults (15 men and 8 women), ranging in age from 20 to 32 years (mean ± SD: 22.9 ± 3.3 years) without signs or symptoms of dry eye disease, ocular disease, or contact lens wear were enrolled in the study. Schirmer I, tear break-up time (TBUT) test, and McMonnies questionnaire were used to screen volunteers...
September 2015: Eye & Contact Lens
Ali M Masmali, Sultan Al-Qhtani, Talha M Al-Gasham, Gamal A El-Hiti, Christine Purslow, Paul J Murphy
PURPOSE: To apply the Masmali tear ferning (TF) grading scale on non-dry eye (NDE) and dry eye (DE) subjects to test the validity of the grading scale in practice, and to describe the grading scale range for NDE and DE. METHOD: Forty NDE subjects (20 males, 20 females) and 40 DE subjects (23 males, 17 females) ranging in age from 19 to 53 years (mean±SD: 25.3±5.5) with no other ocular disease, no contact lens wear, and not pregnant or breastfeeding were recruited...
February 2015: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Ali M Masmali, Christine Purslow, Paul J Murphy
A healthy tear film is very important for many major functions of the ocular surface. Dry eye disease is a significant clinical problem that needs to be solved but the poor correlation between clinical signs and reported symptoms makes it difficult for the clinician to apply a scientific basis to his clinical management. The problem is compounded by the difficulties of evaluating the tear film due to its transparency, small volume and complex composition. Practical insight into tear film composition would be very useful to the clinician for patient diagnosis and treatment but detailed analysis is restricted to expensive, laboratory-based systems...
September 2014: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Valéria Valim, Virginia Fernandes Moça Trevisani, Jacqueline Martins de Sousa, Verônica Silva Vilela, Rubens Belfort
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that causes tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. The prevalence of dry eye in the world population ranges from 6 to 34 %. It is more common in those aged over 50, and affects mainly women. Since the introduction of the Schirmer's test in 1903, other tests have been developed to evaluate dry eye, such as biomicroscopy, the tear film breakup time (BUT), vital dyes (lissamine green and rose bengal), fluorescein, leaf fern test, corneal sensitivity test, conjunctiva impression cytology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and tear osmolarity measurement...
December 2015: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Leonidas Traipe-Castro, Daniela Salinas-Toro, Daniela López, Mario Zanolli, Miguel Srur, Felipe Valenzuela, Aníbal Cáceres, Héctor Toledo-Araya, Remigio López-Solís
BACKGROUND: Fern-like crystalloids form when a microvolume of tear is allowed to dry out at ambient conditions on a glass surface. Presence of crystalloids in tear "microdesiccates" is used to evaluate patients with Dry-Eye disease. This study aims to examine morphologically the desiccation process of normal tear fluid and to identify changes associated with accelerated tear evaporation. Tear microdesiccates from healthy (Non-Dry Eye) and Dry Eye subjects were produced at ambient conditions...
2014: Biological Research
Ali M Masmali, Paul J Murphy, Christine Purslow
PURPOSE: This paper reports on the development of a new tear ferning (TF) subjective grading scale, and compares it with the Rolando scale. METHOD: TF patterns obtained from tear film samples collected from normal and dry eye subjects in previous studies were collated into a large image library. From this library, 60 images were selected to represent the full range of possible TF patterns, and a further sub-set of 15 images was chosen for analysis. Twenty-five optometrists were asked to rank the images in increasing order between extreme anchors on a scale of TF patterns...
June 2014: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Remigio López Solís, Leonidas Traipe Castro, Daniela Salinas Toro, Miguel Srur, Héctor Toledo Araya
Desiccation of human tears on glass surfaces results in fern-like crystalloids. This phenomenon has been associated with tear normality (Tear Ferning Test, TFT) and is used as a diagnostic aid to evaluate patients with Dry-Eye disease. However, TFT is focused on the assessment of only a minor fraction of desiccated tear samples and considers only the relative abundance and density of fern-like crystalloids. The aim of this study was to characterize morphologically entire desiccated micro volumes of tears from healthy donors...
2013: Biological Research
Xiaoyan Yang, Huw J Barton, Zhiwei Wan, Quan Li, Zhikun Ma, Mingqi Li, Dan Zhang, Jun Wei
Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350-2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice...
2013: PloS One
Gemma Julio, Sara Lluch, Pere Pujol, Silvia Alonso, Dolores Merindano
PURPOSE: To determine abnormalities in tear osmolarity (TO), tear function, and impression cytology in patients with pterygium and to assess the relationship between the variables. METHODS: Thirty eyes from 30 patients with primary nasal pterygium and 30 eyes from 30 volunteers without ocular pathologies or dry eye symptoms were enrolled in the present study. TO test, tear ferning test, fluorescein tear breakup time, Schirmer test, and impression cytology of the conjunctiva were performed...
December 2012: Cornea
Alistair R Phillips, Gavin Bartlett, Mark Norton, Darren Fern
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients who have undergone surgical hip dislocation with excision of the ligamentum teres exhibited symptoms of a Type I ligamentum teres rupture. METHOD: A questionnaire was designed to enquire about specific symptoms attributed to Type I injuries (complete rupture) in the literature: gross instability, incomplete reduction, inability to bear weight and mechanical symptoms. 217 consecutive patients were surveyed and 161 patients (75%) returned 168 questionnaires (75%)...
May 2012: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Gemma Julio, Sara Lluch, Pere Pujol, María Dolores Merindano
PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of tear hyperosmolarity on conjunctival cells in mild to moderate dry eye. METHODS: Sixty-eight subjects (35 females and 33 males, mean age 43, S.D. 20.3, range 18-87 years) with symptoms of dry eye were enrolled in the study. Patients with severe dry eye or any other condition that induces ocular inflammation were excluded. The sample was divided into two groups according to the tear osmolarity cut-off value of 308 mOsmol L(-1) measured in the right eye of each patient...
July 2012: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Gemma Julio, Sara Lluch, Genís Cardona, Albert Fornieles, Dolores Merindano
PURPOSE: The present study aimed at analyzing the relationship between several particular symptoms, risk factors or global questionnaire scores and some tear clinical signs in early dry eye patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 77 volunteers were enrolled in the study without any prior classification, although patients with severe dry eye were excluded. Two questionnaires were used to assess ocular symptoms and risk factors, and clinical tear signs were evaluated with four tests (osmolarity, ferning, break-up time and the phenol red thread test)...
May 2012: Current Eye Research
Shili Wang, Bo Jiang, Yangshun Gu
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes of tear film function in patients with pterygium after pterygium excision combined with limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 60 patients were entered in the study. The Schirmer test, tear breakup time (BUT) and mucus fern test (MFT) were evaluated in the patients before and after pterygium excision combined with limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation. RESULTS: Compared with the opposite healthy eyes, the BUT and MFT in the eyes with pterygium were significantly different before the operation (p < 0...
2011: Ophthalmic Research
Piera Versura, Vincenzo Profazio, Nicole Balducci, Emilio C Campos
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Xiloial(®) monodose eyedrops in the treatment of patients suffering from subjective symptoms of discomfort related to disposable soft contact lens (dSCL) wear. METHODS: Fifteen (12 female, three male, medium age 39 ± 9 years) dSCL wearers were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were Ocular Surface Disease Index (ODSI) symptom questionnaire score >12, tear film break-up time (TFBUT) <10 sec, Schirmer test I >10 mm over five minutes, mild punctuate keratopathy, and conjunctival staining (Oxford grading ≤4)...
2010: Clinical Ophthalmology
Xiang-gen Wu, Meng Xin, Hao Chen, Li-na Yang, Hao-ran Jiang
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate a novel mucoadhesive polymer extracted from Bletilla striata for ocular delivery of 0.5% levofloxacin in rabbits, and to determine its improved efficacy against experimental keratitis. METHODS: B. striata polysaccharide (BsP) was subjected to cell cytotoxicity and ferning tests. The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of topically applied 0.5% levofloxacin-BsP eye drops was investigated and compared with 0...
September 2010: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
P Versura, V Profazio, E C Campos
PURPOSE: Tear osmolarity is considered a key point in dry eye disease (DED) and its measurement is the gold standard in dry eye diagnosis. Tear osmolarity was evaluated in dry eye (DE) patients vs. a control group to assess its diagnostic performance compared to clinical and laboratory tests performed in either clinical or research settings. METHODS: Tear osmolarity was measured with the TearLab Osmolarity System (OcuSense) in 25 normal subjects and 105 DE patients (severity score 1-4, Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS))...
July 2010: Current Eye Research
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