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Tear ferning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692599/structure-and-microanalysis-of-tear-film-ferning-of-camel-tears-human-tears-and-refresh-plus
#1
Masmali Am, Fagehi Ra, Ahmad H El-Naggar, Almubrad Tm
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the tear ferning pattern and chemical elements of the tear film of camel tears compared with human tears and Refresh Plus eye lubricant. Refresh Plus was used as a control because it provides a healthy ferning pattern, due to the presence of an optimum ratio of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sodium and electrolytes. The main research focus is elucidating the viability of camel tear film in the dry, harsh environment of the desert. Methods: The tears were collected from five camels, five male desert workers (20-25 years old) at a small village located 100 km from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and five male subjects (20-25 years old) from Riyadh...
2018: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111585/tear-ferning-test-in-healthy-dogs
#2
Arianne P Oriá, Ana Claudia S Raposo, Nayone L L C Araújo, Felipe B Lima, Ali M Masmali
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare three tear sampling methods using two grading scales for administering the tear ferning test (TFT) to healthy dogs. METHODS: In total, 90 dogs (180 eyes) were subjected to tear sampling using millimetered strips, reused after the Schirmer tear test (STT) (Schirmer group, SG). Then, the dogs were subdivided into three groups according to sampling approach: micropipette (MPG), microcapillary (MCG), and Schirmer sample 2 (S2G). The collected tears were dried on a clean microscope glass slide at room temperature and humidity...
November 7, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038779/tear-ferning-in-normal-dogs-and-dogs-with-keratoconjunctivitis-sicca
#3
David Williams, Heather Hewitt
This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 (STT) determined before tear samples were obtained from the medial canthus with a microhaematocrit capillary tube. 10ul of tear was placed on a microscope slide and the time to first formation of a fern of crystallised tear solute was determined...
2017: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954026/evaluation-of-the-ocular-surface-following-bariatric-surgery
#4
Natalia Ponte Nogueira Marques, Sérgio Felberg, Jeison Nadai de Barros, Carlos Alberto Malheiros
Purpose: To identify and evaluate changes in the ocular surface in obese patients with bariatric surgery. Methods: The study included 89 randomly selected patients; 81 (91.0%) were women, 35 were preoperative, 32 were included 0-12 months after surgery, and 22 were included >12 months after surgery. All patients completed a dry eye-specific questionnaire and were evaluated by the tear ferning test, tear-film breakup time (BUT), Schirmer's test I, examination of the ocular surface by 1% rose Bengal staining, and impression cytology...
July 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945647/investigation-of-ocular-tear-ferning-in-controlled-and-uncontrolled-diabetic-subjects
#5
Ali M Masmali, Yahya A Maeni, Gamal A El-Hiti, Paul J Murphy, Turki Almubrad
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ocular tear film in controlled and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects and the relationship between dry eye and diabetes. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four diabetes adults (65 male and 59 female, with 62 controlled and 62 uncontrolled DM) were assessed by McMonnies dry eye questionnaire, tear break-up time (TBUT), phenol red thread (PRT) test. In addition, tear samples were collected from the lower tear meniscus of right eyes and dried onto glass slides under controlled room temperature (25°C) and humidity (40%)...
September 21, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060072/zone-i-of-tear-microdesiccates-is-a-lipid-containing-structure
#6
Felipe Traipe, Leonidas Traipe, Daniela Salinas-Toro, Daniela López, Felipe Valenzuela, Claudio Pérez, Cristian Cartes, Francisca Zuazo, Patricia Varela, Héctor Toledo-Araya, Remigio López-Solís
PURPOSE: Morphological features of tear microdesiccates on glass surfaces have been associated with tear fluid status. Tear-film lipids play a critical role in the pathophysiology of some ocular surface disorders. Tear microdesiccates display 4 distinctive morphological domains (zones I, II, III, and transition band). In this study, we investigated the lipid location in tear microdesiccates. METHODS: Tear from individual healthy eyes (assessed by symptoms, signs, and slit-lamp examination) was collected using absorbing minisponges...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003910/assessment-of-tear-film-quality-among-smokers-using-tear-ferning-patterns
#7
Ali M Masmali, Adil Al-Shehri, Saud A Alanazi, Ali Abusharaha, Raied Fagehi, Gamal A El-Hiti
Purpose. To investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the ocular tear film. Methods. Thirty healthy young male cigarette smokers (20-38 years old) and 30 healthy age matched nonsmokers were enrolled in the study. McMonnies questionnaire, slit lamp, and PRT test were used to screen the subjects. Tear samples were collected from the right eyes and tear ferning patterns were observed and graded. Results. The mean MacMonnies scores and TF grades were significantly higher in the smoker subjects (mean ± SD = 9...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893522/zone-i-of-tear-microdesiccates-is-a-lipid-containing-structure
#8
Felipe Traipe, Leonidas Traipe, Daniela Salinas-Toro, Daniela López, Felipe Valenzuela, Claudio Pérez, Cristian Cartes, Francisca Zuazo, Patricia Varela, Héctor Toledo-Araya, Remigio López-Solís
PURPOSE: Morphological features of tear microdesiccates on glass surfaces have been associated with tear fluid status. Tear-film lipids play a critical role in the pathophysiology of some ocular surface disorders. Tear microdesiccates display 4 distinctive morphological domains (zones I, II, III, and transition band). In this study, we investigated the lipid location in tear microdesiccates. METHODS: Tear from individual healthy eyes (assessed by symptoms, signs, and slit-lamp examination) was collected using absorbing minisponges...
November 23, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255980/progress-in-tear-microdesiccate-analysis-by-combining-various-transmitted-light-microscope-techniques
#9
Felipe Traipe-Salas, Leonidas Traipe-Castro, Daniela Salinas-Toro, Daniela López, Felipe Valenzuela, Christian Cartes, Héctor Toledo-Araya, Claudio Pérez, Remigio López Solís
BACKGROUND: Tear desiccation on a glass surface followed by transmitted-light microscopy has served as diagnostic test for dry eye. Four distinctive morphological domains (zones I, II, III and transition band) have been recently recognized in tear microdesiccates. Physicochemical dissimilarities among those domains hamper comprehensive microscopic examination of tear microdesiccates. Optimal observation conditions of entire tear microdesiccates are now investigated. One-μl aliquots of tear collected from individual healthy eyes were dried at ambient conditions on microscope slides...
June 3, 2016: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26652245/the-relationship-between-tear-ferning-patterns-and-non-invasive-tear-break-up-time-in-normal-asian-population
#10
Sharanjeet-Kaur, Chien Yee Ho, Haliza Abdul Mutalib, Ahmad Rohi Ghazali
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between tear ferning patterns (TFP) and non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) in normal Asian subjects. METHODS: One hundred and forty-five adults with no ocular surface disorders were recruited. TFP and NIBUT were determined. Tears were collected using a capillary tube and allowed to air dry at room temperature for 10min. TFP was later observed using a light microscope and classified according to Rolando's classification...
July 2016: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26057327/stratification-of-tear-components-during-tear-microdesiccation-on-vertical-glass-surfaces-a-novel-approach-in-tear-fluid-assessment
#11
Remigio López-Solís, Daniela Salinas-Toro, Daniela López, Christian Segovia, Katherine Villar, Paz Agüero, Felipe Valenzuela, Leonidas Traipe-Castro
PURPOSE: Tear desiccation on a horizontal glass surface followed by low-resolution light microscopy has been used as an expeditious diagnostic aid to evaluate patients suspected of dry eye. The presence of fern-like crystalloids in the dry specimen is the only feature taken into consideration. We demonstrate that different morphological domains of tear microdesiccates can be separated based on distinctive physicochemical properties. METHODS: Healthy subjects (Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, laboratory tests, and slit-lamp examination) and 74 young adults from a random student population were recruited as volunteer tear donors...
August 2015: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25818834/tear-ferning-test-in-horses-and-its-correlation-with-ocular-surface-evaluation
#12
Laura R Silva, Anderson F Gouveia, Cleyber J T de Fátima, Letícia B Oliveira, Janildo L Reis, Renato F Ferreira, Concepta M Pimentel, Paula D Galera
OBJECTIVE: To describe the tear ferning test (TFT) in healthy horses and its correlation with other parameters for evaluating the ocular surface. ANIMALS STUDIED: Thirty male and female adult healthy horses (60 eyes), of no defined breed. PROCEDURES: Tear sample was collected with a microcapillary tube, placed on the surface of a glass slide, and allowed to dry at room temperature. The crystallization pattern was classified according to Rolando (Chibret International Journal Ophthamology, 1984; 2, 32)...
March 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25603440/repeatability-and-diurnal-variation-of-tear-ferning-test
#13
Ali M Masmali, Jarallah M Al-Bahlal, Gamal A El-Hiti, Saeed Akhtar, Christine Purslow, Paul J Murphy, Turki Almubrad
OBJECTIVES: To investigate tear ferning (TF) test repeatability between sessions by observing changes in the tear fern pattern during the day. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy young adults (15 men and 8 women), ranging in age from 20 to 32 years (mean ± SD: 22.9 ± 3.3 years) without signs or symptoms of dry eye disease, ocular disease, or contact lens wear were enrolled in the study. Schirmer I, tear break-up time (TBUT) test, and McMonnies questionnaire were used to screen volunteers...
September 2015: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25305710/application-of-a-new-grading-scale-for-tear-ferning-in-non-dry-eye-and-dry-eye-subjects
#14
Ali M Masmali, Sultan Al-Qhtani, Talha M Al-Gasham, Gamal A El-Hiti, Christine Purslow, Paul J Murphy
PURPOSE: To apply the Masmali tear ferning (TF) grading scale on non-dry eye (NDE) and dry eye (DE) subjects to test the validity of the grading scale in practice, and to describe the grading scale range for NDE and DE. METHOD: Forty NDE subjects (20 males, 20 females) and 40 DE subjects (23 males, 17 females) ranging in age from 19 to 53 years (mean±SD: 25.3±5.5) with no other ocular disease, no contact lens wear, and not pregnant or breastfeeding were recruited...
February 2015: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25138744/the-tear-ferning-test-a-simple-clinical-technique-to-evaluate-the-ocular-tear-film
#15
REVIEW
Ali M Masmali, Christine Purslow, Paul J Murphy
A healthy tear film is very important for many major functions of the ocular surface. Dry eye disease is a significant clinical problem that needs to be solved but the poor correlation between clinical signs and reported symptoms makes it difficult for the clinician to apply a scientific basis to his clinical management. The problem is compounded by the difficulties of evaluating the tear film due to its transparency, small volume and complex composition. Practical insight into tear film composition would be very useful to the clinician for patient diagnosis and treatment but detailed analysis is restricted to expensive, laboratory-based systems...
September 2014: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25081064/current-approach-to-dry-eye-disease
#16
REVIEW
Valéria Valim, Virginia Fernandes Moça Trevisani, Jacqueline Martins de Sousa, Verônica Silva Vilela, Rubens Belfort
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that causes tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. The prevalence of dry eye in the world population ranges from 6 to 34 %. It is more common in those aged over 50, and affects mainly women. Since the introduction of the Schirmer's test in 1903, other tests have been developed to evaluate dry eye, such as biomicroscopy, the tear film breakup time (BUT), vital dyes (lissamine green and rose bengal), fluorescein, leaf fern test, corneal sensitivity test, conjunctiva impression cytology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and tear osmolarity measurement...
December 2015: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25026954/dynamics-of-tear-fluid-desiccation-on-a-glass-surface-a-contribution-to-tear-quality-assessment
#17
Leonidas Traipe-Castro, Daniela Salinas-Toro, Daniela López, Mario Zanolli, Miguel Srur, Felipe Valenzuela, Aníbal Cáceres, Héctor Toledo-Araya, Remigio López-Solís
BACKGROUND: Fern-like crystalloids form when a microvolume of tear is allowed to dry out at ambient conditions on a glass surface. Presence of crystalloids in tear "microdesiccates" is used to evaluate patients with Dry-Eye disease. This study aims to examine morphologically the desiccation process of normal tear fluid and to identify changes associated with accelerated tear evaporation. Tear microdesiccates from healthy (Non-Dry Eye) and Dry Eye subjects were produced at ambient conditions...
2014: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24814055/development-of-a-new-grading-scale-for-tear-ferning
#18
Ali M Masmali, Paul J Murphy, Christine Purslow
PURPOSE: This paper reports on the development of a new tear ferning (TF) subjective grading scale, and compares it with the Rolando scale. METHOD: TF patterns obtained from tear film samples collected from normal and dry eye subjects in previous studies were collated into a large image library. From this library, 60 images were selected to represent the full range of possible TF patterns, and a further sub-set of 15 images was chosen for analysis. Twenty-five optometrists were asked to rank the images in increasing order between extreme anchors on a scale of TF patterns...
June 2014: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24346079/microdesiccates-produced-from-normal-human-tears-display-four-distinctive-morphological-components
#19
Remigio López Solís, Leonidas Traipe Castro, Daniela Salinas Toro, Miguel Srur, Héctor Toledo Araya
Desiccation of human tears on glass surfaces results in fern-like crystalloids. This phenomenon has been associated with tear normality (Tear Ferning Test, TFT) and is used as a diagnostic aid to evaluate patients with Dry-Eye disease. However, TFT is focused on the assessment of only a minor fraction of desiccated tear samples and considers only the relative abundance and density of fern-like crystalloids. The aim of this study was to characterize morphologically entire desiccated micro volumes of tears from healthy donors...
2013: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23667584/sago-type-palms-were-an-important-plant-food-prior-to-rice-in-southern-subtropical-china
#20
Xiaoyan Yang, Huw J Barton, Zhiwei Wan, Quan Li, Zhikun Ma, Mingqi Li, Dan Zhang, Jun Wei
Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350-2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice...
2013: PloS One
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