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Pedro J Rey, Inmaculada Cancio, Antonio J Manzaneda, Ana González-Robles, Francisco Valera, Teresa Salido, Julio M Alcántara
Global change drivers are currently affecting semiarid ecosystems. Because these ecosystems differ from others in biotic and abiotic filters, cues for plant regeneration and management derived from elsewhere may not be applicable to semiarid ecosystems. We sought to determine the extent to which regional variation in regeneration prospects of a long-lived semiarid keystone shrub depends on anthropogenic habitat degradation, plant-animal interactions and climate determinants. We investigated the regeneration ability (via population size structure, juvenile density and juvenile/adult ratio), fruit set and seed dispersal of Ziziphus lotus in 25 localities spanning the range of its threatened habitats in Spain...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Stefanie Franke, Christine Kalweit, Annelene Frey, Hanna Heddergott, Astrid-Christine Mitschke, Matthias Wehrmeyer, Nina Heinrichs, Christoph Kröger
AIM OF THE STUDY: Coping with psychological trauma plays a central role in victims of acts of violence. The Victim Reparation Law (in German: Opferentschädigungsgesetz, OEG) provides services for the reparation of participation. To further improve the care of the affected persons, the characteristics of the victims were determined in relation to the acts and the perpetrators. METHOD: 312 OEG-files of adult victims were sighted. On the basis of a system of categories, demographic data, trauma specific and health-related characteristics of the victims, relevant characteristics of the perpetrators and the violence, as well as predictors for the time difference between the violent act and the application were determined...
June 22, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Luei Wern Ong, Jeffrey D Dawson, John W Ely
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physicians often accuse their peers of being "black clouds" if they repeatedly have more than the average number of hospital admissions while on call. Our purpose was to determine whether the black-cloud phenomenon is real or explainable by random variation. METHODS: We analyzed hospital admissions to the University of Iowa family medicine service from July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2015. Analyses were stratified by peer group (eg, night shift attending physicians, day shift senior residents)...
June 2018: Family Medicine
Ninja Ritter Klejnstrup, Julie Buhl-Wiggers, Sam Jones, John Rand
Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. It is also a dynamic contributor to poverty through its effects on children's cognitive development. This paper examines the degree to which malaria in early childhood impacts on educational achievement in later childhood. The substantial decline in malaria in the region over recent years allows an assessment of its impact to be made. Focusing on Tanzania, we combine data from the Malaria Atlas Project and the 2010-2014 Uwezo household surveys (N = 246,325)...
2018: PloS One
Maria Michela Gianino, Jacopo Lenzi, Marco Bonaudo, Maria Pia Fantini, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
BACKGROUND: This study analyzes the trajectories of antibiotic consumption using different indicators of patients' socioeconomic status, category and age-group of physicians. METHODS: This study uses a pooled, cross-sectional, time series analysis. The data focus on 22 European countries from 2000 to 2014 and were obtained from the European Center for Disease and Control, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Eurostat and Global Economic Monitor...
2018: PloS One
Hugo Hauraix, Benjamin Goislard de Monsabert, Alexis Herbaut, Eric Berton, Laurent Vigouroux
INTRODUCTION: Because the hand joints possess a broad range of motion, the muscle length can vary importantly which might result in significant variations of the muscle force-generating capacities. However, facing the complexity of this musculoskeletal system, no study has examined the effect of hand muscles length change on muscle force. This study aimed to characterize the force-length relationship of muscles involved in wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) flexion. METHODS: Eleven participants performed two sessions: i) one for the wrist flexor muscles, and ii) one for the finger flexor muscles...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Charles E Matthews, Sarah Kozey Keadle, David Berrigan, John Staudenmayer, Pedro Saint Maurice, Richard P Troiano, Patty S Freedson
PURPOSE: To compare estimates of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) duration derived from accelerometers calibrated only to walking and running activities to estimates from calibrations based on a broader range of lifestyle and ambulatory activities. METHODS: In a study of 932 older (50-74 yrs) adults we compared MVPA estimates from accelerometer counts based on three ambulatory calibration methods (Freedson 1952 counts/min (cpm); Sasaki 2690 cpm; activPAL 3+ METs) to estimates based on calibrations from lifestyle and ambulatory activities combined (Matthews 760 cpm; Crouter 3+ METs; Sojourn3x 3+ METs)...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sumera Afsheen, Musarat Munir, Muhammad Isa Khan, Tahir Iqbal, M Abrar, Muhammad Bilal Tahir, Jalil Ur Rehman, Khalid Nadeem, Mohsin Ijaz, Ghulam Nabi
The current work explores the excitation of surface plasmon polarities on one dimensional (1D) silver nano grating device simulated on glass substrate, which can sense a very small change in refractive index of an analyte adjacent to it. The most recent modeling technique finite element analysis (FEA) is applied in this work by using COMSOL RF module. The models of 1D grating device of different slit widths with fixed periodicity and film thickness are simulated. The data is collected and then used to study higher refractive index unit per nanometer (RIU/nm) as well as effect of slits width on RIU...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
A V Prasolov, A S Kolbin, Yulia E Balykina
OBJECTIVES: To propose an algorithm that relates the effectiveness of drugs for a wide range of diseases with the financial capabilities of patients. METHODS: Estimates of the volume of pharmaceuticals that are consumed in the Russian Federation by all segments of the population regardless of household income were considered. These were calculated using statistically valid probabilities of the appearance of various diseases, official state data on the structure of expenditures of various strata of the population, and the optimal choice of the most effective medicines with income restrictions taken into account...
June 19, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Davy Verheyen, Araceli Bolívar, Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez, Maria Baka, Torstein Skåra, Jan F Van Impe
Traditionally, predictive growth models for food pathogens are developed based on experiments in broth media, resulting in models which do not incorporate the influence of food microstructure. The use of model systems with various microstructures is a promising concept to get more insight into the influence of food microstructure on microbial dynamics. By means of minimal variation of compositional and physicochemical factors, these model systems can be used to study the isolated effect of certain microstructural aspects on microbial growth, survival and inactivation...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Gonca Bektaş, Gözde Yeşil, Melis Ulak Özkan, Edibe Pembegül Yıldız, Tuğçe Aksu Uzunhan, Mine Çalışkan
BACKGROUND: Vanishing white matter disease is a heterogeneous disorder caused by mutation in one of the five genes encoding subunits of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2B. It is a heterogeneous disorder due to phenotypic variation and a clear genotype-phenotype correlation could not be established so far. We describe a novel mutation in the EIF2B5 gene by analyzing the clinical phenotype and the progression of brain lesions for 10 years. CASE: A novel mutation in the EIF2B5 gene was detected in the heterozygous state; c...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Daína Lima, Flávia Lucena Zacchi, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Fabrício Flores-Nunes, Carlos Henrique Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Álvaro Cavaler Pessoa de Mello, Marília Nardelli Siebert, Clei Endrigo Piazza, Satie Taniguchi, Silvio Tarou Sasaki, Márcia Caruso Bícego, Maria João Bebianno, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Exposure of aquatic organisms to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), such as phenanthrene (PHE), may increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause changes in the biotransformation systems. In addition, changes in water temperature can cause adverse effects in the organisms. Estuarine species, like the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, can adapt and tolerate temperature variation. To evaluate the influence of temperature on biological responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were maintained at three temperatures (18, 24 and 32 °C) for 15 days and co-exposed afterwards to 100 μg...
June 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Philipp Kanzow, Annette Wiegand, Nairn H F Wilson, Christopher D Lynch, Igor R Blum
OBJECTIVES: To identify potential changes in various aspects of teaching and to ascertain whether previously found inconsistencies in the teaching of criteria, indications and operative techniques for the repair of defective composite restorations at German dental schools have been resolved. METHODS: A validated questionnaire was used to gain the information sought. It was sent to all dental schools in Germany (n = 30). Whenever possible, data were compared to previous studies conducted in 2000 and 2009...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Chun-Wen Su, Ming-Hsien Chien, Chiao-Wen Lin, Mu-Kuan Chen, Jyh-Ming Chow, Chun-Yi Chuang, Chia-Hsuan Chou, Yu-Cheng Liu, Shun-Fa Yang
Oral cancer is a major head and neck cancer that is reported to be causally associated with genetic factors and environmental carcinogens. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was reported to modulate carcinogenesis and progression through nitric oxide (NO) production. Genetic polymorphisms in the eNOS gene can regulate its transcription and further mediate NO production. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of eNOS gene polymorphisms combined with environmental carcinogens on the predisposition for oral cancer...
June 19, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Ryan G Price, Smith Apisarnthanarax, Stephanie K Schaub, Matthew J Nyflot, Tobias R Chapman, Manuela Matesan, Hubert J Vesselle, Stephen R Bowen
We report on patient-specific quantitative changes in longitudinal sulfur colloid SPECT/CT as a function of regional radiation dose distributions to normal liver in a cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Dose-response thresholds and slopes varied with baseline liver function metrics, and extreme values were found in patients with fatal hepatotoxicity. Dose-response modeling of normal liver in individual HCC patients has potential to characterize in vivo radiosensitivity, identify high risk subgroups, and personalize treatment planning dose constraints...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
P Brandon Matheny, Rachel A Swenie
The Inocybe geophylla group is circumscribed based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences largely sampled from North America and Europe. Twenty-nine phylogenetic species are uncovered after analysis of combined nuc 28S rDNA (28S) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) DNA sequence data. Species in the I. geophylla group share the presence of a cortina, silky-fibrillose pileus and stipe, pruinose stipe apex, spermatic odor, thick-walled hymenial cystidia, and smooth amygdaliform or elliptical basidiospores...
April 30, 2018: Mycologia
Nicholas B Larson, Chen Wang, Jie Na, Ross A Rowsey, William Edward Highsmith, Nicole L Hoppman, Jean-Pierre Kocher, Eric W Klee
The recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled the development of effective high-throughput noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) assays for fetal genetic abnormalities using maternal circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). An important NIPS quality assurance is quantifying the fetal proportion of the sampled ccfDNA. For methods using allelic read count ratios from targeted sequencing of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), systematic biases and errors may reduce accuracy and diminish assay performance...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Sufi Zafar, Christopher D'Emic, Ashish Jagtiani, Ernst Kratschmer, Xin Miao, Yu Zhu, Renee Mo, Norma Sosa, Hendrik F Hamann, Ghavam Shahidi, Heike Riel
Silicon nanowire field effect transistor (FET) sensors have demonstrated their ability for rapid and label free detection of proteins, nucleotide sequences, and viruses at ultralow concentrations with the potential to be a transformative diagnostic technology. Their nanoscale size gives them their unique ultralow detection ability but also makes their fabrication challenging with large sensor to sensor variations, thus limiting their commercial applications. In this work, a combined approach of nanofabrication, device simulation, materials and electrical characterization is applied towards identifying and improving fabrication steps that induce sensor to sensor variations...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Alberto Coccarelli, Hayder Hasan, Jason Carson, Dimitris Parthimos, Perumal Nithiarasu
Ageing plays a fundamental role in arterial blood transport and heat transfer within a human body. The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive methodology, based on biomechanical considerations, for modelling arterial flow and energy exchange mechanisms in the body accounting for age-induced changes. The study outlines a framework for age-related modifications within several interlinked subsystems, which include: arterial stiffening, heart contractility variations, tissue volume and property changes, and thermoregulatory system deterioration...
June 22, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
D Luo, X Ma, J Bai, Z Zhou, F Wang, A Wang, J Wang
Timidity in dogs is a trait with high heritability. However, the relevant genetic factors and markers associated with this condition are largely unknown. The function of the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene has been found to be associated with human fearful or anxious emotions, and the COMT:p.Val158Met polymorphism locus is significantly related to anxious behavior. In the present study, the correlation between timidity and four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations (C.-1666C>G c.39A>G, c...
June 22, 2018: Animal Genetics
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