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Anatomic variations

Ana González-Castillo, Santiago Rojas, Marisa Ortega, Alfonso Rodríguez-Baeza
PURPOSE: Situs inversus totalis is mirror transposition of thoracic and abdominal organs. Very few reports have been published on anatomic dissections of cadavers with this condition. METHODS: This work describes a case of situs inversus totalis identified during the anatomical dissection of a 91-year-old woman. RESULTS: Thoracic and abdominal viscera were inverted, but otherwise normal. The aorta originated from the right ventricle, which exhibited characteristics of the systemic ventricle...
June 21, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Joshua G Davimes, Nicholas Bacci, Pedzisai Mazengenya
The sternalis muscle is an infrequent, non-pathological anatomical variant typically misrepresented in a clinical context. It presents with 3-8% prevalence, according to cadaveric studies. The muscles were identified during routine cadaver prosection at the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand. Here, we report two cases of the sternalis muscle in two South African White cadavers. Analysis of the sternalis muscles revealed unilaterally present, distinctly defined muscle masses on the right (case number 1, female) and left (case number 2, male) hemithorax, lateral to the sternum...
June 21, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
K N Manjunath, M S Venkatesh, Ashwini Shivaprasad
Background: Reconstruction of the popliteal region has limited option in terms of muscle flaps or myocutaneous flaps. Gastrocnemius muscle or the myocutaneous flaps are the option for majority of cases. However, reach of Gastrocnemius is limited if the wound is on the distal one-third thigh or the lateral aspect of knee region. Similarly, if the wound injures the muscle, then coverage becomes all the more difficult. Although inferiorly based fasciocutaneous flaps can cover the wound in case of bony injuries, muscle flaps are beneficial as they help in fracture healing...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
M R Kuznetsov, I V Reshetov, L A Magnitskiĭ, Vasiliev V, I P Marchenko, A D Matveev, A A Lugovoĭ, M S Tverskaia
Knowledge of anatomical variations of the division of the popliteal artery and specific lesions of the arterial segment involved is necessary for the surgeon, traumatologist-orthopaedist, vascular surgeon. The article contains a review of recent literature data on the prevalence of different variants of branching patterns of the arteries of the crus, also providing a detailed discussion of embryological development of the arterial system of the lower extremities, in many ways explaining the appearance of rare pathologies of the popliteal artery, such as for example popliteal artery entrapment syndrome...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Guillermo E Artero, Marina Ulla, Peter C Neligan, Claudio H Angrigiani
Background: Anterolateral thigh flap has gained popularity for its use as a soft-tissue flap for reconstruction of regional and distal defects. There is discrepancy between the predominant skin vessels-musculocutaneous or septocutaneous. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate anatomic variation of bilateral anterolateral thigh flap vasculature in the same individual. Methods: We performed an observational retrospective case series study in 11 patients and an observational prospective study in 7 cadavers to confirm our findings...
May 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Nicholas A Levine, Brandon R Rigby
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) describes a group of disorders that are due to a dynamic compression of blood vessels or nerves, between the clavicle and first rib or cervical vertebral nerve roots. Individuals with TOS typically experience upper limb pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness that is exacerbated by shoulder or neck movement. The causes of TOS vary, and can include abrupt movements, hypertrophy of the neck musculature, and anatomical variations in which the brachial plexus roots pass through this musculature, edema, pregnancy, repeated overhead motions, the blockage of an artery or vein, or abnormal posture...
June 19, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Panagiotis Papadimitroulas, William D Erwin, Vasiliki Iliadou, Theodora Kostou, George Loudos, George C Kagadis
PURPOSE: Herein, we introduce a methodology for estimating the absorbed dose in organs at risk that is based on specified clinically derived radiopharmaceutical biodistributions and personalized anatomical characteristics. METHODS: To evaluate the proposed methodology, we used realistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and computational pediatric models to calculate a parameter called in this work the "specific absorbed dose rate" (SADR). The SADR is a unique quantitative metric in that it is specific to a particular organ...
June 19, 2018: Medical Physics
Mackenzie M Shipley, Daniel W Renner, Mariliis Ott, David C Bloom, David M Koelle, Christine Johnston, Moriah L Szpara
Here we present genomic and in vitro analyses of temporally separated episodes of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) shedding by an HSV-1-seropositive and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HSV-2-seronegative individual who has frequent recurrences of genital HSV-1. Using oligonucleotide enrichment, we compared viral genomes from uncultured swab specimens collected on different days and from distinct genital sites. We found that viral genomes from 7 swab specimens and 3 cultured specimens collected over a 4-month period from the same individual were 98...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Irene Sintini, William S Burton, Paul Sade, Jason M Chavarria, Peter J Laz
Morphological variability in the shoulder influences the joint biomechanics and is an important consideration in arthroplasty and implant design. The objectives of this study were to quantify cortical and cancellous proximal humeral morphology and to assess whether shape variation was influenced by gender and ethnicity, with the overarching goal of informing implant design and treatment. A statistical shape model of the proximal humeral cortical and cancellous regions was developed for a training set of 84 subjects of both genders and different ethnicities...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Ricardo Chmelnitsky Wainberg, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Yair A Ugalde Hernández, Ricardo Lourenço Caramanti, César Augusto Ferreira Alves Filho, Helbert Palmiero, Ricardo Pagung Saick, Feres Chaddad-Neto
The distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is a rare site of aneurysm formation. Only small case series and case reports regarding surgical treatment are found in the literature.The PICA is divided into 5 segments (anterior medullary, lateral medullary, tonsilomedullary, telovelotonsillary, and cortical), and the distal ones represent the most complex, due to anatomic variations. We present a case of a 69-yr-old female patient who has suffered from a sudden and intense occipital headache, associated with nausea and vomiting...
June 18, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Jean-Baptiste Cazauran, Lucas Pâris, Pascal Rousset, Frédéric Mercier, Vahan Kepenekian, Anthony Viste, Guillaume Passot
BACKGROUND: Surgery remains the gold standard both for delimited hepatocellular carcinoma by selective anatomic liver segentectomy and for colorectal liver metastases by parenchymal sparing liver resection. Right anterior sector (RAS) (segments V-VIII; Couinaud) is the largest and most difficult sector to operate on. A better knowledge of its segmentation could prevent postoperative remnant liver ischemia and its impacts on patient's survival. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for papers on anatomy and surgery of the right anterior sector...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Yong Tae Hong, Ki Hwan Hong
The non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (NRLN) represents a risk factor for nerve injury during thyroid surgery. The aim of this study is to investigate the traveling patterns of NRLNs and its relationships to inferior thyroid arteries (ITAs). We had 11 patients showing NRLNs on the right side who underwent thyroidectomies. The NRLNs were classified into four different types, according to the traveling patterns. We evaluated the anatomical position of the ITA as follows: (1) three types according to the joint location with the thyroid gland; and (2) three types according to the level of the retro-esophageal subclavian artery (RSA)...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Surgery
E Perdikakis, I Fezoulidis, V Tzortzis, C Rountas
PURPOSE: To present anatomical variations of left internal spermatic vein and a comparison between treatments with hydrogel-coated and non-coated platinum coils in patients with varicocele. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 153 men (mean age, 27.5±6.7 [SD] years; range: 18-45 years) with left sided varicocele underwent coil embolization. Anatomic variants of gonadal vein were categorized into five subtypes (I-V). Additional venous collaterals were also recorded...
June 14, 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
R Larrainzar-Garijo, C Cifuentes de la Portilla, B Gutiérrez-Narvarte, E Díez-Nicolás, J Bayod
Medializing calcaneal osteotomy forms part of the treatment options for adult acquired flat foot. The structural correction that is achieved is widely known. However, the effect of this procedure on the soft tissues that support the plantar arch has been little studied, since it is not possible to quantify experimentally the tension and deformation variations generated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of medializing calcaneal osteotomy on the soft tissue that supports the plantar arch, using a computational model of the human foot designed with a clinical approach...
June 12, 2018: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
Shahrzad Sharafi, Khashayar Farsad
May Thurner syndrome (MTS) is an anatomic variant that can present as acute or chronic deep vein thrombosis. Although it is classically reported in young and middle-aged women, it is also seen in both young and older men. Multiple cases of anatomic variations of MTS have been described. We present an uncommon case of variant MTS, including diagnostic imaging and approach to treatment.
April 2018: Radiology case reports
Aaron Shield, Richard P Meier
The parts of the body that are used to produce and perceive signed languages (the hands, face, and visual system) differ from those used to produce and perceive spoken languages (the vocal tract and auditory system). In this paper we address two factors that have important consequences for sign language acquisition. First, there are three types of lexical signs: one-handed, two-handed symmetrical, and two-handed asymmetrical. Natural variation in hand dominance in the population leads to varied input to children learning sign...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Shundong Bi, Xiaoting Zheng, Xiaoli Wang, Natalie E Cignetti, Shiling Yang, John R Wible
Molecular estimates of the divergence of placental and marsupial mammals and their broader clades (Eutheria and Metatheria, respectively) fall primarily in the Jurassic period. Supporting these estimates, Juramaia-the oldest purported eutherian-is from the early Late Jurassic (160 million years ago) of northeastern China. Sinodelphys-the oldest purported metatherian-is from the same geographic area but is 35 million years younger, from the Jehol biota. Here we report a new Jehol eutherian, Ambolestes zhoui, with a nearly complete skeleton that preserves anatomical details that are unknown from contemporaneous mammals, including the ectotympanic and hyoid apparatus...
June 13, 2018: Nature
Marcin Zadworny, Louise H Comas, David M Eissenstat
Background and Aims: Understanding root traits and their trade-off with other plant processes is important for understanding plant functioning in natural ecosystems as well as agricultural systems. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between root morphology and the hydraulic characteristics of several orders of fine roots (<2 mm) for species differing in shade tolerance (low, moderate and high). Methods: The morphological, anatomical and hydraulic traits across five distal root orders were measured in species with different levels of shade tolerance and life history strategies...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
N Jufas, A Rubini, D Soloperto, M Alnoury, M Tarabichi, D Marchioni, N Patel
OBJECTIVES: An anatomical study was performed to describe the endoscopic anatomy and variations of the protympanum, including classification of the protiniculum and subtensor recess. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of video recordings of cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures, which included visualisation of the protympanum, across 4 tertiary university referral centres over a 16-month period. A total of 97 ears were used in the analysis. RESULTS: A quadrangular conformation of the protympanum was seen in 60 per cent of ears and a triangular conformation in 40 per cent...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Meg F Bobo, Shunxing Bao, Yuankai Huo, Yuang Yao, Jack Virostko, Andrew J Plassard, Ilwoo Lyu, Albert Assad, Richard G Abramson, Melissa A Hilmes, Bennett A Landman
Abdominal image segmentation is a challenging, yet important clinical problem. Variations in body size, position, and relative organ positions greatly complicate the segmentation process. Historically, multi-atlas methods have achieved leading results across imaging modalities and anatomical targets. However, deep learning is rapidly overtaking classical approaches for image segmentation. Recently, Zhou et al. showed that fully convolutional networks produce excellent results in abdominal organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
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