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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034075/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-12-persons-with-aniridia
#1
Madison K Grant, Anastasia M Bobilev, Jordan E Pierce, Jon DeWitte, James D Lauderdale
Background: Aniridia is a disorder predominately caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the PAX6 gene, which is a transcriptional regulator necessary for normal eye and brain development.  The ocular abnormalities of aniridia have been well characterized, but mounting evidence has implicated brain-related phenotypes as a prominent feature of this disorder as well.  Investigations using neuroimaging in aniridia patients have shown reductions in discrete brain structures and changes in global grey and white matter...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032864/dietary-variation-and-mechanical-properties-of-articular-cartilage-in-the-temporomandibular-joint-implications-for-the-role-of-plasticity-in-mechanobiology-and-pathobiology
#2
Matthew J Ravosa, Robert J Kane
Due to their nature as tissue composites, skeletal joints pose an additional challenge in terms of evaluating the functional significance of morphological variation in their bony and cartilaginous components in response to altered loading conditions. Arguably, this complexity requires more direct means of investigating joint plasticity and performance than typically employed to analyze macro- and micro-anatomical phenomena. To address a significant gap in our understanding of the plasticity of the mammalian temporomandibular joint (TMJ), we investigated the histology and mechanical properties of condylar articular cartilage in rabbits subjected to long-term variation in diet-induced masticatory stresses, specifically cyclical loading...
August 25, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032825/line-1-retrotransposon-mediated-dna-transductions-in-endometriosis-associated-ovarian-cancers
#3
Zhouchunyang Xia, Dawn R Cochrane, Michael S Anglesio, Yi Kan Wang, Tayyebeh Nazeran, Basile Tessier-Cloutier, Melissa K McConechy, Janine Senz, Amy Lum, Ali Bashashati, Sohrab P Shah, David G Huntsman
OBJECTIVE: Endometrioid (ENOC) and clear cell ovarian carcinoma (CCOC) share a common precursor lesion, endometriosis, hence the designation endometriosis associated ovarian cancers (EAOC). Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1 or L1), is a family of mobile genetic elements activated in many cancers capable of moving neighboring DNA through 3' transductions. Here we investigated the involvement of specific L1-mediated transductions in EAOCs. METHODS: Through whole genome sequencing, we identified active L1-mediated transductions originating within the TTC28 gene in 34% (10/29) of ENOC and 31% (11/35) of CCOC cases...
October 9, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032071/comparing-intestinal-versus-diffuse-gastric-cancer-using-a-peff-oriented-proteomic-pipeline
#4
Helisa Helena Wippel, Marlon Dias Mariano Santos, Milan Avila Clasen, Louise Ulrich Kurt, Fabio Cesar Sousa Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Carvalho, Thaís Messias McCormick, Guilherme Pinto Bravo Neto, Lysangela Ronalte Alves, Maria da Gloria da Costa Carvalho, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Juliana de Saldanha da Gama Fischer
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignant neoplasia and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Mac-Cormick et al. recently showed the importance of considering the anatomical region of the tumor in proteomic gastric cancer studies; more differences were found between distinct anatomical regions than when comparing healthy versus diseased tissue. Thus, failing to consider the anatomical region could lead to differential proteins that are not disease specific. With this as motivation, we compared the proteomic profiles of intestinal and diffuse adenocarcinoma from the same anatomical region, the corpus...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029358/topographical-variations-between-splenic-flexure-and-spleen-a-study-with-ct-image-based-reconstruction
#5
Matteo Lavazza, Stefano Rausei, Vincenzo Pappalardo, Davide Inversini, Monica Mangini, Anna Maria Ierardi, Angkoon Anuwong, Hoon Yub Kim, Gianpaolo Carrafiello, Gianlorenzo Dionigi
INTRODUCTION: An issue that is seldom seen in the literature relates the detailed relationship of the splenic flexure (SF) and the spleen-both carefully examined-with a prospective approach in patients undergoing computer tomography (CT) scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SF localization has been searched and examined in 120 consecutive CT scans. Several different variables (age, gender, BMI, indication of CT scan, etc.) have been considered. In cooperation with the Radiology Division, we brought to completion a dedicated topographic outline, with the purpose of providing a detailed classification for SF localization...
October 12, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027689/oral-mucosa-model-for-electrochemotherapy-treatment-of-dog-mouth-cancer-ex-vivo-in-silico-and-in-vivo-experiments
#6
Daniela O H Suzuki, José A Berkenbrock, Marisa J S Frederico, Fátima R M B Silva, Marcelo M M Rangel
Electrochemotherapy (EQT) is a local cancer treatment well established to cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors. Electric fields are applied to biological tissue in order to improve membrane permeability for cytotoxic drugs. This phenomenon is called electroporation or electropermeabilization. Studies have reported that tissue conductivity is electric field dependent. Electroporation numerical models of biological tissues are essential in treatment planning. Tumors of the mouth are very common in dogs. Inadequate EQT treatment of oral tumor may be caused by significant anatomic variations between dogs and tumor position...
October 13, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027586/computational-simulation-study-on-ilio-sacral-screw-fixations-for-pelvic-ring-injuries-and-implications-in-asian-sacrum
#7
Chang-Soo Chon, Jin-Hoon Jeong, Bokku Kang, Han Sung Kim, Gu-Hee Jung
OBJECTIVES: Despite a high possibility of technique-related complications, ilio-sacral (IS) screw fixation is the mainstay of operative management in posterior pelvic ring injuries. We aimed to make IS screw trajectory with fully intraosseous path that was optimal and consistent, and confirm the possibility of transiliac-transsacral (TITS) screw fixation in Asian sacrum. METHODS: Eighty-two cadaveric sacra (42 males and 40 females) were enrolled and underwent continuous 1...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027198/shape-analysis-of-spatial-relationships-between-orbito-ocular-and-endocranial-structures-in-modern-humans-and-fossil-hominids
#8
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, Michael Masters, Emiliano Bruner
The orbits and eyes of modern humans are situated directly below the frontal lobes and anterior to the temporal lobes. Contiguity between these orbital and cerebral elements could generate spatial constraints, and potentially lead to deformation of the eye and reduced visual acuity during development. In this shape analysis we evaluate whether and to what extent covariation exists between ocular morphology and the size and spatial position of the frontal and temporal areas in adult modern humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate patterns of variation among the brain and eyes, while computed tomography (CT) was used to compare cranial morphology in this anatomical region among modern humans, extinct hominids and chimpanzees...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027087/the-effect-of-using-a-dielectric-matching-medium-in-focused-microwave-radiometry-an-anatomically-detailed-head-model-study
#9
Maria Koutsoupidou, Evangelos Groumpas, Irene S Karanasiou, Maria Christopoulou, Konstantina Nikita, Nikolaos Uzunoglu
Microwave radiometry is a passive technique used to measure in-depth temperature distributions inside the human body, potentially useful in clinical applications. Experimental data imply that it may provide the capability of detecting in-depth local variations of temperature and/or conductivity of excitable tissues at microwave frequencies. Specifically, microwave radiometry may allow the real-time monitoring of brain temperature and/or conductivity changes, associated with local brain activation. In this paper, recent results of our ongoing research regarding the capabilities of focused microwave radiometry for brain intracranial applications are presented...
October 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026818/variations-in-the-anatomical-structures-of-the-guyon-canal
#10
Zahir T Fadel, Osama A Samargandi, David T Tang
BACKGROUND: Compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon canal is commonly seen by hand surgeons. Different anatomical variations of structures related to the Guyon canal have been reported in the literature. A thorough knowledge of the normal contents and possible variations is essential during surgery and exploration. OBJECTIVES: To review the recognized anatomical variations within and around the Guyon canal. METHODS: This study is a narrative review in which relevant papers, clinical studies, and anatomical studies were selected by searching electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE)...
May 2017: Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024263/field-distribution-of-transcranial-static-magnetic-stimulation-in-realistic-human-head-model
#11
Joseph J Tharayil, Stefan M Goetz, John M Bernabei, Angel V Peterchev
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to characterize the magnetic field (B-field) that arises in a human brain model from the application of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The spatial distribution of the B-field magnitude and gradient of a cylindrical, 5.08 cm × 2.54 cm NdFeB magnet were simulated in air and in a human head model using the finite element method and calibrated with measurements in air. The B-field was simulated for magnet placements over prefrontal, motor, sensory, and visual cortex targets...
October 10, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024099/intrathyroidal-carotid-artery-and-nonrecurring-right-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-a-case-report
#12
Aaron Baker, Elizabeth E Cottrill, Olivia Munizza, Kathryn McGillen, Tyler McKinnon, David Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: When performing thyroidectomy, knowledge of normal anatomy and variants is vital to avoid injuring nearby structures. Typically, the bilateral carotids course posterolateral to the thyroid gland. We describe a rare variant of an intrathyroidal carotid artery, not previously described in the literature. METHODS: A 23-year-old woman with a strong family history of thyroid cancer presented with a left thyroid nodule, and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealing papillary thyroid carcinoma...
October 11, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023640/further-consideration-of-the-curvature-of-the-neandertal-femur
#13
Tara Chapman, Victor Sholukha, Patrick Semal, Stéphane Louryan, Serge Van Sint Jan
OBJECTIVES: Neandertal femora are particularly known for having a marked sagittal femoral curvature. This study examined femoral curvature in Neandertals in comparison to a modern human population from Belgium by the use of three-dimensional (3D) quadric surfaces modeled from the bone surface. 3D models provide detailed information and enabled femoral curvature to be analyzed in conjunction with other morphological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D models were created from CT scans of 75 modern human femora and 7 Neandertal femora...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023619/the-sinus-membrane-maxillary-lateral-wall-complex-histologic-description-and-clinical-implications-for-maxillary-sinus-floor-elevation
#14
Angel Insua, Alberto Monje, Istvan Urban, Laura G Kruger, Carlos Garaicoa-Pazmiño, James V Sugai, Hom-Lay Wang
Maxillary sinus floor elevation has been documented as a safe and predictable procedure for gaining vertical bone height in the atrophic posterior maxillae. Conversely, there is a lack of basic research on the characteristics of the union between the sinus membrane (SM) and the bone. Clinical implications of an impaired union in healthy or pathologic membranes remain unknown. The objective of this study was to present a comprehensive histologic and morphologic description of the sinus membrane-lateral bone wall complex...
November 2017: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021927/split-femoral-nerve-due-to-psoas-tertius-muscle-a-review-with-other-cases-of-variant-muscles-traversing-the-femoral-nerve
#15
Shehzad Khalid, Joe Iwanaga, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
Leg pain from lumbar disc herniation is a common presentation. However, certain muscular and peripheral nerve variants may present similarly and represent an unrecognized etiology of femoral nerve dysfunction. Such cases might affect the outcome of specific treatment regimes. Therefore, recognition of these variations in anatomy may be useful to the clinician when treating the patient with medically refractory lower limb pain. Some reports have reported variant slips of the psoas and iliacus muscles, which may split the femoral nerve causing a potential risk for nerve entrapment...
August 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021678/surgical-planning-for-cervical-deformity-based-on-a-3d-model
#16
Juan Barges-Coll, Iulia Peciu-Florianu, Sébastien Martiniere, John Michael Duff
The treatment of fixed cervical deformity is complex, but the principles guiding its correction remain the same as in deformity of other spinal regions, with the goal of deformity correction that results in a solid fusion with adequate decompression of the neural elements. In these challenging cases, osteotomies are necessary to mobilize the rigid spine and to obtain the desired correction, but they can be associated with increased risk of complications. Therefore, careful preoperative planning and a complete understanding of the anatomic variations allow patient-tailored approaches with and case specific techniques for the optimal and safe treatment of a variety of complex cervical deformities...
July 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021172/genital-interactions-during-simulated-copulation-among-marine-mammals
#17
Dara N Orbach, Diane A Kelly, Mauricio Solano, Patricia L R Brennan
Genitalia are morphologically variable across many taxa and in physical contact during intromission, but little is known about how variation in form correlates with function during copulation. Marine mammals offer important insights into the evolutionary forces that act on genital morphology because they have diverse genitalia and are adapted to aquatic living and mating. Cetaceans have a fibroelastic penis and muscular vaginal folds, while pinnipeds have a baculum and lack vaginal folds. We examined copulatory fit in naturally deceased marine mammals to identify anatomical landmarks in contact during copulation and the potential depth of penile penetration into the vagina...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018631/multi-parameter-ensemble-learning-for-automated-vertebral-body-segmentation-in-heterogeneously-acquired-clinical-mr-images
#18
Bilwaj Gaonkar, Yihao Xia, Diane S Villaroman, Allison Ko, Mark Attiah, Joel S Beckett, Luke Macyszyn
The development of quantitative imaging biomarkers in medicine requires automatic delineation of relevant anatomical structures using available imaging data. However, this task is complicated in clinical medicine due to the variation in scanning parameters and protocols, even within a single medical center. Existing literature on automatic image segmentation using MR data is based on the analysis of highly homogenous images obtained using a fixed set of pulse sequence parameters (TR/TE). Unfortunately, algorithms that operate on fixed scanning parameters do not avail themselves to real-world daily clinical use due to the existing variation in scanning parameters and protocols...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017734/anatomy-of-the-vasculature-of-the-lower-leg-and-harvest-of-a-fibular-flap-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
A K Abou-Foul, A Fasanmade, S Prabhu, F Borumandi
The fibular free flap (FFF) is based on the peroneal artery, which has a consistent anatomy and makes a minimal contribution to the pedal circulation. However, certain anatomical variations in the vasculature of the leg might leave the peroneal artery with a major role in the perfusion of the foot, and to raise a FFF could lead to ischaemic complications. Our aim was to review the implications of anatomical variants on planning and harvest of a FFF. We systematically reviewed all relevant publications, and included 28 cases that described a dominant peroneal artery and FFF...
October 7, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992130/stomatal-conductance-mesophyll-conductance-and-transpiration-efficiency-in-relation-to-leaf-anatomy-in-rice-and-wheat-genotypes-under-drought
#20
Wenjing Ouyang, Paul C Struik, Xinyou Yin, Jianchang Yang
Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance (gm) and their anatomical determinants were evaluated in two cultivars from each of lowland, aerobic, and upland groups of Oryza sativa, one cultivar of O. glaberrima, and two cultivars of T. aestivum, under three water regimes. The TE of upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat was more responsive to the gm/gs ratio than that of lowland and aerobic rice...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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