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Anatomic variations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675649/an-easier-lichtenstein-hernioplasty
#1
L Zogbi
BACKGROUND: The Lichtenstein technique is used worldwide because of its rapid learning curve, good results and low recurrence rates. In this approach, a lateral tie-shaped incision is made on the mesh, involving the spermatic funiculus and thus correcting the deep inguinal ring defect by narrowing it. The lateral tie, however, does not prevent the wrinkling of the upper portion of the mesh that is caused by the arched shape of the inguinal ligament, where the lower edge of the prosthesis is sutured...
April 19, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673485/functional-brain-networks-are-dominated-by-stable-group-and-individual-factors-not-cognitive-or-daily-variation
#2
Caterina Gratton, Timothy O Laumann, Ashley N Nielsen, Deanna J Greene, Evan M Gordon, Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Rebecca S Coalson, Abraham Z Snyder, Bradley L Schlaggar, Nico U F Dosenbach, Steven E Petersen
The organization of human brain networks can be measured by capturing correlated brain activity with fMRI. There is considerable interest in understanding how brain networks vary across individuals or neuropsychiatric populations or are altered during the performance of specific behaviors. However, the plausibility and validity of such measurements is dependent on the extent to which functional networks are stable over time or are state dependent. We analyzed data from nine high-quality, highly sampled individuals to parse the magnitude and anatomical distribution of network variability across subjects, sessions, and tasks...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673051/strategies-of-leaf-water-uptake-based-on-anatomical-traits
#3
Daniela Boanares, Rosy Mary Dos Santos Isaias, Hildeberto Caldas de Sousa, Alessandra Rodrigues Kozovits
- The ability of leaves to absorb fog water can positively contribute to the water and carbon balance of plants in montane ecosystems, especially in periods of soil water deficit. However, the ecophysiological traits and mechanisms responsible for variations in the speed and total water absorption capacity of leaves are still poorly known. - This study investigated leaf anatomical attributes of seven species occurring in seasonal tropical high-altitude ecosystems (rocky outcrop and forest), which could explain differences in leaf water uptake (LWU) capacities...
April 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670577/anatomical-variation-of-age-related-changes-in-vertebral-bone-marrow-composition-using-chemical-shift-encoding-based-water-fat-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Thomas Baum, Alexander Rohrmeier, Jan Syväri, Maximilian N Diefenbach, Daniela Franz, Michael Dieckmeyer, Andreas Scharr, Hans Hauner, Stefan Ruschke, Jan S Kirschke, Dimitrios C Karampinos
Assessment of vertebral bone marrow composition has been proposed as imaging biomarker for osteoporosis, hematopoietic, and metabolic disorders. We investigated the anatomical variation of age-related changes of vertebral proton density fat fraction (PDFF) using chemical shift encoding-based water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 156 healthy subjects were recruited (age range 20-29 years: 12/30 males/females; 30-39: 15/9; 40-49: 4/14; 50-59: 9/27; 60-69: 5/19; 70-79: 4/8). An eight-echo 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3T MRI was used for chemical shift-encoding based water-fat separation at the lumbar spine...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669770/accidental-and-potentially-life-threatening-finding-pulsatile-mass-of-the-hypopharynx
#5
Joana Maria Soares Ferreira, Edite Coimbra, António Faria Almeida, Artur Condé
Anatomical variations of the cervical part of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are not rare in the general population. They are usually asymptomatic and more common in the elderly. We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian woman who was referred to our department due to chronic cough. We performed a flexible nasofibrolaryngoscopy that demonstrated the presence of a pulsatile mass in the hypopharynx. After performing a cervical contrast-enhanced CT, the mass turned out to be an aberrant variation of the cervical part of the ICA...
April 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667933/a-cbct-study-of-the-gravity-induced-movement-in-rotating-rabbits
#6
Jeffrey Barber, Chun-Chien Shieh, William Counter, Jonathan R Sykes, Peter Bennett, Verity Ahern, Stéphanie Corde, Soo-Min Heng, Paul White, Michael Jackson, Paul Liu, Paul J Keall, Ilana Feain
Fixed-beam radiotherapy systems with subjects rotating about a longitudinal (horizontal) axis are subject to gravity-induced motion. Limited reports on the degree of this motion, and any deformation, has been reported previously. The purpose of this study is to quantify the degree of anatomical motion caused by rotating a subject around a longitudinal axis, using cone-beam CT (CBCT). 
 
 In the current study, a purpose-made longitudinal rotating was aligned to a Varian TrueBeam kV imaging system...
April 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667029/congenital-absence-of-the-internal-carotid-artery-with-a-persistent-primitive-trigeminal-artery-as-a-collateral-pathway-a-report-of-an-anatomic-variation
#7
Dasom Kim, Jin Wook Baek, Young Jin Heo, Hae Woong Jeong
Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is rare, and patients with such a condition are often asymptomatic throughout their lifetime, because of sufficient collateral circulation. Collateral flow is provided via various channels; however, the role of persistent embryonic vessels under conditions in which the ICA is absent or occluded is unknown. We report a rare case of congenital absence of the left ICA and describe the collateral pathway consisting of a persistent trigeminal artery.
April 17, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665605/-shoulder-arthroplasty
#8
Anna Krukenberg, Jan-Philipp Imiolczyk, Philipp Moroder, Markus Scheibel
Shoulder arthroplasty has been performed increasingly during the last years. The concept of modern anatomic shoulder arthroplasty is based on C. S. Neer's first shoulder prosthesis in the 1950s which was originally designed for the treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus. Since then, this monoblock prosthesis has undergone many changes and improvements. By now, an anatomic reconstruction of the joint is possible. Hence, the indications for anatomic shoulder arthroplasty have been added amongst others by osteoarthritis, necrosis, rheumatoid arthritis or posttraumatic arthritis...
April 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665510/leaf-physiological-and-anatomical-responses-of-lantana-and-ligustrum-species-under-different-water-availability
#9
Stefania Toscano, Antonio Ferrante, Alessandro Tribulato, Daniela Romano
Understanding the plant characteristics that support tolerance to water stress is important in choosing plants in arid or semi-arid environments, such as the Mediterranean. In particular, leaf characteristics can affect the response of plants to water stress. In order to understand how plants with different leaf features can overcome water stress, four water regimes were adopted on two species that are widespread in the Mediterranean environment, Lantana camara and Ligustrum lucidum. The four treatments were: control (C), in which the pot substrate moisture was maintained close to water container capacity (WCC), light deficit irrigation (LDI) irrigated at 75% of WCC, moderate deficit irrigation (MDI) at 50% of WCC, and severe deficit irrigation (SDI) at 25% of WCC...
April 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664887/%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-potentiation-inhibits-learning-in-a-computational-network-model
#10
Kingsley P Storer, George N Reeke
BACKGROUND: Propofol produces memory impairment at concentrations well below those abolishing consciousness. Episodic memory, mediated by the hippocampus, is most sensitive. Two potentially overlapping scenarios may explain how γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA) potentiation by propofol disrupts episodic memory-the first mediated by shifting the balance from excitation to inhibition while the second involves disruption of rhythmic oscillations. We use a hippocampal network model to explore these scenarios...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664870/outcomes-of-anatomic-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-with-b2-glenoids-a-systematic-review
#11
Colten Luedke, Michael J Kissenberth, Stefan J Tolan, Richard J Hawkins, John M Tokish
BACKGROUND: Total shoulder arthroplasty remains an effective procedure for shoulder pain relief. Despite the negative effect of abnormal glenoid morphology and specifically retroverted and posteriorly subluxated glenoids, there is no consensus for management of B2 glenoids in total shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes and complication rates for B2 glenoid techniques so as to provide a baseline understanding of the current state of treatment of this pathology...
April 17, 2018: JBJS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664450/quantitative-assessment-of-vertebral-artery-anatomy-in-relation-to-cervical-pedicles-surgical-considerations-based-on-regional-differences
#12
Amro Al-Habib, Fahad Albadr, Jehad Ahmed, Abdulrahman Aleissa, Abdullah Al Towim
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the anatomic relationship between the Cervical pedicle screw (CPS), vertebral artery (VA), and related anatomic structures in the Saudi population. METHODS: This retrospective single center study included 50 consecutive patients (35 males) with normal neck findings on computed tomography angiography performed for trauma or vascular evaluation between 2012 and 2014. Radiologic parameters were assessed and correlated with age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI)...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664191/analyzing-the-sclerocarpy-adaptations-of-the-pitheciidae-mandible
#13
Thomas A Püschel, Jordi Marcé-Nogué, Thomas M Kaiser, Robert J Brocklehurst, William I Sellers
Primates are interpreted to be ancestrally adapted to frugivory, although some modern groups show clear adaptations to other diets. Among them, pitheciids stand out for specifically predating seeds. This dietary specialization is known as sclerocarpy and refers to the extraction of seeds from surrounding hard tissues using the anterior dentition followed by the mastication of seeds by the molars. It has been proposed that Callicebus-Pithecia-Chiropotes-Cacajao represent a morphocline of increasingly specialized anatomical traits for sclerocarpic foraging...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663370/deformable-torso-phantoms-of-chinese-adults-for-personalized-anatomy-modelling
#14
Hongkai Wang, Xiaobang Sun, Tongning Wu, Congsheng Li, Zhonghua Chen, Meiying Liao, Mengci Li, Wen Yan, Hui Huang, Jia Yang, Ziyu Tan, Libo Hui, Yue Liu, Hang Pan, Yue Qu, Zhaofeng Chen, Liwen Tan, Lijuan Yu, Hongcheng Shi, Li Huo, Yanjun Zhang, Xin Tang, Shaoxiang Zhang, Changjian Liu
In recent years, there has been increasing demand for personalized anatomy modelling for medical and industrial applications, such as ergonomics device development, clinical radiological exposure simulation, biomechanics analysis, and 3D animation character design. In this study, we constructed deformable torso phantoms that can be deformed to match the personal anatomy of Chinese male and female adults. The phantoms were created based on a training set of 79 trunk computed tomography (CT) images (41 males and 38 females) from normal Chinese subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663186/mandibular-canal-branching-assessed-with-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#15
Mauricio Augusto Aquino de Castro, Sâmila Gonçalves Barra, Manuel Oscar Lagravere Vich, Mauro Henrique Guimaraes Abreu, Ricardo Alves Mesquita
PURPOSE: The mandibular canal must be considered in dental procedures to avoid injuries of the alveolar inferior nerve. The occurrence of anatomical variations of the mandibular canal increases the risk of neurovascular injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the prevalence of mandibular canal branching (MCB) using cone beam computer tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Seven hundred standardized CBCTs were selected. The images were evaluated for the presence of MCB and for the detection of pathologies that could affect the structure of the canals...
April 16, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663135/when-tractography-meets-tracer-injections-a-systematic-study-of-trends-and-variation-sources-of-diffusion-based-connectivity
#16
Dogu Baran Aydogan, Russell Jacobs, Stephanie Dulawa, Summer L Thompson, Maite Christi Francois, Arthur W Toga, Hongwei Dong, James A Knowles, Yonggang Shi
Tractography is a powerful technique capable of non-invasively reconstructing the structural connections in the brain using diffusion MRI images, but the validation of tractograms is challenging due to lack of ground truth. Owing to recent developments in mapping the mouse brain connectome, high-resolution tracer injection-based axonal projection maps have been created and quickly adopted for the validation of tractography. Previous studies using tracer injections mainly focused on investigating the match in projections and optimal tractography protocols...
April 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663091/anatomical-feasibility-study-of-flexor-hallucis-longus-transfer-in-treatment-of-achilles-tendon-and-posteromedial-portal-of-ankle-arthroscopy
#17
Haijiao Mao, Linger Wang, Wenwei Dong, Zhenxin Liu, Weigang Yin, Dachuan Xu, Keith L Wapner
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of anatomical variations of the musculotendinous junction of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle, the relationship between FHL tendon or muscle and the tibial neurovascular bundle at the level of the posterior ankle joint in human cadavers. METHODS: Seventy embalmed feet from 20 male and 15 female cadavers, the cadavers' mean age was 65.4 (range from 14 to 82) years, were dissected and anatomically classified to observe FHL muscle morphology define the relationship between FHL tendon or muscle and the tibial neurovascular bundle...
April 16, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662779/finite-element-analysis-of-biomechanical-effects-of-total-ankle-arthroplasty-on-the-foot
#18
Yan Wang, Zengyong Li, Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Cheng-Kung Cheng, Ming Zhang
Background: Total ankle arthroplasty is gaining popularity as an alternation to ankle arthrodesis for end-stage ankle arthritis. Owing to the complex anatomical characteristics of the ankle joint, total ankle arthroplasty has higher failure rates. Biomechanical exploration of the effects of total ankle arthroplasty on the foot and ankle is imperative for the precaution of postoperative complications. The objectives of this study are (1) to investigate the biomechanical differences of the foot and ankle between the foot with total ankle arthroplasty and the intact foot and (2) to investigate the performance of the three-component ankle prosthesis...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661784/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-a-sense-of-time-of-the-glucocorticoid-circadian-clock-from-the-ontogeny-to-the-diagnosis-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#19
Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Sonir Roberto R Antonini, Margaret De Castro
The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids has long been recognised within the last 75 years. Since the beginning, researchers have sought to identify basic mechanisms underlying the origin and emergence of the corticosteroid circadian rhythmicity among mammals. Accordingly, Young, Hall and Rosbash, laureates of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, as well as Takahashi's group among others, have characterised the molecular cogwheels of the circadian system, describing interlocking transcription/translation feedback loops essential for normal circadian rhythms...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660745/omental-vascularized-lymph-node-flap-a-radiographic-analysis
#20
Julia A Cook, Sarah E Sasor, Sunil S Tholpady, Michael W Chu
BACKGROUND:  Vascularized lymph node transfer is an increasingly popular option for the treatment of lymphedema. The omental donor site is advantageous for its copious soft tissue, well-defined collateral circulation, and large number of available nodes, without the risk of iatrogenic lymphedema. The purpose of this study is to define the anatomy of the omental flap in the context of vascularized lymph node harvest. METHODS:  Consecutive abdominal computed tomography angiography (CTA) images performed at a single institution over a 1-year period were reviewed...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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