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Anatomic variations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810268/swallowing-mechanics-associated-with-artificial-airways-bolus-properties-and-penetration-aspiration-status-in-trauma-patients
#1
Angela M Dietsch, Christopher B Rowley, Nancy Pearl Solomon, William G Pearson
Purpose: Artificial airway procedures such as intubation and tracheotomy are common in the treatment of traumatic injuries, and bolus modifications may be implemented to help manage swallowing disorders. This study assessed artificial airway status, bolus properties (volume and viscosity), and the occurrence of laryngeal penetration and/or aspiration in relation to mechanical features of swallowing. Method: Coordinates of anatomical landmarks were extracted at minimum and maximum hyolaryngeal excursion from 228 videofluoroscopic swallowing studies representing 69 traumatically injured U...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809029/model-clades-versus-model-species-anolis-lizards-as-an-integrative-model-of-anatomical-evolution
#2
Thomas J Sanger, Bonnie K Kircher
Anolis lizards , known for their replicated patterns of morphological diversification, are widely studied in the fields of evolution and ecology. As a textbook example of adaptive radiation, this genus has supported decades of intense study in natural history, behavior, morphological evolution, and systematics. Following the publication of the A. carolinensis genome, research on Anolis lizards has expanded into new areas, toward obtaining an understanding the developmental and genetic bases of anole diversity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808470/non-surgical-retreatment-of-maxillary-lateral-incisor-with-unusual-anatomy-a-case-report-and-mini-review
#3
Ashraf Shubbar, Behnam Bolhari, Nooshin Fakhari, Parvin Alemi, Ali Nosrat
Knowledge about internal anatomy plays a crucial role in the success of the root canal treatment. Many studies on internal anatomy have repeatedly reported that maxillary lateral incisors have only one canal. The primary aim of this article was to describe successful non-surgical retreatment of a permanent maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and open apices. The treatment was carried out using dental operating microscope and the canals were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an apical plug...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806960/16-channel-biphasic-current-mode-programmable-charge-balanced-neural-stimulation
#4
Xiaoran Li, Shunan Zhong, James Morizio
BACKGROUND: Neural stimulation is an important method used to activate or inhibit action potentials of the neuronal anatomical targets found in the brain, central nerve and peripheral nerve. The neural stimulator system produces biphasic pulses that deliver balanced charge into tissue from single or multichannel electrodes. The timing and amplitude of these biphasic pulses are precisely controlled by the neural stimulator software or imbedded algorithms. Amplitude mismatch between the anodic current and cathodic current of the biphasic pulse will cause permanently damage for the neural tissues...
August 14, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804783/functional-corticostriatal-connection-topographies-predict-goal-directed-behaviour-in-humans
#5
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804730/breast-dose-reduction-with-organ-based-wide-angle-tube-current-modulated-ct
#6
Wanyi Fu, Gregory M Sturgeon, Greeshma Agasthya, William Paul Segars, Anuj J Kapadia, Ehsan Samei
This study aimed to estimate the organ dose reduction potential for organ-dose-based tube current modulated (ODM) thoracic computed tomography (CT) with a wide dose reduction arc. Twenty-one computational anthropomorphic phantoms (XCAT) were used to create a virtual patient population with clinical anatomic variations. The phantoms were created based on patient images with normal anatomy (age range: 27 to 66 years, weight range: 52.0 to 105.8 kg). For each phantom, two breast tissue compositions were simulated: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (glandular-to-adipose ratio)...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800853/the-anterolateral-ligament-anatomic-implications-for-its-reconstruction
#7
Neri Thomas, Palpacuer Fabien, Testa Rodolphe, Bergandi Florian, Boyer Bertrand, Farizon Frederic, Philippot Remi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to define the best anatomic parameters with which to perform an accurate anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction. These parameters were anatomical insertions, allowing favorable isometry, length variation during flexion, and anthropometric predictors of ALL lengths. METHODS: A total of 84 fresh-frozen cadaver knees were dissected to analyze the ALL, focusing on its femoral insertion. The ALL length was measured in different degrees of flexion (extension, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion) and rotation (neutral, internal or external rotation)...
August 8, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799880/a-morphometric-survey-of-the-parasellar-region-in-more-than-2700-skulls-emphasis-on-the-middle-clinoid-process-variants-and-implications-in-endoscopic-and-microsurgical-approaches
#8
Akshay Sharma, Gabrielle E Rieth, Joseph E Tanenbaum, James S Williams, Nakao Ota, Srikant Chakravarthi, Sunil Manjila, Amin Kassam, Bulent Yapicilar
OBJECTIVE The middle clinoid process (MCP) is a bony projection that extends from the sphenoid bone near the lateral margin of the sella turcica. The varied prevalence and morphological features of the MCP in populations stratified by age, race, and sex are unknown; however, the knowledge of its anatomy and preoperative recognition on CT scans can aid greatly in complication avoidance and management. The aim of this study was to further illustrate the surgical anatomy of the parasellar region and to quantify the incidence of MCP and caroticoclinoid rings (CCRs) in dried preserved human anatomical specimens...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799622/morphometric-variation-and-ray-allocation-of-human-proximal-hand-phalanges
#9
Fotios Alexandros Karakostis, Carlos Lorenzo, Konstantinos Moraitis
In previous studies, the anatomy of proximal hand phalanges has been described and techniques of anatomical allocation have been developed. However, these rely on the observation of small phalangeal traits without providing a multivariate analysis of morphological variation. In bioarchaeological contexts, the form of these distinctive traits is often not clear and the use of alternative supplementary methods is vital. This study aims to conduct a multivariate analysis of proximal phalanges and introduce a new methodology of ray allocation for isolated proximal phalanges...
August 11, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794538/a-rare-case-of-variation-in-the-anatomical-relationship-between-the-common-carotid-artery-and-the-internal-jugular-vein-due-to-enlarged-thyroid
#10
Mayur Chillal Ramakrishna, Shalendra Singh, Ankur Khandelwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792779/iodine-values-of-adipose-tissue-varied-among-breeds-of-pigs-and-were-correlated-with-pork-quality
#11
Eric D Testroet, Chad L Yoder, Amber Testroet, Carmen Reynolds, Mathew R O'Neil, Soi Meng Lei, Donald C Beitz, Tom J Baas
Our objectives were to investigate fatty acid composition variation amongst adipose tissue sites, breed effects on fat quality, and the relationship of pork fat quality to fresh pork quality. Barrows and gilts (n = 347) of five purebred and one commercial crossbred line were fed commercial swine diets with DDGS inclusion at 30% (as fed) from 31.8 kg body weight until 30-d prior to harvest at 111.4 kg. Immediately after harvest, hot carcass weight was determined, adipose tissue was collected from the back, belly, and jowl, and meat samples were taken from the longissimus muscle for evaluation of pork quality...
July 20, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791138/robust-extraction-of-quantitative-structural-information-from-high-variance-histological-images-of-livers-from-necropsied-soay-sheep
#12
Q Caudron, R Garnier, J G Pilkington, K A Watt, C Hansen, B T Grenfell, T Aboellail, A L Graham
Quantitative information is essential to the empirical analysis of biological systems. In many such systems, spatial relations between anatomical structures is of interest, making imaging a valuable data acquisition tool. However, image data can be difficult to analyse quantitatively. Many image processing algorithms are highly sensitive to variations in the image, limiting their current application to fields where sample and image quality may be very high. Here, we develop robust image processing algorithms for extracting structural information from a dataset of high-variance histological images of inflamed liver tissue obtained during necropsies of wild Soay sheep...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790902/integration-of-brain-and-skull-in-prenatal-mouse-models-of-apert-and-crouzon-syndromes
#13
Susan M Motch Perrine, Tim Stecko, Thomas Neuberger, Ethylin W Jabs, Timothy M Ryan, Joan T Richtsmeier
The brain and skull represent a complex arrangement of integrated anatomical structures composed of various cell and tissue types that maintain structural and functional association throughout development. Morphological integration, a concept developed in vertebrate morphology and evolutionary biology, describes the coordinated variation of functionally and developmentally related traits of organisms. Syndromic craniosynostosis is characterized by distinctive changes in skull morphology and perceptible, though less well studied, changes in brain structure and morphology...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790467/current-concepts-in-acetabular-positioning-in-total-hip-arthroplasty
#14
Deepu Bhaskar, Asim Rajpura, Tim Board
Being one of the most successful surgeries in the history of medicine, the indications for total hip arthroplasty have widened and are increasingly being offered to younger and fitter patients. This has also led to high expectations for longevity and outcomes. Acetabular cup position has a significant impact on the results of hip arthroplasty as it affects dislocation, abductor muscle strength, gait, limb lengths, impingement, noise generation, range of motion (ROM), wear, loosening, and cup failure. The variables in cup position are depth, height, and angular position (anteversion and inclination)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790006/the-relationship-between-the-direction-of-putaminal-intracerebral-hemorrhage-and-anterior-cerebral-artery-predominance
#15
Jae-Ho Lee, Chul-Hoon Chang, Young-Jin Jung, Jong-Hoon Kim
INTRODUCTION: It is expected that anatomical variations in the circle of Willis have a direct effect on blood flow in the internal carotid artery. Rupture of the lenticulostriate artery of the middle cerebral artery 1st segment (M1) is the most common cause of putaminal intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), and we hypothesized that this could be related to the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and the predominance of the anterior cerebral artery 1st segment (A1). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 544 patients who were treated for spontaneous ICH between 2013 and 2016 at Yeungnam University Hospital...
August 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789598/development-of-a-computerized-4-d-mri-phantom-for-liver-motion-study
#16
Chunhao Wang, Fang-Fang Yin, W P Segars, Zheng Chang, Lei Ren
PURPOSE: To develop a 4-dimensional computerized magnetic resonance imaging phantom with image textures extracted from real patient scans for liver motion studies. METHODS: The proposed phantom was developed based on the current version of 4-dimensional extended cardiac-torso computerized phantom and a clinical magnetic resonance scan. Initially, the extended cardiac-torso phantom was voxelized in abdominal-chest region at the end of exhalation phase. Structures/tissues were classified into 4 categories: (1) Seven key textured organs, including liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, heart, kidneys, and pancreas, were mapped from a clinical T1-weighted liver magnetic resonance scan using deformable registration...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777229/the-modified-rambo-transcanal-approach-for-cochlear-implantation-in-charge-syndrome
#17
Cameron C Wick, Amy M Moore, Daniel E Killeen, Brandon Isaacson
OBJECTIVE: CHARGE syndrome is associated with a variety of temporal bone anomalies and deafness. The lack of surgical landmarks and facial nerve irregularities make cochlear implantation in this population a challenging endeavor. This study aims to describe a safe and efficacious transcanal approach for cochlear implantation that obviates the need to perform a mastoidectomy and facial recess. PATIENTS: Three children with profound hearing loss secondary to CHARGE syndrome...
August 2, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776665/morphology-topology-and-dimensions-of-the-heart-and-arteries-of-genetically-normal-and-mutant-mouse-embryos-at-stages-s21-s23
#18
Stefan H Geyer, Lukas F Reissig, Markus Hüsemann, Cordula Höfle, Robert Wilson, Fabrice Prin, Dorota Szumska, Antonella Galli, David J Adams, Jacqui White, Timothy J Mohun, Wolfgang J Weninger
Accurate identification of abnormalities in the mouse embryo depends not only on comparisons with appropriate, developmental stage-matched controls, but also on an appreciation of the range of anatomical variation that can be expected during normal development. Here we present a morphological, topological and metric analysis of the heart and arteries of mouse embryos harvested on embryonic day (E)14.5, based on digital volume data of whole embryos analysed by high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM). By comparing data from 206 genetically normal embryos, we have analysed the range and frequency of normal anatomical variations in the heart and major arteries across Theiler stages S21-S23...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774675/3-tesla-mri-beneficial-visualization-of-the-meniscofemoral-ligaments
#19
Johanna Ebrecht, Andrej Krasny, Dinah Maria Hartmann, Marcia Viviane Rückbeil, Thomas Ritz, Andreas Prescher
BACKGROUND: Recent investigations have confirmed an important stabilizing and protective function of the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) to the knee joint and suggest a clinical relevance. Concerning their incidences, however, there have been discrepancies between data acquired from cadaveric studies and MRI data using 0.3- to 1.5-Tesla field strengths probably due to lower resolution. This study aims to investigate whether imaging with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-T MRI) is beneficial in gaining information regarding the ligaments' incidence, length, width and anatomic variation...
July 31, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774256/anatomical-variations-of-the-extensor-carpi-ulnaris-groove-a-new-computed-tomography-based-evaluation
#20
Sho Kohyama, Toshikazu Tanaka, Eriko Okano, Ochiai Naoyuki
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop a classification that precisely describes the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) groove morphology. METHODS: Reconstructed axial plane computed tomography scans of the wrists of 200 patients were reviewed. Three groups of groove shape were created based on the position of the deepest point: deviated to the ulnar side (Type U), in the middle of the groove (Type M), and deviated to the radial side (Type R). Groove depth, width, carrying angle, and radius of the curvature were measured using the Picture Archiving and Communication System in a slice in which the ulnar head was the largest...
September 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
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