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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621902/all-for-one-and-one-for-all-mental-disorders-in-one-dimension
#1
Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt
In both child and adult psychiatry, empirical evidence has now accrued to suggest that a single dimension is able to measure a person's liability to mental disorder, comorbidity among disorders, persistence of disorders over time, and severity of symptoms. This single dimension of general psychopathology has been termed "p," because it conceptually parallels a dimension already familiar to behavioral scientists and clinicians: the "g" factor of general intelligence. As the g dimension reflects low to high mental ability, the p dimension represents low to high psychopathology severity, with thought disorder at the extreme...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611276/demystifying-the-marine-terrestrial-biodiversity-gradient-response-to-vermeij-et-al
#2
Elizabeth C Miller, John J Wiens
We respond to seven criticisms made by Vermeij et al. () regarding Miller & Wiens (). Their criticisms generally reflect misunderstandings, unsupported speculations, and topics that were explicitly addressed in our paper.
April 2, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604039/demystifying-fisher-information-what-observation-data-reveal-about-our-models
#3
Judith Schenk, Eileen Poeter, William Navidi
Information theory is the basis for understanding how information is transmitted as observations. Observation data can be used to compare uncertainty on parameter estimates and predictions between models. Jacobian Information (JI) is quantified as the determinant of the weighted Jacobian (sensitivity) matrix. Fisher Information (FI) is quantified as the determinant of the weighted Fisher Information matrix. FI measures the relative disorder of a model (entropy) in a set of models. One-dimensional models are used to demonstrate the relationship between JI and FI, and the resulting uncertainty on estimated parameter values and model predictions for increasing model complexity, different model structures, different boundary conditions, and over-fitted models...
March 31, 2018: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543982/demystifying-eukaryote-lateral-gene-transfer-response-to-martin-2017-doi-10-1002-bies-201700115
#4
Michelle M Leger, Laura Eme, Courtney W Stairs, Andrew J Roger
In a recent BioEssays paper [W. F. Martin, BioEssays 2017, 39, 1700115], William Martin sharply criticizes evolutionary interpretations that involve lateral gene transfer (LGT) into eukaryotic genomes. Most published examples of LGTs in eukaryotes, he suggests, are in fact contaminants, ancestral genes that have been lost from other extant lineages, or the result of artefactual phylogenetic inferences. Martin argues that, except for transfers that occurred from endosymbiotic organelles, eukaryote LGT is insignificant...
March 15, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489569/demystifying-the-triple-point-technical-nuances-of-the-fronto-orbital-advancement
#5
Christopher D Lopez, Anand Kumar, Alexander Y Lin, Christopher M Bonfield, Jeffrey Weinzweig, Thomas Naidich, Christopher M Smith, Peter J Taub
Removal of the fronto-orbital bandeau is one of the most critical components for procedures designed to correct anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton and remodel the anterior calvarial vault. It is also used to improve exposure of the anterior cranial fossa. It is arguably one of the more difficult portions of some craniofacial procedures. While the technique for fronto-orbito-sphenoid osteotomy has been frequently described, it has only been minimally detailed. Separation of bone in this region remains challenging due to the bone thickness, adjacent vital structures, and limited direct visibility...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463780/science-and-culture-quantum-games-aim-to-demystify-heady-science
#6
Stephen Ornes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453834/demystifying-evidence-based-policy-analysis-by-revealing-hidden-value-laden-constraints
#7
Adam M Finkel
Consider any choice that affects some social policy. A decision that considers evidence will, at its heart, contain some kind of explicit or implicit "because" statement: "We are doing X because the evidence says Y." But can evidence ever truly speak for itself, in the sense of being reducible to objective utterances that are either correct or in need of correction? Before answering, consider what you'd prefer. Would you rather receive evidence that was free of any value judgments imposed by human actors, that was laden with value judgments that you agree with, or laden with value judgments that you disagree with? The central assertion of this essay is that, throughout policy analysis but especially in assessments of the costs and benefits of regulating versus encouraging new technologies (cost-benefit analysis, or CBA), the first possibility above is a mirage, and the second and third are self-contradictory...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408258/cell-division-single-cell-physiology-reveals-secrets-of%C3%A2-chromosome-condensation
#8
Kerry Bloom
Our understanding of higher order chromosome structure has been transformed through statistical mechanics-based computer simulations of polymer chains. A new study exploring basic electrostatic interactions demystifies how chromosomes regulate their state of compaction over several orders of magnitude.
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400861/interpreting-angular-momentum-transfer-between-electromagnetic-multipoles-using-vector-spherical-harmonics
#9
Roger Grinter, Garth A Jones
The transfer of angular momentum between a quadrupole emitter and a dipole acceptor is investigated theoretically. Vector spherical harmonics are used to describe the angular part of the field of the mediating photon. Analytical results are presented for predicting angular momentum transfer between the emitter and absorber within a quantum electrodynamical framework. We interpret the allowability of such a process, which appears to violate conservation of angular momentum, in terms of the breakdown of the isotropy of space at the point of photon absorption (detection)...
February 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380650/demystifying-balint-culture-and-its-impact-an-autoethnographic-analysis
#10
Jeffrey L Sternlieb
Balint groups are a structured group process designed for physicians and other helping professionals to provide feedback to each other concerning troublesome patient encounters. The process of Balint groups has survived and even thrived for more than a half century since their inception, suggesting their inherent value. However, measuring the impact in order to communicate the nature of that value has been elusive. A recent literature review highlighted the equivocal nature of research results and suggested that well-designed qualitative research may be more effective in selecting target measures which could result in better evidence for this group process...
January 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318423/demystifying-liver-iron-concentration-measurements-with-mri
#11
B Henninger
This Editorial comment refers to the article: Non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentration using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: validation against biopsy. D'Assignies G, et al. Eur Radiol Nov 2017. KEY POINTS: • MRI is a widely accepted reliable tool to determine liver iron concentration. • MRI cannot measure iron directly, it needs calibration. • Calibration curves for 3.0T are rare in the literature. • The study by d'Assignies et al. provides valuable information on this topic...
January 9, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298581/plurality-in-understandings-of-innovation-sociotechnical-progress-and-sustainable-development-an-analysis-of-oecd-expert-narratives
#12
Paulo Savaget, Liliana Acero
Deterministic theory and discourse on sociotechnical progress ignore the existence of multiple and equally viable pathways towards progress, obscure socioeconomic and environmental conflicting interests and values, and overshadow socially inclusive deliberative choices about policy strategies. Demystifying techno-determinism, by incorporating a plurality of understandings to policy appraisal, becomes a matter of not only democratic accountability but also of analytical rigour. This article analyses the normative and ontological understandings on scientific and technological pathways among a group of experts interviewed at one key Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, using Q-methodology...
March 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283276/engaged-for-change-a-community-engaged-process-for-developing-interventions-to-reduce-health-disparities
#13
Scott D Rhodes, Lilli Mann-Jackson, Jorge Alonzo, Florence M Simán, Aaron T Vissman, Jennifer Nall, Claire Abraham, Robert E Aronson, Amanda E Tanner
The science underlying the development of individual, community, system, and policy interventions designed to reduce health disparities has lagged behind other innovations. Few models, theoretical frameworks, or processes exist to guide intervention development. Our community-engaged research partnership has been developing, implementing, and evaluating efficacious interventions to reduce HIV disparities for over 15 years. Based on our intervention research experiences, we propose a novel 13-step process designed to demystify and guide intervention development...
December 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243843/signaling-cascades-in-thyroid-cancer-increasing-the-armory-of-archers-to-hit-bullseye
#14
Faiza Abdul Rashid, Qaisar Mansoor, Sobia Tabassum, Hafsa Aziz, Waleed O Arfat, George E Naoum, Muhammad Ismail, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi
Thyroid cancer is a multifaceted and therapeutically challenging disease and rapidly accumulating experimentally verified findings have considerably improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms which underlie its development. Substantial fraction of information has been added into existing landscape of molecular oncology and we have started to develop a sharper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of thyroid cancer. Wealth of information demystified different intracellular signaling cascades which are frequently deregulated in thyroid cancer...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237440/experiences-of-community-members-and-researchers-on-community-engagement-in-an-ecohealth-project-in-south-africa-and-zimbabwe
#15
Rosemary Musesengwa, Moses J Chimbari
BACKGROUND: Community engagement (CE) models have provided much needed guidance for researchers to conceptualise and design engagement strategies for research projects. Most of the published strategies, however, still show very limited contribution of the community to the engagement process. One way of achieving this is to document experiences of community members in the CE processes during project implementation. The aim of our study was to explore the experiences of two research naïve communities, regarding a CE strategy collaboratively developed by researchers and study communities in a multicountry study...
December 13, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228870/augmented-photocatalytic-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-prunosynthetic-silver-nanoparticles
#16
Shaan Bibi Jaffri, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad
The present study has demystified the first and single step prunosynthesis of the spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of angiospermic plant, Prunus cerasifera, which has remarkable fusion of reducing cum stabilizing bioactive components (phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, organic acids, tannins and vitamins). Highly stable prunosynthetic AgNPs with 2.04 nm average crystallite size were synthesized in dark and in sunlight at optimized condition of temperature, time and P...
December 11, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200478/submission-to-publication-demystified-a-guide-for-authors
#17
EDITORIAL
Ish Kumar Dhammi, Rehan Ul Haq
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182323/demystifying-p2y-1-receptor-ligand-recognition-through-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-analyses
#18
Antonella Ciancetta, Robert D O'Connor, Silvia Paoletta, Kenneth A Jacobson
We performed a molecular modeling analysis of 100 nucleotide-like bisphosphates and 46 non-nucleotide arylurea derivatives previously reported as P2Y1 R binders using the recently solved hP2Y1 R structures. We initially docked the compounds at the X-ray structures and identified the binding modes of representative compounds highlighting key patterns in the structure-activity relationship (SAR). We subsequently subjected receptor complexes with selected key agonists (2MeSADP and MRS2268) and antagonists (MRS2500 and BPTU) to membrane molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (at least 200 ns run in triplicate, simulation time 0...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159675/diffusion-weighted-imaging-demystified-the-technique-and-potential-clinical-applications-for-soft-tissue-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Shivani Ahlawat, Laura M Fayad
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement...
November 20, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074394/n-6-adenine-dna-methylation-demystified-in-eukaryotic-genome-from-biology-to-pathology
#20
Nidarshana Chaturvedi Parashar, Gaurav Parashar, Harsh Nayyar, Rajat Sandhir
N6 -methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine (m6dA) is a well characterized DNA modification in prokaryotes. Its existence in eukaryotic DNA remained doubtful until recently. Evidence suggests that the m6dA levels decrease with the increasing complexity of eukaryotic genomes. Analysis of m6dA levels in genome of lower eukaryotes reveals its role in gene regulation, nucleosome positioning and early development. In higher eukaryotes m6dA is enriched in nongenic region compared to genic region, preferentially in chromosome X and 13 suggesting a chromosome bias...
January 2018: Biochimie
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