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Hemavathy Nagarajan, Umashankar Vetrivel
Heparanase (HPSE) is an endo-β-D-glucuronidase that has diverse functions in mammals which includes cell survival, cell adhesion and cell migration. HPSE features both enzymatic and non-enzymatic functionalities in a pH dependent manner. Hence, in this study, an extensive molecular dynamics simulation, molecular docking, protein Angular dispersion analysis were performed for apo form and holo forms to understand its conformational changes at varied pH conditions. On comparative conformational analysis of apo and holo forms, it was inferred that the HSPE has undergone pH dependent structural changes, thereby affecting the binding of Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
Katharina Richter, Nicky Thomas
"Pint of Science" is an outreach activity bringing the latest scientific discoveries to the community in the relaxed atmosphere of a pub. Founded in the United Kingdom in 2012, this three-night festival in May is now held annually in cities around the world. Today, Pint of Science contributes to science education and engages peers and the public alike, demystifying science at a pub near you. This article gives advice about how to organize a Pint of Science festival, as exemplified by the Adelaide/South Australia chapter's 2017 experience...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Xinyi Chia, Martin Pumera
Studies on layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), in particular for Group VIB TMDs like MoS2 and WS2, have long reached a crescendo in the realms of electrochemical applications initiated by their remarkable catalytic and electronic properties. One area that garnered considerable attention is the fervent pursuit of layered TMDs as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), driven by global efforts towards reducing carbon footprint and attaining hydrogen economy. This Tutorial Review captures the essence of electrochemistry of different classes of layered TMDs and metal chalcogenides across the period table and showcases their tuneable electrochemical and HER catalytic attributes that are governed by the elemental composition, structure and anisotropy...
June 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Kathryn J LaRoche, Angel M Foster
BACKGROUND: Roughly one-third of all abortions in Canada are subsequent abortions. However, few published reports showcase women's voices or explore women's experiences on this topic. Our study aimed to understand better the ways that women who have had multiple abortions talk about and view those experiences. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2016, we conducted in-depth interviews with 41 Canadian women who had a total of 87 abortions in the 5 years preceding the interviews...
May 24, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Tiffany S Pinho, Diogo M Verde, Sónia C Correia, Susana M Cardoso, Paula I Moreira
Since the first clinical case reported more than 100 years ago, it has been a long and winding road to demystify the initial pathological events underling the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fortunately, advanced imaging techniques extended the knowledge regarding AD origin, being well accepted that a decline in brain glucose metabolism occurs during the prodromal phases of AD and is aggravated with the progression of the disease. In this sense, in the last decades, the post-translational modification O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) has emerged as a potential causative link between hampered brain glucose metabolism and AD pathology...
May 19, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Alexandra Sawyer, Lester Coleman, Richard Cooke, Lisa Hodgson, Nigel Sherriff
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness that parents can play an important role in shaping their children's attitudes towards alcohol and use of alcohol. However, there has been little research exploring the conversations parents have with their children about alcohol. The present study aims to address this gap by exploring conversations between parents and their 15-17 year old children. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional qualitative design, recruitment took place over two phases to allow a purposive maximum variation sample of parents and young people...
May 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Rebecca Judd, Helen Guy, Ruth A Howard
OBJECTIVE: Caring for someone close who is dying, such as a spouse, is an emotive experience; however, there is little research examining the phenomenon of caregiving for a spouse at the end of life and of men's experiences specifically. Existing literature suggests that men who are providing care are less likely to seek help than women, especially psychological and emotional support for themselves. The aim of the current study was to explore the lived experiences of men caring for a dying spouse or partner and their help-seeking for themselves during this time...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Palliative Care
Belén Marco-Crespo, Sharon Casapulla, Claudia Nieto-Sanchez, J Guillermo Gómez Urrego, Mario J Grijalva
This qualitative study engaged a group of young people in participatory research and evaluation activities in order to study to what extent engaging youth in health interventions can inform research and evaluation processes. We applied a youth participatory research and evaluation approach (PRE) to inform research and evaluation on the impact of a Chagas disease control program in southern Ecuador. Our main interest was to examine the methodological contributions of PRE to knowledge sharing for health intervention planning in the context of global health and neglected tropical diseases...
August 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Bhavna P Harne, A S Hiwale
Mantra meditation is easy to practice. "OM" Mantra is the highest sacred symbol in Hinduism. The present study investigated the temporal dynamics of oscillatory changes after OM mantra meditation. Twenty-three naive meditators were asked to perform loud OM chanting for 30 min and the EEG were subsequently recorded with closed eyes before and after it. To obtain new insights into the nature of the EEG after OM chanting, EEG signals were analyzed using spectral domain analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures of analysis of variance...
May 11, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Tom Marrs, K Sim
The growing burden of food allergy is being driven by environmental exposures and the potential role of gut micro-organisms (or 'microbiota') is hotly debated. Early culture-based studies outlined that imbalances between commensal gut constituents ('dysbiosis') early in life may raise the risk of developing allergic disease. A number of studies using animal models describe mechanisms by which specific bacterial taxa within the gut microbiota, their diversity and dietary substrates such as fibre may promote oral tolerance...
May 7, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
Bhaskara P Shelley, Thomas V Chacko, Balakrishnan R Nair
Neurology has a reputation, particularly as a complex "head-to-toe" discipline for undergraduate medical students. Neurophobia syndrome, a global phenomenon, fundamentally stems from pedagogical deficiencies during the undergraduate curriculum, the lack of vertical integration between basic neurosciences and clinical bedside neurology, the lack of clinical reasoning exercises, cognitive heuristics, and clinical problem-solving, errors in diagnostic competence, and hyposkilia. This ultimately results in poor clinical competence and proficiency in clinical neurology and causes attrition in nurturing a passion for learning the neurology discipline...
January 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Francisco J Muniz Neto, Eduardo N Kihara Filho, Frederico C Miranda, Laercio A Rosemberg, Durval C B Santos, Atul K Taneja
Magnetic resonance neurography is a high-resolution imaging technique that allows evaluating different neurological pathologies in correlation to clinical and the electrophysiological data. The aim of this article is to present a review on the anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus nerves, along with imaging protocols, interpretation pitfalls, and most common pathologies that should be recognized by the radiologist: traumatic, iatrogenic, entrapment, tumoral, infectious, and inflammatory conditions. An extensive series of clinical and imaging cases is presented to illustrate key-points throughout the article...
2018: BioMed Research International
Stefano A Bini
This article was presented at the 2017 annual meeting of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons to introduce the members gathered as the audience to the concepts behind artificial intelligence (AI) and the applications that AI can have in the world of health care today. We discuss the origin of AI, progress to machine learning, and then discuss how the limits of machine learning lead data scientists to develop artificial neural networks and deep learning algorithms through biomimicry. We will place all these technologies in the context of practical clinical examples and show how AI can act as a tool to support and amplify human cognitive functions for physicians delivering care to increasingly complex patients...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Thomas D Dobbs, Sarah Hughes, Nicholas Mowbray, Hayley A Hutchings, Iain S Whitaker
The use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is increasing across all medical specialties, as their importance to patient care is validated. They are likely to play a particularly important role in plastic and reconstructive surgery where outcomes are often subjective, and the recent guidance from the Royal College of Surgeons of England advising their use in cosmetic surgery highlights this. To drive their routine use across our specialty, it is important that clinicians are capable of understanding the often complex and confusing language that surrounds their design and validation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt
In both child and adult psychiatry, empirical evidence has now accrued to suggest that a single dimension is able to measure a person's liability to mental disorder, comorbidity among disorders, persistence of disorders over time, and severity of symptoms. This single dimension of general psychopathology has been termed "p," because it conceptually parallels a dimension already familiar to behavioral scientists and clinicians: the "g" factor of general intelligence. As the g dimension reflects low to high mental ability, the p dimension represents low to high psychopathology severity, with thought disorder at the extreme...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Elizabeth C Miller, John J Wiens
We respond to seven criticisms made by Vermeij et al. () regarding Miller & Wiens (). Their criticisms generally reflect misunderstandings, unsupported speculations, and topics that were explicitly addressed in our paper.
June 2018: Ecology Letters
Judith Schenk, Eileen Poeter, William Navidi
Information theory is the basis for understanding how information is transmitted as observations. Observation data can be used to compare uncertainty on parameter estimates and predictions between models. Jacobian Information (JI) is quantified as the determinant of the weighted Jacobian (sensitivity) matrix. Fisher Information (FI) is quantified as the determinant of the weighted FI matrix. FI measures the relative disorder of a model (entropy) in a set of models. One-dimensional models are used to demonstrate the relationship between JI and FI, and the resulting uncertainty on estimated parameter values and model predictions for increasing model complexity, different model structures, different boundary conditions, and over-fitted models...
March 31, 2018: Ground Water
Michelle M Leger, Laura Eme, Courtney W Stairs, Andrew J Roger
In a recent BioEssays paper [W. F. Martin, BioEssays 2017, 39, 1700115], William Martin sharply criticizes evolutionary interpretations that involve lateral gene transfer (LGT) into eukaryotic genomes. Most published examples of LGTs in eukaryotes, he suggests, are in fact contaminants, ancestral genes that have been lost from other extant lineages, or the result of artefactual phylogenetic inferences. Martin argues that, except for transfers that occurred from endosymbiotic organelles, eukaryote LGT is insignificant...
May 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Christopher D Lopez, Anand Kumar, Alexander Y Lin, Christopher M Bonfield, Jeffrey Weinzweig, Thomas Naidich, Christopher M Smith, Peter J Taub
Removal of the fronto-orbital bandeau is one of the most critical components for procedures designed to correct anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton and remodel the anterior calvarial vault. It is also used to improve exposure of the anterior cranial fossa. It is arguably one of the more difficult portions of some craniofacial procedures. While the technique for fronto-orbito-sphenoid osteotomy has been frequently described, it has only been minimally detailed. Separation of bone in this region remains challenging due to the bone thickness, adjacent vital structures, and limited direct visibility...
May 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Stephen Ornes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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