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Chengqi Yi, Hu Zeng, Manas Mondal, Ruyi Song, Jun Zhang, Bo Xia, Menghao Liu, Chenxu Zhu, Bo He, Yi Qin Gao
The emergence of unnatural DNA bases provides opportunities to demystify the mechanisms how DNA polymerases faithfully decode chemical information on the template. For instance, we previously showed that two unnatural cytosine bases (termed "M-fC" and "I-fC"), which are chemical labeling adducts of the epigenetic base 5-formylcytosine, can induce C-to-T transition during DNA amplification. However, how DNA polymerases recognize such unnatural cytosine bases remain enigmatic. Herein, we determined crystal structures of the unnatural cytosine bases pairing to dA/dG in the KlenTaq-host-guest complex system and pairing to dATP in the active site...
November 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jason G Andrade, Marc W Deyell, Graham C Wong, Laurent Macle
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive chronic disease characterized by exacerbations and periods of remission. It is estimated that up to 20% to 30% of those with AF also have coronary artery disease (CAD), and 5% to 15% will require percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In patients with concomitant AF and CAD, management remains challenging and requires a careful and balanced assessment of the risk of bleeding against the anticipated impact on ischemic outcomes (AF-related stroke and systemic embolism, as well as ischemic coronary events)...
November 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Matthew D Disney, Brendan G Dwyer, Jessica L Childs-Disney
SUMMARYAlthough we live in the remnants of an RNA world, the world of drug discovery and chemical probes is firmly protein-centric. Developing highly selective small molecules targeting RNA is often considered to be an insurmountable challenge. Our goal is to demystify the design of such compounds. In this review, we describe various approaches to design small molecules that target RNA from sequence and the application of these compounds in RNA biology, with a focus on inhibition of human RNA-protein complexes...
November 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Natasha Trotman, Chris McGinley
This project seeks to reframe notions and approaches for engagement with neurodiverse groups and individuals using a developed design suite of functioning and dynamic tools and methods underpinned by inclusive principled guidelines which will be used by The Wellcome Collection Hub, the wider organisation and Hub partners to improve inclusion and accessibility. These orthodoxies will aid the reframing of neurodiverse inclusive museum focused interactions and co-creation at the Wellcome Collection Hub. The project, has been undertaken in partnership with the Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, Royal College of Art and the Wellcome Collection...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
N Gil, L López, D Rodríguez, M Rondón, A Betancourt, B Gutiérrez, Z V Rueda
SETTING: Five Colombian cities: Villavicencio, Pereira, Cucuta, Bucaramanga and Bosa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to tuberculosis (TB) in household contacts (HHCs) of TB patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The estimated sample size required was 855. The World Health Organization guide 'Advocacy, communication and social mobilization for TB control: a guide to developing knowledge, attitude and practice surveys' was translated into Spanish and adapted to the dialect of each city...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Nicole Shu-Wen Chan, Soon-Phaik Chee
A viral aetiology should be suspected when anterior uveitis is accompanied by ocular hypertension, diffuse stellate keratic precipitates or the presence of iris atrophy. The most common viruses associated with anterior uveitis include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and rubella virus. They may present as the following: Firstly, granulomatous cluster of small and medium-sized keratic preciptates in Arlt's triangle, with or without corneal scars, suggestive of herpes simplex or varicella-zoster virus infection...
October 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Rhonda Schwindt, Angela M McNelis, Jon Agley, Karen S Hudmon, Kathy Lay, Bev Wilgenbusch
The high prevalence of smoking among persons with mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders has not changed in the past decade despite a decline in smoking among the general population. Interprofessional collaborative care offers clinicians the opportunity to engage their patients in tobacco cessation treatment that is coordinated and comprehensive. Investigators applied a 1-group, pre/post-test design with qualitative and quantitative descriptive analyses to estimate the impact of an interprofessional tobacco education program on perceived self-efficacy and self-reported counseling abilities of graduate nursing, social work, and pharmacy (PharmD) students (N = 36; nursing, n = 13, n = 9 PharmD, n = 14 social work) to treat tobacco dependence among this subpopulation of smokers, and to assess their perceptions of interprofessional education...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Anthony J Culyer
OBJECTIVES: This study is an attempt to demystify and clarify the idea of cost in health economics and health technology assessment (HTA). METHODS: Its method draws on standard concepts in economics. Cost is a more elusive concept than is commonly thought and can be particularly elusive in multidisciplinary territory like HTA. RESULTS: The article explains that cost is more completely defined as opportunity cost, why cost is necessarily associated with a decision, and that it will always vary according to the context of that decision: whether choice is about inputs or outputs, what the alternatives are, the timing of the consequences of the decision, the nature of the commitment to which a decision maker is committed, who the decision maker is, and the constraints and discretion limiting or liberating the decision maker...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Daniel J Mizrahi, Alex E Poor, William C Meyers, Johannes B Roedl, Adam C Zoga
Pelvic pain can result from gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, neurologic, and musculoskeletal sources. This article focuses on the musculoskeletal lesions that contribute to acute and chronic pain throughout the musculoskeletal core. Armed with an understanding of musculoskeletal core anatomy and biomechanics, imagers play an integral role in the accurate diagnosis and treatment planning for patients with pain and dysfunction from pelvic sources. MR imaging is the primary imaging modality used, but focused sonographic and radiographic techniques have a role...
November 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Ai-Leng Foong, Kelly A Grindrod, Tejal Patel, Jamie Kellar
OBJECTIVE: To review the symptoms of serotonin toxicity (commonly referred to as serotonin syndrome ) and the causative drugs and their mechanisms of action, and to equip primary care providers with practical strategies to prevent and identify serotonin toxicity. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles on serotonin toxicity, the causes, and the differential diagnosis using search terms related to serotonin toxicity ( serotonin syndrome, serotonin toxicity, serotonin overdose ), causes (individual names of drug classes, individual drug names), and diagnosis ( differential diagnosis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, anticholinergic toxicity, discontinuation syndrome, malignant hyperthermia, serotonin symptoms )...
October 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
M Kathryn Stewart, Nicola Spencer, Anna Huff Davis, Camille Hart, Beatrice Boateng
Introduction: Effective translational research requires engagement and collaboration between communities, researchers, and practitioners. We describe a community scientist academy (CSA) developed at the suggestion of our CTSA's community advisory board to engage and capacitate community members by 1) increasing community members' and patients' understanding about the research process and 2) increasing their access to opportunities to influence and participate in research. A joint CTSA/community planning committee developed this 8-hour workshop including sessions on: 1) research definitions and processes; 2) study design; 3) study implementation; and 4) ways to get involved in research...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Science
Linda K McLoon, A David Redish
The decision to apply to a PhD-granting graduate program is both exciting and daunting. Understanding what graduate programs look for in an applicant will increase the chance of successful admission into a PhD program. It is also helpful for an applicant to understand what graduate training will look like once they matriculate into a PhD program to ensure they select programs that will help them reach their career objectives. This article focuses specifically on PhD programs in neuroscience, and while we use our program, the Graduate Program in Neuroscience at the University of Minnesota, as an example, most of what we describe is applicable to biomedical graduate programs generally...
2018: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Katherine Courchaine, Sandra Rugonyi
Blood flow conditions (haemodynamics) are crucial for proper cardiovascular development. Indeed, blood flow induces biomechanical adaptations and mechanotransduction signalling that influence cardiovascular growth and development during embryonic stages and beyond. Altered blood flow conditions are a hallmark of congenital heart disease, and disrupted blood flow at early embryonic stages is known to lead to congenital heart malformations. In spite of this, many of the mechanisms by which blood flow mechanics affect cardiovascular development remain unknown...
September 24, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Andrea Graus
This article examines how and why criminal proceedings were brought against alleged cases of Catholic mysticism in several European countries during modernity. In particular, it explores how criminal charges were derived from mystical experiences and shows how these charges were examined inside the courtroom. To bring a lawsuit against supposed mystics, justice systems had to reduce their mysticism to 'facts' or actions involving a breach of the law, usually fraud. Such accusations were not the main reason why alleged mystics were taken to court, however...
July 2018: History of the Human Sciences
Benjamin E Maimon, Maurizio Diaz, Emilie C M Revol, Alexis M Schneider, Ben Leaker, Claudia E Varela, Shriya Srinivasan, Matthew B Weber, Hugh M Herr
Optogenetic technologies have been the subject of great excitement within the scientific community for their ability to demystify complex neurophysiological pathways in the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). The excitement surrounding optogenetics has also extended to the clinic with a trial for ChR2 in the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa currently underway and additional trials anticipated for the near future. In this work, we identify the cause of loss-of-expression in response to transdermal illumination of an optogenetically active peroneal nerve following an anterior compartment (AC) injection of AAV6-hSyn-ChR2(H134R) with and without a fluorescent reporter...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vamsidhar Velcheti, David Schrump, Yogen Saunthararajah
Self-replication is the engine that drives all biologic evolution, including neoplastic evolution. A key oncotherapy challenge is to target this, the heart of malignancy, while sparing the normal self-replication mandatory for health and life. Self-replication can be demystified: it is activation of replication, the most ancient of cell programs, uncoupled from activation of lineage-differentiation, metazoan programs more recent in origin. The uncoupling can be physiologic, as in normal tissue stem cells, or pathologic, as in cancer...
May 23, 2018: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Eva K Masel, Gudrun Kreye
There is robust data that palliative care is prolonging life while there are still prejudices towards this discipline that have to be demystified. Patients, relatives and caregivers benefit from the concept of early integration of palliative care and therefore, palliative care should not be mainly regarded as end-of-life care.
2018: Memo
Samantha Hurst, Meghan Maiya, Danielle Casteel, Andrew J Sarkin, Salvatore Libretto, A Rani Elwy, Crystal L Park, Erik J Groessl
OBJECTIVE: Millions of military personnel and veterans live with chronic mental and physical health conditions that often do not respond well to pharmacological treatments. Serious side effects and lack of treatment response have led to widespread efforts to study and promote non-pharmacological and behavioral health treatments for many chronic health conditions. Yoga is an increasingly popular mind-body intervention that has growing research support for its efficacy and safety. Our objective was to explore the attitudes, perspectives, and preferences of military personnel and veterans toward yoga as a therapeutic modality, thus providing needed information for designing and promoting yoga interventions for this population...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Gouri Mukerjee, Andrea Huston, Boyko Kabakchiev, Micheline Piquette-Miller, Ron van Schaik, Ruslan Dorfman
Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing is gaining recognition from physicians, pharmacists and patients as a tool for evidence-based medication management. However, seemingly similar PGx testing panels (and PGx-based decision support tools) can diverge in their technological specifications, as well as the genetic factors that determine test specificity and sensitivity, and hence offer different values for users. Reluctance to embrace PGx testing is often the result of unfamiliarity with PGx technology, a lack of knowledge about the availability of curated guidelines/evidence for drug dosing recommendations, and an absence of wide-spread institutional implementation efforts and educational support...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
A H Fine
Over the past 20 years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the psychological and physiological impact that animals have on the lives of people with disabilities. The focus of this paper is to demystify the mechanisms that are affected as a consequence of these interactions as well as to describe the value of various types of therapeutic working animals. For human-animal interactions to become more legitimised, more rigorous empirical research needs to be undertaken to demonstrate the value of such interactions as well as the need for changes in the public policy impacting them...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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