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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453834/demystifying-evidence-based-policy-analysis-by-revealing-hidden-value-laden-constraints
#1
Adam M Finkel
Consider any choice that affects some social policy. A decision that considers evidence will, at its heart, contain some kind of explicit or implicit "because" statement: "We are doing X because the evidence says Y." But can evidence ever truly speak for itself, in the sense of being reducible to objective utterances that are either correct or in need of correction? Before answering, consider what you'd prefer. Would you rather receive evidence that was free of any value judgments imposed by human actors, that was laden with value judgments that you agree with, or laden with value judgments that you disagree with? The central assertion of this essay is that, throughout policy analysis but especially in assessments of the costs and benefits of regulating versus encouraging new technologies (cost-benefit analysis, or CBA), the first possibility above is a mirage, and the second and third are self-contradictory...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408258/cell-division-single-cell-physiology-reveals-secrets-of%C3%A2-chromosome-condensation
#2
Kerry Bloom
Our understanding of higher order chromosome structure has been transformed through statistical mechanics-based computer simulations of polymer chains. A new study exploring basic electrostatic interactions demystifies how chromosomes regulate their state of compaction over several orders of magnitude.
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400861/interpreting-angular-momentum-transfer-between-electromagnetic-multipoles-using-vector-spherical-harmonics
#3
Roger Grinter, Garth A Jones
The transfer of angular momentum between a quadrupole emitter and a dipole acceptor is investigated theoretically. Vector spherical harmonics are used to describe the angular part of the field of the mediating photon. Analytical results are presented for predicting angular momentum transfer between the emitter and absorber within a quantum electrodynamical framework. We interpret the allowability of such a process, which appears to violate conservation of angular momentum, in terms of the breakdown of the isotropy of space at the point of photon absorption (detection)...
February 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380650/demystifying-balint-culture-and-its-impact-an-autoethnographic-analysis
#4
Jeffrey L Sternlieb
Balint groups are a structured group process designed for physicians and other helping professionals to provide feedback to each other concerning troublesome patient encounters. The process of Balint groups has survived and even thrived for more than a half century since their inception, suggesting their inherent value. However, measuring the impact in order to communicate the nature of that value has been elusive. A recent literature review highlighted the equivocal nature of research results and suggested that well-designed qualitative research may be more effective in selecting target measures which could result in better evidence for this group process...
January 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318423/demystifying-liver-iron-concentration-measurements-with-mri
#5
B Henninger
This Editorial comment refers to the article: Non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentration using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: validation against biopsy. D'Assignies G, et al. Eur Radiol Nov 2017. KEY POINTS: • MRI is a widely accepted reliable tool to determine liver iron concentration. • MRI cannot measure iron directly, it needs calibration. • Calibration curves for 3.0T are rare in the literature. • The study by d'Assignies et al. provides valuable information on this topic...
January 9, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298581/plurality-in-understandings-of-innovation-sociotechnical-progress-and-sustainable-development-an-analysis-of-oecd-expert-narratives
#6
Paulo Savaget, Liliana Acero
Deterministic theory and discourse on sociotechnical progress ignore the existence of multiple and equally viable pathways towards progress, obscure socioeconomic and environmental conflicting interests and values, and overshadow socially inclusive deliberative choices about policy strategies. Demystifying techno-determinism, by incorporating a plurality of understandings to policy appraisal, becomes a matter of not only democratic accountability but also of analytical rigour. This article analyses the normative and ontological understandings on scientific and technological pathways among a group of experts interviewed at one key Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, using Q-methodology...
March 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283276/engaged-for-change-a-community-engaged-process-for-developing-interventions-to-reduce-health-disparities
#7
Scott D Rhodes, Lilli Mann-Jackson, Jorge Alonzo, Florence M Simán, Aaron T Vissman, Jennifer Nall, Claire Abraham, Robert E Aronson, Amanda E Tanner
The science underlying the development of individual, community, system, and policy interventions designed to reduce health disparities has lagged behind other innovations. Few models, theoretical frameworks, or processes exist to guide intervention development. Our community-engaged research partnership has been developing, implementing, and evaluating efficacious interventions to reduce HIV disparities for over 15 years. Based on our intervention research experiences, we propose a novel 13-step process designed to demystify and guide intervention development...
December 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243843/signaling-cascades-in-thyroid-cancer-increasing-the-armory-of-archers-to-hit-bullseye
#8
Faiza Abdul Rashid, Qaisar Mansoor, Hafsa Aziz, Sobia Tabassum, Waleed O Arfat, George E Naoum, Muhammad Ismail, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi
Thyroid cancer is a multifaceted and therapeutically challenging disease and rapidly accumulating experimentally verified findings have considerably improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms which underlie its development. Substantial fraction of information has been added into existing landscape of molecular oncology and we have started to develop a sharper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of thyroid cancer. Wealth of information demystified different intracellular signaling cascades which are frequently deregulated in thyroid cancer...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237440/experiences-of-community-members-and-researchers-on-community-engagement-in-an-ecohealth-project-in-south-africa-and-zimbabwe
#9
Rosemary Musesengwa, Moses J Chimbari
BACKGROUND: Community engagement (CE) models have provided much needed guidance for researchers to conceptualise and design engagement strategies for research projects. Most of the published strategies, however, still show very limited contribution of the community to the engagement process. One way of achieving this is to document experiences of community members in the CE processes during project implementation. The aim of our study was to explore the experiences of two research naïve communities, regarding a CE strategy collaboratively developed by researchers and study communities in a multicountry study...
December 13, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228870/augmented-photocatalytic-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-prunosynthetic-silver-nanoparticles
#10
Shaan Bibi Jaffri, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad
The present study has demystified the first and single step prunosynthesis of the spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of angiospermic plant, Prunus cerasifera, which has remarkable fusion of reducing cum stabilizing bioactive components (phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, organic acids, tannins and vitamins). Highly stable prunosynthetic AgNPs with 2.04 nm average crystallite size were synthesized in dark and in sunlight at optimized condition of temperature, time and P...
December 11, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200478/submission-to-publication-demystified-a-guide-for-authors
#11
EDITORIAL
Ish Kumar Dhammi, Rehan Ul Haq
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182323/demystifying-p2y1-receptor-ligand-recognition-through-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-analyses
#12
Antonella Ciancetta, Robert D O'Connor, Silvia Paoletta, Kenneth A Jacobson
We performed a molecular modeling analysis of 100 nucleotide-like bisphosphates and 46 non-nucleotide arylurea derivatives previously reported as P2Y1R binders using the recently solved hP2Y1R structures. We initially docked the compounds at the X-ray structures and identified the binding modes of representative compounds highlighting key patterns in the structure-activity relationship (SAR). We subsequently subjected receptor complexes with selected key agonists (2MeSADP and MRS2268) and antagonists (MRS2500 and BPTU) to membrane molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (at least 200 ns run in triplicate, simulation time 0...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159675/diffusion-weighted-imaging-demystified-the-technique-and-potential-clinical-applications-for-soft-tissue-imaging
#13
REVIEW
Shivani Ahlawat, Laura M Fayad
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement...
November 20, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074394/n-6-adenine-dna-methylation-demystified-in-eukaryotic-genome-from-biology-to-pathology
#14
REVIEW
Nidarshana Chaturvedi Parashar, Gaurav Parashar, Harsh Nayyar, Rajat Sandhir
N(6)-methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine (m6dA) is a well characterized DNA modification in prokaryotes. Its existence in eukaryotic DNA remained doubtful until recently. Evidence suggests that the m6dA levels decrease with the increasing complexity of eukaryotic genomes. Analysis of m6dA levels in genome of lower eukaryotes reveals its role in gene regulation, nucleosome positioning and early development. In higher eukaryotes m6dA is enriched in nongenic region compared to genic region, preferentially in chromosome X and 13 suggesting a chromosome bias...
October 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072121/colonic-stasis-and-chronic-constipation-demystifying-proposed-risk-factors-for-colon-polyp-formation-in-a-spinal-cord-injury-veteran-population
#15
Jason Colizzo, Jonathan Keshishian, Ambuj Kumar, Gitanjali Vidyarthi, Donald Amodeo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) suffer significant morbidity from neurogenic bowel. Chronic constipation has long-been a proposed risk factor for polyp development. We performed a retrospective cohort study in veterans with SCI to assess polyp presence in the setting of colonic stasis. METHODS: All consecutive patients at the James A. Haley Veterans Affairs Hospital with SCI and neurogenic bowel who completed screening colonoscopy between January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2013 were included...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067928/multi-organ-igg4-related-disease-demystifying-the-diagnostic-enigma
#16
S Bhardwaj, S Goyal, A K Yadav, A Goyal
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multisystemic mass forming immune-mediated disease entity, commonly creating confusion and diagnostic challenges. We present a case of a 25-year-old female who presented with bilateral orbital masses, lymphadenopathy, paraspinal and renal masses, which clinicoradiologically simulated lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy revealed interfollicular sheets of plasma cells creating confusion with Castleman's disease and marginal zone lymphoma. The orbital biopsy revealed ductular destruction, periductular plasma cells, and fibrosis, mimicking Sjogren's syndrome and Castleman's disease...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066449/effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-arterial-stiffness-and-central-blood-pressure-indexes-demystifying-the-evidence
#17
EDITORIAL
Pankaj Arora, Thomas J Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052731/demystifying-neurosarcoidosis-and-informing-prognosis
#18
Jeffrey M Gelfand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040894/demystifying-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-ercp-during-pregnancy
#19
REVIEW
Vítor Magno-Pereira, Pedro Moutinho-Ribeiro, Guilherme Macedo
BACKGROUND: For many years, ERCP was avoided in pregnancy given the concerns regarding the adverse effects that, with special focus on radiation, could occur in the developing fetus. However, the postponement or rejection of ERCP in pregnant women, may lead to a higher risk for mother and fetus, especially when the indication is unequivocal, namely cholangitis, biliary pancreatitis and symptomatic choledocholithiasis. SUMMARY AND KEY MESSAGES: This review aims to summarize the scarce literature on the subject in order to plan ERCP in pregnancy with the highest safety...
December 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040397/demystifying-the-july-effect-in-plastic-surgery-a-multi-institutional-study
#20
Jordan T Blough, Sumanas W Jordan, Gildasio S De Oliveira, Michael M Vu, John Y S Kim
Background: The "July Effect" refers to a theoretical increase in complications that may occur with the influx of inexperienced interns and residents at the beginning of each academic year in July. Objectives: We endeavored to determine if a July Effect occurs in plastic surgery. Methods: Plastic surgery procedures were isolated from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program registry. Cases involving residents were grouped as either having occurred within the first academic quarter (AQ1) or remaining year (AQ2-4)...
September 15, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
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