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disorders of conscious

Mohammad-Amin Khajezadeh, Gholamreza Zamani, Bobak Moazzami, Zahra Nagahi, Mahdie Mousavi-Torshizi, Vahid Ziaee
Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder characterized by multisystem involvement, including the nervous system. In the present study, we aimed to assess neuropsychiatric manifestations in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) in Iran. Methods: One hundred and forty-six pediatric onset patients with SLE who had registered in our pediatric rheumatology database were evaluated prospectively and cross sectionally within 2013-2015...
2018: Neurology Research International
Amelie Haugg, Rhodri Cusack, Laura E Gonzalez-Lara, Bettina Sorger, Adrian M Owen, Lorina Naci
It is well established that some patients, who are deemed to have disorders of consciousness, remain entirely behaviorally non-responsive and are diagnosed as being in a vegetative state, yet can nevertheless demonstrate covert awareness of their external environment by modulating their brain activity, a phenomenon known as cognitive-motor dissociation. However, the extent to which these patients retain internal awareness remains unknown. To investigate the potential for internal and external awareness in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC), we asked whether the pattern of juxtaposition between the functional time-courses of the default mode (DMN) and fronto-parietal networks, shown in healthy individuals to mediate the naturally occurring dominance switching between internal and external aspects of consciousness, was present in these patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Xerxes D Arsiwalla, Paul Verschure
The grand quest for a scientific understanding of consciousness has given rise to many new theoretical and empirical paradigms for investigating the phenomenology of consciousness as well as clinical disorders associated to it. A major challenge in this field is to formalize computational measures that can reliably quantify global brain states from data. In particular, information-theoretic complexity measures such as integrated information have been proposed as measures of conscious awareness. This suggests a new framework to quantitatively classify states of consciousness...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jeremy D Schmahmann
What the cerebellum does to sensorimotor and vestibular control, it also does to cognition, emotion, and autonomic function. This hypothesis is based on the theories of dysmetria of thought and the universal cerebellar transform, which hold that the cerebellum maintains behavior around a homeostatic baseline, automatically, without conscious awareness, informed by implicit learning, and performed according to context. Functional topography within the cerebellum facilitates the modulation of distributed networks subserving multiple different functions...
July 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Juanning Si, Yuanyuan Dang, Yujin Zhang, Yaxin Li, Wenyue Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Cui, Xiaoping Lou, Jianghong He, Tianzi Jiang
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a promising technique for treating disorders of consciousness (DOCs). However, differences in the spatio-temporal responsiveness of the brain under varied SCS parameters remain unclear. In this pilot study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure the hemodynamic responses of 10 DOC patients to different SCS frequencies (5 Hz, 10 Hz, 50 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz). In the prefrontal cortex, a key area in consciousness circuits, we found significantly increased hemodynamic responses at 70 Hz and 100 Hz, and significantly different hemodynamic responses between 50 Hz and 70 Hz/100 Hz...
July 11, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Asim Shuja, Asad Ur Rahman, Wasseem Skef, Carmen Smotherman, Jian Guan, Miguel Malespin, Silvio W de Melo
Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic, debilitating disorder associated with multiple complications, frequently necessitating hospitalization. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal trends for hospitalization, mean length of stay (LOS), and cost associated with inpatient admissions for CP across the United States. Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, all hospitalizations between 1997 and 2014 were analyzed. We examined annual data for rate of hospitalization, average LOS and cost for CP inpatient admissions...
July 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Michaela V Bonfert, Katharina Badura, Julia Gerstl, Ingo Borggraefe, Florian Heinen, Sebastian Schroeder, Martin Olivieri, Raphael Weinberger, Mirjam N Landgraf, Katharina Vill, Moritz Tacke, Steffen Berweck, Karl Reiter, Florian Hoffmann, Thomas Nicolai, Lucia Gerstl
Objective: Acute childhood stroke is an emergency requiring a high level of awareness among first-line healthcare providers. This survey serves as an indicator of the awareness of, the interest in, and knowledge of childhood stroke of German pediatricians. Methods: Thousand six hundred and ninety-seven physicians of pediatric in- and outpatient facilities in Bavaria, Germany, were invited via email to an online-survey about childhood stroke. Results: The overall participation rate was 14%. Forty-six percent of participants considered a diagnosis of childhood stroke at least once during the past year, and 47% provide care for patients who have suffered childhood stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Rose A Cooper, Jon S Simons
Increasing evidence indicates that the subjective experience of recollection is diminished in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to neurotypical individuals. The neurocognitive basis of this difference in how past events are re-experienced has been debated and various theoretical accounts have been proposed to date. Although each existing theory may capture particular features of memory in ASD, recent research questions whether any of these explanations are alone sufficient or indeed fully supported. This review first briefly considers the cognitive neuroscience of how episodic recollection operates in the neurotypical population, informing predictions about the encoding and retrieval mechanisms that might function atypically in ASD...
July 9, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Karmele Olaciregui Dague, R Surges, J Litmathe, L Villa, J Brokmann, J B Schulz, M Dafotakis, O Matz
AIM: The differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic episodes can be challenging. Our aim was to compare lactate, anion gap (AG), bicarbonate and the Denver Seizure Score (DSS) as point-of-care test (POCT) markers for episodes of transient alterations of consciousness. METHODS: The blood serum parameters were drawn at arrival in the emergency department (ED) within 2 h of the episode. After calculating AG and DSS values, the four parameters were compared retrospectively between patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) (n = 165) and patients with other disorders of consciousness [syncopes (n = 43), and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (n = 15)]...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Xuehai Wu, Jiaying Zhang, Zaixu Cui, Weijun Tang, Chunhong Shao, Jin Hu, Jianhong Zhu, Yao Zhao, Lu Lu, Gang Chen, Georg Northoff, Gaolang Gong, Ying Mao, Yong He
In this study, we aimed to (1) identify white matter (WM) deficits underlying the consciousness level in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and (2) evaluate the relationship between DTI metrics and clinical measures of the consciousness level in DOC patients. With a cohort of 8 comatose, 8 unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and 14 minimally conscious state patients and 25 patient controls, we performed group comparisons of the DTI metrics in 48 core WM regions of interest (ROIs), and examined the clinical relevance using correlation analysis...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Betty Wutzl, Axel Friedrich Unterrainer, Martin Kronbichler, Frank Rattay, Eugen Trinka, Franz Gerstenbrand, Stefan Martin Golaszewski
CLINICAL CASE: We report on a 19-year old male patient who is recovering from near-drowning. The patient was admitted for re-evaluation in a Minimally Conscious State. METHOD: A regular functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging was not possible due to complex motor tics of the patient with sudden flexion and extension movements of arms and legs as well as opisthotonic retroflexion of the head and trunk. Thus, the patient was anaesthetised and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed under general anaesthesia which was introduced and maintained with Sevoflorane and Fentanyl provided analgesia...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Y H Koh
Heat stroke is a life threatening, multisystem disorder characterized by severe hyperthermia (core body temperature > 41.1°C) with central nervous system dysfunction and/or other end organ damage. Neurological complications, such as disturbances of consciousness, convulsion, profound mental change, disorientation, or even prolonged coma, were present in almost all cases of exertional heat stroke (EHS). We present a case of EHS with severe rhabdomyolysis and acute oliguric kidney injury in a 20-year-old healthy marathon runner, who developed status epilepticus on Day 4 of his admission...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
Christian Oldenburg, Anders Lundin, Gunnar Edman, Catharina Nygren Deboussard, Aniko Bartfai
OBJECTIVE: Prolonged post-concussive symptoms (PCS) affect a significant minority of patients withmild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The aetiology is multifactorial depending on preinjury as well as peri-injury and postinjury factors. In this study, we examine outcome from an emotional reserve perspective. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients were recruited from three emergency departments in major university hospitals in Stockholm, Sweden...
July 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Kyle D Webster, Susan Michalowski, Thomas E Hranilovich
The legitimacy and etiology of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) remains a controversial topic within Psychiatry. The two schools of thought are the Post-Traumatic Model (PTM) and the Socio-Cognitive Model (SCM). This case highlights the validity of PTM in an individual who suffered severe and prolonged physical, psychological, and sexual abuse from 2 years old through adulthood. The reported abuse was corroborated and proven on two separate occasions via medical professionals/rape kit and the police. This resulted in the incarceration of one of her abusers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Lisa Quadt, Hugo D Critchley, Sarah N Garfinkel
Interoception is the sensing of internal bodily sensations. Interoception is an umbrella term that encompasses (1) the afferent (body-to-brain) signaling through distinct neural and humoral (including immune and endocrine) channels; (2) the neural encoding, representation, and integration of this information concerning internal bodily state; (3) the influence of such information on other perceptions, cognitions, and behaviors; (4) and the psychological expression of these representations as consciously accessible physical sensations and feelings...
July 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Philipp Schmidt
The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the contributions of phenomenology-inspired approaches to the explanation of psychopathological phenomena. First, I introduce the notion of Explanatory First-Person Approaches (EFPA) which share the assumption that the explanation of consciousness and conscious phenomena necessitates, at least partially, phenomenal facts functioning as explanans. Phenomenal facts refer to facts about structures and processes of consciousness. To differentiate phenomenology from other EFPA and to extract its distinctive feature, I compare phenomenology to the method falling under the category of EFPA it overlaps with the most: new introspective methods as recently described...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jee Hee Han, Sun Ah Kim, Sue Kim, Jin Young Park
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing disordered eating behaviors in female college students based on the theory of triadic influence. DESIGN AND METHOD: The participants in this study were 307 college females in Korea. Data were analyzed using t-tests, correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analyses. FINDINGS: Multiple regression analysis revealed that objectified body consciousness, social physique anxiety, and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance influenced disordered eating behavior (R2  = 0...
July 3, 2018: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Ping Chen, Qiuyou Xie, Xiaoyan Wu, Huiyuan Huang, Wei Lv, Lixiang Chen, Yequn Guo, Shufei Zhang, Huiqing Hu, You Wang, Yangang Nie, Ronghao Yu, Ruiwang Huang
A number of studies have indicated that disorders of consciousness result from multifocal injuries as well as from the impaired functional and anatomical connectivity between various anterior forebrain regions. However, the specific causal mechanism linking these regions remains unclear. In this study, we used spectral dynamic causal modeling to assess how the effective connections (ECs) between various regions differ between individuals. Next, we used connectome-based predictive modeling to evaluate the performance of the ECs in predicting the clinical scores of DOC patients...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Anna Castelnovo, Régis Lopez, Paola Proserpio, Lino Nobili, Yves Dauvilliers
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias (or NREM parasomnias) are fascinating disorders with mysterious neurobiological substrates. These conditions are common and often severe, with social, personal and forensic implications. The NREM parasomnias include sleepwalking, sleep terrors and confusional arousals - collectively termed disorders of arousal (DOAs) - as well as less well-known entities such as sleep-related sexual behaviours and eating disorders. Affected patients can exhibit waking behaviours arising abruptly out of NREM sleep...
June 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Holta Zhuzhuni, Andrea Nazaret, Lanfranco Iodice, Saverio Celletti, Sabrina Anticoli, Luigi Di Cioccio, Francesco Cipolla
Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is a disorder with visual deficit and complex recurrent visual hallucination in conscious patients, described for the first time by Charles Bonnet. It has been found in association with variable pathologic conditions of the eyes, central visual pathways and occipital lobe. Occipital lobe lesion is an important cause of visual field deficit associated with elementary simple hallucinations, whereas complex hallucinations are related to occipitotemporal and occipitoparietal visual association neocortex damage...
June 15, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
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