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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446192/psychosomatic-aspects-of-alopecia-areata
#1
Fabiane Mulinari-Brenner
Psychologic and social effects of scalp hair are more important than its biologic significance. Etiology of alopecia areata (AA) suggests a predominantly autoimmune reaction. Correlation between AA and psychologic disorders is reciprocal. Psychiatric disorders can trigger the onset of AA and its negative consequences may develop or exacerbate psychologic problems. The high incidence of a neurotic personality, depression, anxiety, and deficiency in coping with stress strengthen the role of psychic factors in the pathogenesis of AA...
November 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444524/volumetric-and-three-dimensional-examination-of-sella-turcica-by-cone-beam-computed-tomography-reference-data-for-guidance-to-pathologic-pituitary-morphology
#2
Lale Taner, Fatma Deniz Uzuner, Oguzhan Demirel, Kahraman Gungor
BACKGROUND: To assess the dimensions and volume of sella turcica in healthy Caucasian adults with normal occlusion and facial appearance from cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CBCT images of 80 Caucasian adult patients (40 males, 40 females) with normal facial appearance and occlusion taken previously for diagnostic purposes were evaluated. Two groups were constructed in accordance to gender. The volume, length, diameter, and depth of the sella turcica were measured by Romexis software program...
November 16, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30441394/motor-attempt-eeg-paradigm-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-disorders-of-consciousness
#3
Christoph Schneider, Serafeim Perdikis, Marina Silva, Jane Johr, Alexander Pincherle, Jose Del R Millan, Karin Diserens
To investigate whether a motor attempt EEG paradigm coupled with functional electrical stimulation can detect command following and, therefore, signs of conscious awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness, we recorded nine patients admitted to acute rehabilitation after a brain lesion. We extracted peak classification accuracy and peak session discriminant power (PSDP) and we assessed their correlation to the established coma recovery scale revised (CRS-R) and the agreement with diagnosis based on the novel motor behavior tool (MBT)...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30440775/frequency-band-variations-predict-eeg-single-trial-classification-performance-in-disorder-of-consciousness-patients
#4
Andrea Finke, Inga Steppacher, Johanna Kissler, Helge Ritter
Single-trial classification of EEG data from Disorder of Consciousness patients (DoC) has proved particularly challenging. We present an approach that establishes a measure to relate the performance of single-trial classification of DoC patient EEG data with relational frequency bands and thus with their mental state. We evaluate our approach on 31 patient data sets from two studies, showing that our measure indicates for different data sets a particular likelihood for misclassifying either target or non-target class samples...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30439816/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-in-a-patient-treated-with-clotiapine
#5
Clémentine Lantin, Miriam Franco, François-Xavier Dekeuleneer, Didier Chamart, Juan Martin Tecco
BACKGROUND: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), which is linked to the use of antipsychotic medication, is a potentially lethal neurological emergency. The interest of our study is that NMS induced by the use of clotiapine has never previously been described. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We present the case of a 61-year old man whose sleep disorders were treated with clotiapine 40 mg/day. After 7 days of taking 40 mg clotiapine, the patient presented with a deterioration of his general health which had gradually taken hold, with altered consciousness accompanied by generalised muscle rigidity and hypersalivation...
November 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430963/selegiline-in-patients-with-disorder-of-consciousness-an-open-pilot-study
#6
Orsola Masotta, Luigi Trojano, Vincenzo Loreto, Pasquale Moretta, Anna Estraneo
This open study investigated the clinical effects of 10-week selegiline administration in six patients in vegetative state and in four patients in a minimally conscious state, at least 6 months after onset. Clinical outcome was assessed by Coma Recovery Scale-Revised once a week during selegiline administration and 1 month later. Three patients stopped treatment because of possible side effects. After treatment and at 1 month of follow-up, four patients showed improvements in clinical diagnosis, and three patients showed an increase in arousal level only...
November 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428150/reduction-of-computed-tomography-use-for-pediatric-closed-head-injury-evaluation-at-a-non-pediatric-community-emergency-department
#7
Melissa S Puffenbarger, Fahd A Ahmad, Michelle Argent, Hongjie Gu, Charles Samson, Kimberly S Quayle, Jacqueline M Saito
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if implementation of a Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN)-based closed head injury assessment tool could safely decrease computed tomography (CT) use for pediatric head injury evaluation at a non-pediatric community emergency department (ED). METHODS: A quality improvement project was initiated at a non-pediatric community ED to implement an institution-specific, Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN)-based Pediatric Closed Head Injury Assessment Tool...
November 14, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30422917/periodic-limb-movements-in-a-comatose-patient-case-report
#8
Ana Aires, Helena Rocha, Ricardo Rego
Periodic limb movements (PLMs) may occur as a primary condition or be associated with other pathologies, such as sleep disorders. However, PLMs have not been described in comatose patients. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, with no history of sleep disorders, who presented PLMs during coma caused by an extensive right hemispheric abscess inducing midline shift. These movements were further characterized by video and electromyographic recordings, which displayed bilateral periodic bursts of the tibialis anterior muscles, occurring every 7 to 15 seconds, with no concomitant electroencephalographic correlate...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416476/multiple-dissociations-in-patients-with-disorders-of-body-awareness-implications-for-the-study-of-consciousness
#9
Gabriella Bottini, Francesca Giulia Magnani, Gerardo Salvato, Martina Gandola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416307/identification-and-management-of-delirious-mania-a-rare-clinical-entity
#10
Nishtha Chawla, Priyanka Yadav, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Sudhir K Khandelwal
Little is known about the entity of delirious mania, apart from a few reports. Delirious mania, though a potentially lethal condition, has not found a place in the current classification system. We discuss the approach to the identification and management of delirious mania in a female patient presenting with catatonic and delirious features, with a past history of recurrent mood episodes. However, it must be emphasized that it is likely to be a rare clinical presentation of bipolar disorder and should not be the first diagnostic consideration...
January 2018: Industrial Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407335/lithium-intoxication-presenting-as-altered-consciousness-and-arrhythmia-with-cardiogenic-shock-a-case-report
#11
Shun-Ching Chien, Kuan-Ting Liu, Yen-Hung Wu
RATIONALE: Lithium has been used to treat bipolar disorder. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic index, with a therapeutic level between 0.6 and 1.5 mEq/L. The possible complications of lithium overdose include altered mental status, hand tremor, muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, seizure, syncope, and arrhythmia. Lithium intoxication can be fatal and is difficult to diagnose in patients without a history of lithium intake. The occurrence of serious cardiac arrhythmias is rare in lithium intoxication...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405513/multimodal-neuroimaging-approach-to-variability-of-functional-connectivity-in-disorders-of-consciousness-a-pet-mri-pilot-study
#12
Carlo Cavaliere, Sivayini Kandeepan, Marco Aiello, Demetrius Ribeiro de Paula, Rocco Marchitelli, Salvatore Fiorenza, Mario Orsini, Luigi Trojano, Orsola Masotta, Keith St Lawrence, Vincenzo Loreto, Blaine Alexander Chronik, Emanuele Nicolai, Andrea Soddu, Anna Estraneo
Behavioral assessments could not suffice to provide accurate diagnostic information in individuals with disorders of consciousness (DoC). Multimodal neuroimaging markers have been developed to support clinical assessments of these patients. Here we present findings obtained by hybrid fludeoxyglucose (FDG-)PET/MR imaging in three severely brain-injured patients, one in an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), one in a minimally conscious state (MCS), and one patient emerged from MCS (EMCS). Repeated behavioral assessment by means of Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and neurophysiological evaluation were performed in the two weeks before and after neuroimaging acquisition, to ascertain that clinical diagnosis was stable...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403761/single-unit-activities-recorded-in-the-thalamus-and-the-overlying-parietal-cortex-of-subjects-affected-by-disorders-of-consciousness
#13
Lorenzo Magrassi, Antonio G Zippo, Alberto Azzalin, Stefano Bastianello, Roberto Imberti, Gabriele E M Biella
The lack of direct neurophysiological recordings from the thalamus and the cortex hampers our understanding of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state in humans. We obtained microelectrode recordings from the thalami and the homolateral parietal cortex of two vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and one minimally conscious state patients during surgery for implantation of electrodes in both thalami for chronic deep brain stimulation. We found that activity of the thalamo-cortical networks differed among the two conditions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388893/a-russian-validation-study-of-the-coma-recovery-scale-revised-crs-r
#14
Elizaveta G Iazeva, Liudmila A Legostaeva, Alexey A Zimin, Dmitry V Sergeev, Maxim A Domashenko, Vladislav Y Samorukov, Dzhamilya G Yusupova, Julia V Ryabinkina, Natalia A Suponeva, Michael A Piradov, Yelena G Bodien, Joseph T Giacino
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to develop and validate a Russian adaptation of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 58 patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (> 4 weeks post-injury, DOC) of various etiology and two patients in a locked-in state at different stages after coma. We tested sensitivity for changes over 1 week, reliability, criterion validity and diagnostic sensitivity of the Russian adaptation of the CRS-R in comparison with the Russian adaptations of Full Outline of UnResponsiveness Score (FOUR), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...
November 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388442/intact-automatic-motor-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Marius Keute, Kerstin Krauel, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Max-Philipp Stenner
Hyperactivity and impulsivity are defining symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), next to inattention. Hyperactive and impulsive behavior in ADHD is often thought to result from a deficit in inhibitory motor control. However, testing for such a deficit is complicated by coexisting deficits in ADHD, specifically an impairment in maintaining task set, e.g., due to inattention. Typical inhibition paradigms, such as Stop-signal, Go/NoGo or Flanker paradigms, are susceptible to a fundamental confound between inhibition and inattention because inhibition is an explicit goal in these tasks...
October 5, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30386265/hydrogen-sulfide-affects-radical-formation-in-the-hippocampus-of-lps-treated-rats-and-the-effect-of-antipsychotics-on-hydrogen-sulfide-forming-enzymes-in-human-cell-lines
#16
Olaf Sommer, Rosana L Aug, Andreas J Schmidt, Philip Heiser, Eberhard Schulz, Helmut Vedder, Hans-Willi Clement
Objectives: Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and other neuroinflammatory diseases are accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress and changes in the immune system and in the metabolic, hormonal and neurological components of the central nervous system (CNS). Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gaseous molecule that is endogenously produced in the peripheral and central nervous system through cysteine by the following major H2 S producing enzymes in the brain: cystathionine-γlyase (CSE), cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30384654/from-mind-to-molecules-and-back-to-mind-metatheoretical-limits-and-options-for-systems-neuropsychiatry
#17
Felix Tretter
Psychiatric illnesses like dementia are increasingly relevant for public health affairs. Neurobiology promises progress in diagnosis and treatment of these illnesses and exhibits a rapid increase of knowledge by new neurotechnologies. In order to find generic patterns in huge neurobiological data sets and by exploring formal brain models, non-linear science offers many examples of fruitful insights into the complex dynamics of neuronal information processing. However, it should be minded that neurobiology neither can bridge the explanatory gap between brain and mind nor can substitute psychological and psychiatric categories and knowledge...
October 2018: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30384371/ten-year-evaluation-of-the-toyota-prehospital-stroke-scale-for-tissue-plasminogen-activator-intravenous-therapy-in-the-real-world
#18
Junichiro Suzuki, Noriyoshi Nakai, Naohide Kondo, Hirotake Tsuji, Ryosuke Inagaki, Soma Furukawa, Mai Iwata, Suguru Nishida, Yasuhiro Ito
BACKGROUND: Emergency medical services are an important part of acute stroke management. We devised a prehospital stroke scale, the TOYOTA prehospital stroke scale for tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) intravenous therapy (TOPSPIN) for triaging patients with ischemic stroke and especial indications for intravenous t-PA therapy in December 2006; this scale comprises 5 items including consciousness, atrial fibrillation, language disorder, disturbance of the upper extremities, and disturbance of the lower extremities...
November 1, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30384281/a-big-five-facet-analysis-of-sub-clinical-dependent-personality-disorder-dutifulness
#19
Adrian Furnham
This study aimed to examine a Big Five, normal personality trait, "bright side" analysis of a sub-clinical personality disorder: Dependency Personality Disorder. Around 6000 British adults completed the NEO-PI-R which measures the Big Five personality factors at the domain and the facet level. They also completed the Hogan Development Survey (HDS) which has a measure of sub-clinical Dependency Personality Disorder called Dutiful as one of its eleven dysfunctional interpersonal tendencies. Correlation and regression results confirmed many of the associations between the Big Five domains and facets and sub-clinical Dependency...
October 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380923/an-analysis-of-the-effects-of-using-zolpidem-and-an-innovative-multimodal-interdisciplinary-team-approach-in-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-pdoc
#20
Mark Delargy, Rebecca O'Connor, Alison McCann, Irene Galligan, Heather Cronin, Dee Gray, Caoimhe O'Toole
Zolpidem has been used with mixed effects in patients presenting with Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness (PDOC). This single case report describes an interdisciplinary team (IDT) protocol combined with Zolpidem 10 mg in a single case of a patient in PDOC. 'Emily', a 44-year-old lady was admitted to a rehabilitation unit in Ireland one year post onset of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Standardized assessments diagnosed her as being in a minimally conscious state (MCS). An IDT protocol was devised to stimulate and record responses to sensory and pharmacological stimuli...
October 31, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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