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disorders of conscious

Min Wu, Wang-Xiao Bao, Jie Zhang, Yang-Fan Hu, Jian Gao, Ben-Yan Luo
Auditory stimuli are proposed as beneficial neurorehabilitation methods in patients with disorders of consciousness. However, precise and accurate quantitative indices to estimate their potential effect remain scarce. Fourteen patients were recruited from the Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit of Hangzhou Hospital of Zhejiang Armed Police Corps of China. Altogether, there were seven cases of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (five males and two females, aged 45.7 ± 16.8 years) and seven cases of minimally conscious state (six males and one female, aged 42...
November 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Giovanna Mazzone, Carmine Morisco, Vincenzo Lembo, Giuseppe D'Argenio, Maria D'Armiento, Antonella Rossi, Carmine Del Giudice, Bruno Trimarco, Nicola Caporaso, Filomena Morisco
Background: The western diet high in fat and fructose may cause metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate whether long-term daily vitamin D3 supplementation prevents hepatic steatosis and cardiovascular abnormalities and restores insulin sensitivity caused by fat diet in rats without vitamin D deficiency. Methods: Three groups of rats were fed for 6 months with standard diet (SD), western diet (WD) or WD containing 23 IU/day/rat vitamin D3 , respectively...
August 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Flora Hammond, Joseph Giacino, Risa Nakase-Richardson, Mark Sherer, Ross D Zafonte, John Whyte, David B Arciniegas, Xinyu Tang
Few studies have assessed the long-term functional outcomes of patients with a disorder of consciousness due to traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study examined functional status during the first ten years after TBI among a cohort with disorders of consciousness (i.e., coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state). The study sample included 110 individuals with TBI who were unable to follow commands prior to inpatient rehabilitation and for whom follow-up data were available at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years post-injury...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Filippo Boriani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Richard D Lane, Frances Sommer Anderson, Ryan Smith
BACKGROUND: Early adversity predisposes to chronic pain, but a mechanistic explanation is lacking. Survivors of early adversity with chronic pain often appear impaired in their ability to be aware of, understand, and express distressing emotions such as anger and fear in social contexts. In this context, it has been proposed that pain may at times serve as a "psychic regulator" by preventing awareness of more intolerable emotions. METHOD: This narrative review builds on the premise is that physical and emotional pain are conscious experiences that can compete for selective attention...
September 14, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Nasser M Aldossary, Mamdouh Ali Kotb, Ahmed M Kamal
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the major public health problem worldwide, particularly in the Middle East. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is commonly found in TBI. Although DAI can lead to physical and psychosocial disabilities, its prognostic value is still a matter of debate. Magnetic Resonance (MR) is more sensitive for detecting DAI lesions. OBJECTIVE: To identify the radiological and clinical factors associated with the functional capacity one year after the traumatic brain injury...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Amy Burns, Mandy Irvine, Kate Woodcock
Adults with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of developing comorbid depressive symptoms and in the general population self-focused attention has been associated with depression. Here, we aimed to examine the relationships between aspects of self-focused attention and symptoms of depression in individuals with a diagnosis of ASD. 113 adults with a diagnosis of ASD completed self-report questionnaires. Results found that higher levels of brooding, and to a lesser degree, reflection predicted increased depressive symptoms...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Aniruddh Kapoor, Laurence Kinsella
Aim: Through this case report we attempt to highlight the presentation, initial investigation and management of lingual myoclonus as well as consolidate relevant literature. Case: We present a unique case of a 72-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital for a sudden onset episodic speech arrest. Lingual myoclonus, an isolated movement disorder, manifested as an intermittent expressive aphasia secondary to the intrusion-protrusion movements of his tongue. During this time, the patient remained conscious and was able to continue to follow commands...
2018: Clinical Neurophysiology Practice
Yabin Li, Xianggui Luo, Miao Wan, Jiao Li, Hongxia Wang, Dang Wei, Haixia Feng
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The survivors usually suffer from disorders of consciousness, especially coma state and persistent vegetative state. For these patients, there is no standard treatment for them, but non-invasive brain stimulations are considered as relatively more acceptable treatments. However, the knowledge regarding the relative effectiveness and the rank of the effectiveness of the non-invasive brain stimulations is limited...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hassan Mirza, Duncan Harding, Naser Al-Balushi
Schizophrenia is a serious long-term mental disorder which usually presents in adolescence or early adulthood. However, poor adherence to oral antipsychotics can lead to relapse and rehospitalisation. We report an adolescent male with schizophrenia who was referred to the South London & Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, UK, in 2015 due to worsening psychotic symptoms. Following poor compliance with oral medications, a four-week regimen of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injections was initiated, with an initial positive response...
May 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Domantė Kučikienė, Rūta Praninskienė
In this article we conclude the main scientific studies into the changes in the bioelectrical brainwave activity that occur while listening to music. A brainwave spectral analysis, derived from findings of electroencephalograms, is a powerful tool to obtain deep and objective insights into the effects of music on the brain. This capacity is being investigated in various contexts. Starting with a healthy population, studies also seek to determine the impact of music in such conditions as disorders of consciousness, psychiatric diseases, and chronic conditions, as well as to further explore the role of music for rehabilitation purposes...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Orsolya Friedrich, Andreas Wolkenstein, Ralf J Jox, Niek Rogger, Claudia Bozzaro
Some authors have questioned the moral authority of advance directives (ADs) in cases in which it is not clear if the author of the AD is identical to the person to whom it later applies. This article focuses on the question of whether the latest results of neuroimaging studies have moral significance with regard to the moral authority of ADs in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs). Some neuroimaging findings could provide novel insights into the question of whether patients with DOCs exhibit sufficient psychological continuity to be ascribed diachronic personal identity...
October 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Meng Jin, Wenlong Sheng, Liwen Han, Qiuxia He, Xiuna Ji, Kechun Liu
Seizures are sustained neuronal hyperexcitability in brain that result in loss of consciousness and injury. Understanding how the brain responds to seizures is critical to help developing new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. However, the mechanisms underlying seizure-dependent alterations of biological properties are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed gene expression profiles of the zebrafish heads that were undergoing seizures and identified 1776 differentially expressed genes...
September 6, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Corinne A Bareham, Judith Allanson, Neil Roberts, Peter J A Hutchinson, John D Pickard, David K Menon, Srivas Chennu
Clinicians are regularly faced with the difficult challenge of diagnosing consciousness after severe brain injury. As such, as many as 40% of minimally conscious patients who demonstrate fluctuations in arousal and awareness are known to be misdiagnosed as unresponsive/vegetative based on clinical consensus. Further, a significant minority of patients show evidence of hidden awareness not evident in their behavior. Despite this, clinical assessments of behavior are commonly used as bedside indicators of consciousness...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Kentaro Watanabe, Yuki Arakawa, Eiji Oguma, Taichi Uehara, Masato Yanagi, Chigusa Oyama, Yuhachi Ikeda, Koji Sasaki, Kiyotaka Isobe, Makiko Mori, Ryoji Hanada, Katsuyoshi Koh
Intrathecal administration of methotrexate (IT-MTX) can lead to neurotoxicity. MTX-induced neurotoxicity occasionally manifests with a stroke-like presentation that is difficult to distinguish from genuine stroke. We retrospectively reviewed records of nine patients with leukemia or lymphoma and episodes of stroke-like presentation at our institute between 2010 and 2015 for whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were available. Coagulation test results were compared between the two diagnostic groups. Four patients were diagnosed with MTX-induced stroke-like neurotoxicity...
September 4, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
J Zhang, Y H Zhang, J Y Chen, L P Zhang, Q Zeng, X J Tian, Z X Yang, Y Wu, X L Yang, X R Wu
Objective: To summarize the clinical features of TBC1D24 gene mutations associated with epilepsy. Methods: All the patients with TBC1D24 gene compound heterozygous mutations were retrospectively collected at the Pediatric Department of Peking University First Hospital from March 2015 to July 2017, and the features of clinical manifestations, electroencephalogram, and neuroimaging were analyzed. Results: Eighteen cases with TBC1D24 gene compound heterozygous mutations were included. The age of seizure onset was 1 day to 8 months, and the median age was 90 days...
September 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
M Moriya, K Sakatani
Early mobilization and rehabilitation of stroke patients can improve functional recovery. However, effects of mobilization on the responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and emotions in post-stroke patients are not yet clear, particularly in patients with disorders of consciousness. We evaluated the effects of standing load on the ANS and emotions of post-stroke patients (n = 8, 70.8 ± 11.8 years) with a disorder of consciousness by measuring the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity, which plays important roles in regulation of the ANS and emotions...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Takaaki Yasuda, Junichi Hatakeda, Haruo Yoshimasu
Many clinicians treat patients with neurological symptoms such as muscle weakness and involuntary movements, that do not correspond to organic findings. The differential diagnosis of patients with medically unexplainable symptoms includes conversion disorder, somatic symptom disorder, and illness anxiety disorder among others. Conversion disorder is a mental disorder with pseudo-neurological symptoms that are not due to an organic abnormality. For its diagnosis it is necessary to show that the symptoms and findings are not compatible with neurological diseases...
September 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Helen Colquhoun, Robert Riesenberg, C Neill Epperson, Kristina M Deligiannidis, David R Rubinow, Haihong Li, Abdul J Sankoh, Christine Clemson, Amy Schacterle, Jeffrey Jonas, Stephen Kanes
BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression is associated with substantial morbidity, and improved pharmacological treatment options are urgently needed. We assessed brexanolone injection (formerly SAGE-547 injection), a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric-acid type A (GABAA ) receptors, for the treatment of moderate to severe post-partum depression. METHODS: We did two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials, at 30 clinical research centres and specialised psychiatric units in the USA...
August 31, 2018: Lancet
Magdalena Gontarz, Ewa Papuć, Konrad Rejdak
Paroxysmal dyskinesias refer to category of abnormal involuntary movements, such as chorea, dystonia, athetosis, ballism or their various configurations. Depending on the type of seizure, sudden movement, stress, emotions, coffee or alcohol may be the trigger factors. Acute seizures are characterized by short duration and are self-limitated. Patients present correct portray of movements between seizures. Intact consciousness during seizure is the invariable characteristic of all paroxysmal dyskinesias. The intent of this work is to systematize knowledge about paroxysmal dyskinesias...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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