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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654760/gametocidal-genes-of-aegilops-segregation-distorters-in-wheat-aegilops-wide-hybridization
#1
M Niranjana
Aegilops is a genus belonging to the Poaceace family which have played indispensible role in the evolution of bread wheat and continues to do so by transferring genes by wide hybridization. Being the secondary genepool of wheat, gene transfer from Aegilops poses difficulties and segregation distortion is common. Gametocidal genes are the most well characterized class of segregation distorters reported in interspecific crosses of wheat with Aegilops. These are selfish genetic elements which ensure their preferential transmission to progeny at the cost of gametes lacking them without providing any phenotypic benefits to the plant causing a proportional reduction in fertility...
June 27, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651807/safety-evaluation-of-transgenic-low-gliadin-wheat-in-sprague-dawley-rats-an-alternative-to-the-gluten-free-diet-with-no-subchronic-adverse-effects
#2
Carmen Victoria Ozuna, Francisco Barro
Gluten-associated pathologies have increased in recent years and there is a greater demand for low or gluten-free products. Transgenic low-gliadin wheat lines showed low T-cell response, good bread-making properties, and excellent sensory assets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the whole-wheat flour from one transgenic low-gliadin line (named E82) in a 90-day feeding study. In this study males (n = 50) and females (n = 50) SD rats were used. They were fed with doses of 1.42, 2.83 and 5...
June 23, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649263/survey-of-high-throughput-rna-seq-data-reveals-potential-roles-for-lncrnas-during-development-and-stress-response-in-bread-wheat
#3
Shumayla, Shailesh Sharma, Mehak Taneja, Shivi Tyagi, Kashmir Singh, Santosh K Upadhyay
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a family of regulatory RNAs that play essential role in the various developmental processes and stress responses. Recent advances in sequencing technology and computational methods enabled identification and characterization of lncRNAs in certain plant species, but they are less known in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we analyzed 52 RNA seq data (>30 billion reads) and identified 44,698 lncRNAs in T. aestivum genome, which were characterized in comparison to the coding sequences (mRNAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637406/socioeconomic-status-the-missing-link-between-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Alexei Volaco, Ana Maria Cavalcanti, Roberto Pecoits Filho, Dalton Bertolim Précoma
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is an epidemic expansion of the obesity rates worldwide. The increasing number of obese individuals associated with the aging of population leads to increasing number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the same rate. The traditional factors that link obesity to T2DM are related to genetics, hypercaloric diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Individuals from lower socioeconomic status (SES) have restricted autonomy and opportunities that could lead to more stress and consequently increase in stress hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, and growth hormone, which might ultimately change fat deposition, increasing visceral fat and increasing the risk of T2DM mellitus development...
June 21, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637252/wheat-seed-weight-and-quality-differ-temporally-in-sensitivity-to-warm-or-cool-conditions-during-seed-development-and-maturation
#5
M Nasehzadeh, R H Ellis
Background and aims: Short periods of extreme temperature may affect wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) seed weight, but also quality. Temporal sensitivity to extreme temperature during seed development and maturation was investigated. Methods: Plants of 'Tybalt' grown at ambient temperature were moved to growth cabinets at 29/20 °C or 34/20 °C (2010), or 15/10 °C or 34/20 °C (2011), for successive 7-d periods from 7 DAA (days after anthesis) onwards, and also 7-65 DAA in 2011...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627070/lack-of-immunogenicity-of-hydrolysed-wheat-flour-in-patients-with-coeliac-disease-after-a-short-term-oral-challenge
#6
R Mandile, S Picascia, C Parrella, A Camarca, M Gobbetti, L Greco, R Troncone, C Gianfrani, R Auricchio
BACKGROUND: A gluten-free diet is currently the only reliable therapeutic strategy that is approved for coeliac disease (CD). For many patients, however, compliance remains inadequate. AIM: To investigate the immunogenicity of wheat flour that was pre-treated with selected lactobacilli and fungal proteases (hydrolysed wheat gluten) in coeliac patients. METHODS: The immunogenicity of hydrolysed wheat gluten was evaluated both in vitro in intestinal T cell lines (TCLs) and in vivo in treated CD patients after a short-term gluten challenge...
June 19, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626005/the-auxin-biosynthetic-tryptophan-aminotransferase-related-tatar2-1-3a-increases-wheat-grain-yield
#7
An Shao, Wenying Ma, Xueqiang Zhao, Mengyun Hu, Xue He, Wan Teng, Hui Li, Yiping Tong
Controlling the major auxin biosynthetic pathway to manipulate the auxin content could be a target for genetic engineering of crops with desired traits, but little progress had been made because low or high auxin contents often cause developmental inhibition. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) to identify the tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis1/tryptophan aminotransferase-related (TAA1/TAR) genes that function in the tryptophan-dependent pathway of auxin biosynthesis...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625740/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-two-transgenic-low-gliadin-wheat-lines-and-non-transgenic-wheat-control
#8
María Dolores García-Molina, Vera Muccilli, Rosaria Saletti, Salvatore Foti, Stefania Masci, Francisco Barro
Gluten proteins are major determinants of the bread making quality of wheat, but also of important wheat-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), and allergies. We carried out a proteomic study using the total grain proteins from two low-gliadin wheat lines, obtained by RNAi, and the untransformed wild type as reference. The impact of silencing on both target and on non-target proteins was evaluated. Because of the great protein complexity, we performed separate analyses of four kernel protein fractions: gliadins and glutenin subunits, and metabolic and CM-like proteins, by using a classical 2D electrophoresis gel based approach followed by RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624092/study-on-the-effects-of-wheat-bran-incorporation-on-water-mobility-and-biopolymer-behavior-during-bread-making-and-storage-using-time-domain-1-h-nmr-relaxometry
#9
S Hemdane, P J Jacobs, G M Bosmans, J Verspreet, J A Delcour, C M Courtin
Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using (1)H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620398/genome-wide-association-study-of-grain-architecture-in-wild-wheat-aegilops-tauschii
#10
Sanu Arora, Narinder Singh, Satinder Kaur, Navtej S Bains, Cristobal Uauy, Jesse Poland, Parveen Chhuneja
Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of Triticum aestivum, encompasses huge diversity for various traits of potential economic importance such as yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, quality and nutrition. In the present study, variation for grain size in Ae. tauschii germplasm was studied and its genetic basis dissected using genome-wide association study (GWAS). Grain length, width, and weight evaluated in 177 Ae. tauschii accessions over 3 years showed near normal distribution with 1.74-, 1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619368/preliminary-evidence-for-associations-between-molecular-markers-and-quantitative-traits-in-a-set-of-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-cultivars-and-breeding-lines
#11
Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Shilan Nasri, Sahar Dashchi, Sorour Arzhang, Iraj Bernousi, Hossein Abbasi Holasou
The identification of polymorphic markers associated with various quantitative traits allows us to test their performance for the exploitation of the extensive quantitative variation maintained in gene banks. In the current study, a set of 97 wheat germplasm accessions including 48 cultivars and 49 breeding lines were evaluated for 18 agronomic traits. The accessions were also genotyped with 23 ISSR, nine IRAP and 20 REMAP markers, generating a total of 658 clear and scorable bands, 86% of which were polymorphic...
June 12, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614658/effects-of-cultivar-and-nitrogen-nutrition-on-the-lipid-composition-of-wheat-flour
#12
Byoung Min, Irene González-Thuillier, Stephen J Powers, Peter Wilde, Peter R Shewry, Richard P Haslam
Despite being minor components of flour, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lipids contribute to grain processing. They are particularly important for bread making, where they adsorb to the surface of gas bubbles formed during the proving stage of bread making, stabilizing the gas cells and improving gas retention within the dough. This contributes to the volume and texture of the loaf. However, little is understood about how their amount, composition, and properties vary in response to genotype (G), environment (E) or G × E interactions...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603035/evolution-of-the-mir5200-flowering-locus-t-flowering-time-regulon-in-the-temperate-grass-subfamily-pooideae
#13
Meghan McKeown, Marian Schubert, Jill C Preston, Siri Fjellheim
Flowering time is a carefully regulated trait controlled primarily through the action of the central genetic regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Recently it was demonstrated that a microRNA, miR5200, targets the end of the second exon of FT under short-day photoperiods in the grass subfamily Pooideae, thus preventing FT transcripts from reaching threshold levels under non-inductive conditions. Pooideae are an interesting group in that they rapidly diversified from the tropics into the northern temperate region during a major global cooling event spanning the Eocene-Oligocene transition...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580817/changes-in-low-molecular-weight-thiol-disulphide-redox-couples-are-part-of-bread-wheat-seed-germination-and-early-seedling-growth
#14
Davide Gerna, Thomas Roach, Wolfgang Stöggl, Johanna Wagner, Patrizia Vaccino, Margherita Limonta, Ilse Kranner
The tripeptide antioxidant glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) essentially contributes to thiol-disulphide conversions, which are involved in the control of seed development, germination, and seedling establishment. However, the relative contribution of GSH metabolism in different seed structures is not fully understood. We studied the GSH/glutathione disulphide (GSSG) redox couple and associated low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols and disulphides related to GSH metabolism in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
June 5, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578032/processing-rheological-properties-of-wheat-flour-dough-and-bread-containing-high-levels-of-soluble-dietary-fibres-blends
#15
S Arufe, H Chiron, J Doré, I Savary-Auzeloux, L Saulnier, G Della Valle
Wheat flour doughs were processed with soluble dietary fibres (DF) added up to 40% (w/w flour). DF were made of a ternary mixture of maltodextrins (MT, 3/5), pectins (PE, 1/5) and inulin (IN, 1/5). The addition of DF decreased the specific mechanical energy developed by the mixer, mainly because of water addition. It increased the ratio of storage moduli and the elongational viscosity of the dough, but decreased the strain hardening index. Energy input and rheological changes at mixing largely explained the decreases of porosity characteristic time and stability time during fermentation...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575745/the-contrasting-microrna-content-of-a-drought-tolerant-and-a-drought-susceptible-wheat-cultivar
#16
Behnam Bakhshi, Ehsan Mohseni Fard, Javad Gharechahi, Mahdieh Safarzadeh, Nava Nikpay, Reza Fotovat, Mohammad Reza Azimi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
Drought stress represents one of the most common stresses affecting the productivity of crop plants. A rather recently discovered component of the plant response to drought is the cellular population of microRNAs. Here, the microRNA content was revealed of two bread wheat cultivars contrasting strongly with respect to the ability to withstand drought stress. A total of 1813 miRNAs was identified, grouped into 106 families. Some 104 of these miRNAs were predicted to match 212 novel miRNA precursors. In the drought tolerant cultivar (SM), 105 (33 known and 72 novel) miRNAs were altered in abundance by the imposition of drought stress, while the equivalent number in the more sensitive cultivar (SW) was 51 (20 and 31)...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572958/optimization-of-durum-wheat-bread-enriched-with-bran
#17
Maria A Saccotelli, Amalia Conte, Krystel R Burrafato, Sonia Calligaris, Lara Manzocco, Matteo A Del Nobile
An attempt is made in this study to balance the nutritional and sensory quality of bread. In particular, the formulation of a functional durum wheat bread enriched with bran at high concentration has been developed. Organogel concentration and bran particle size have been used as process variables for bread optimization. Bran concentration was increased at value as high as 15%, thus increasing the nutritional content, even though the sensory quality decreased. Bread was scored barely acceptable at 15% bran concentration...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572954/effect-of-drying-methods-and-blending-ratios-on-dough-rheological-properties-physical-and-sensory-properties-of-wheat-taro-flour-composite-bread
#18
Gidmwork Abera, W K Solomon, Geremew Bultosa
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of taro drying methods and blending ratios on the physical quality attributes and sensory quality of wheat-taro bread and rheological properties of the blend dough. Farinographic properties like water absorption capacity, dough development time, dough stability time, time to break down, mixing tolerance index, and farinographic quality number were significantly (p < .05) affected by drying methods and blending ratio and their interaction. Increased taro flour (10-20 g) per 100 g of wheat flour resulted in an increased water absorption capacity (57...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559622/the-effects-of-certain-enzymes-on-the-rheology-of-dough-and-the-quality-characteristics-of-bread-prepared-from-wheat-meal
#19
Burak Altınel, S Sezgin Ünal
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, glucose oxidase, hemicellulase (mainly consist of endo-1,4-β-xylanase), cellulase, lipase, and the combination of phospholipase and hemicellulase (phospholipase + hemicellulase) on the extensographic properties of dough and the quality characteristics of bread prepared from wheat meal. The enzymes were added separately in two different amounts. The addition of glucose oxidase (at 0.0003-0.001%) caused a significant decrease in the resistance to extension, ratio of resistance to extensibility and energy values of the wheat meal dough compared with the control dough...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559619/evaluation-of-different-hydrocolloids-to-improve-dough-rheological-properties-and-bread-quality-of-potato-wheat-flour
#20
Xingli Liu, Taihua Mu, Karim Diego Yamul, Hongnan Sun, Miao Zhang, Jingwang Chen, Marie Laure Fauconnier, Perez Vanina Andrea
The aim of study was to investigate the effect of hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), arabic gum (AG), konjac glucomannan (KG) and apple pectin (AP) at 2% (w/w, potato-wheat flour basis) on the potato-wheat dough (the mass ratio was 1:1) rheological, fermentation and bread making properties. The tan δ of potato-wheat dough was significantly increased upon addition of adding HPMC which was close to wheat dough (0.531). Moreover, dough height during fermentation process was significantly improved on addition of hydrocolloids, with the order of HPMC (23...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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