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wheat breading

Faramarz Sohrabi Chah Hassan, Mahmood Solouki, Barat Ali Fakheri, Nafiseh Mahdi Nezhad, Bahram Masoudi
In order to detect genomic regions with different effects for some of the physiological and biochemical traits of wheat, four experiments were conducted at Research Farm of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Zabol in 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 growing seasons. The experiments were carried out using four alpha lattice designs with two replications under non-stress and terminal heat stress conditions. Plant materials used in this study included 167 recombinant inbred lines and their parents ('SeriM82' and 'Babax')...
November 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Jaime Recio, Jose M Alvarez, Marta Rodriguez-Quijano, Antonio Vallejo
Fertilized cropping systems are important sources of nitrous oxide (N2 O) and nitric oxide (NO) to the atmosphere, and biotic and abiotic processes control the production and consumption of these gases in the soil. In fact, the inhibition of nitrification after application of urea or an ammonium-based fertilizer to agricultural soils has resulted in an efficient strategy to mitigate both N2 O and NO in aerated agricultural soils. Therefore, the NO and N2 O mitigation capacity of a novel nitrification inhibitor (NI), 2-(3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) succinic acid isomeric mixture (DMPSA), has been studied in a winter wheat crop...
November 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jennifer A Jamieson, Mary Weir, Laura Gougeon
Background: A strict gluten-free (GF) diet is required for the management of celiac disease (CD). The nutritional adequacy of this diet has been questioned due to the elimination of wheat, an important vehicle for micronutrient fortification and source of fibre. While novel and/or reformulated packaged GF products have rapidly entered the marketplace, providing alternatives to wheat-based staples, it is unknown whether these new products are nutritionally comparable. Methods: From a database of 3,851 foods collected across 21 grocery stores in Eastern Canada, we compared the nutrient content of 398 unique GF items with 445 gluten-containing (GC) equivalents...
2018: PeerJ
Liang Chen, Yingying Du, Qiumei Lu, Hua Chen, Ruishuang Meng, Chunge Cui, Shan Lu, Yang Yang, Yongmao Chai, Juan Li, Lulu Liu, Xiangning Qi, Hang Li, Kohei Mishina, Fei Yu, Yin-Gang Hu
The gibberellin-responsive dwarfing gene Rht12 can significantly reduce plant height without changing seedling vigor and substantially increase ear fertility in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum. L). However, Rht12 delays heading date and anthesis date, hindering the use of Rht12 in wheat improvement. To promote early flowering of the Rht12 dwarf plants, the photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-D1a was introduced through a cross between Jinmai47 ( Ppd-D1a ) and Karcagi ( Rht12 ). The results showed that Ppd-D1a can rescue the delaying effect of Rht12 on flowering time and promote earlier flowering by 9...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Davide Gerna, Thomas Roach, Erwann Arc, Wolfgang Markus Stöggl, Margherita Limonta, Patrizia Vaccino, Ilse Kranner
Fast and uniform germination is key to agricultural production and can be achieved by seed "priming" techniques. Here, we characterised the responses of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) seeds to a hot steam treatment ("BioFlash"), which accelerated water uptake, resulting in faster germination and seedling growth, typical traits of primed seed. Before the completion of germination, metabolite profiling of seeds revealed advanced accumulation of several amino acids (especially cysteine and serine), sugars (ribose, glucose), and organic acids (glycerate, succinate) in hot steam-treated seeds, whereas sugar alcohols (e...
November 6, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Whole grain (WG) intake is associated with reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term intervention with WG rye on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers in middle-aged test subjects. METHOD: Rye-based breads were provided to 38 healthy test subjects (aged 52-70y) during three consecutive days in a crossover study design, using white wheat flour bread (WWB) as a reference...
November 6, 2018: Nutrition Journal
J G Muir, J E Varney, M Ajamian, P R Gibson
Wheat- and gluten-containing products are often blamed for triggering a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms, and this has fueled demand for gluten-free products worldwide. The best studied 'gluten intolerance' is coeliac disease, an auto-immune disease that affects the small intestine. Coeliac disease occurs in 1% of the population and requires strict, life-long avoidance of gluten-containing foods as the only medical treatment. There is a larger group of individuals (around 10-15% of the population) who report a wide-range of gastrointestinal symptoms that respond well to a 'gluten-free diet', but who do not have coeliac disease - so called 'non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS)'...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Benjamin Dubois, Pierre Bertin, Louis Hautier, Yordan Muhovski, Emmanuelle Escarnot, Dominique Mingeot
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals whose dietary gluten proteins trigger an inflammatory reaction in the small intestine. Gluten is found in the seeds of cereals like bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum) and spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta). The development of new varieties lacking immunogenic peptides is one of the strategies currently investigated to address the CD problem. Among gluten proteins, α-gliadins display the strongest immunogenicity with four main T-cell stimulatory epitopes...
November 1, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Offiong U Edet, Yasir S A Gorafi, Seong-Woo Cho, Masahiro Kishii, Hisashi Tsujimoto
Developing wheat-alien chromosome introgression lines to improve bread wheat's resistance to stresses, such as drought, salinity stress and diseases, requires reliable markers to identify and characterize the alien chromatins. Leymus mollis is a wild relative of bread wheat resistant to salinity and economically important diseases of wheat, but its genome sequence and cytological markers are not available. We devised a molecular marker-assisted strategy for L. mollis chromosome identification and applied it to produce 10 wheat-L...
October 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brunella Miano, Laura Righetti, Roberto Piro, Chiara Dall'Asta, Silvia Folloni, Gianni Galaverna, Michele Suman
Due to favourable climate condition, Italy is a prominent producer of different wheat varieties. Several wheat baked goods are produced, but the most typical Italian foods, like pasta, pizza and bread, are made of durum and common wheat flour. Because of the great importance of wheat in the Italian food market, authenticity represents an essential quality parameter not only for the producers and regulatory bodies but also for consumers. The aim of our study was to test the effectiveness of an unconventional non-targeted method for the discrimination of Triticum species using direct analysis real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS)...
October 31, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Kia Nøhr Iversen, Daniel Johansson, Carl Brunius, Thomas Andlid, Roger Andersson, Maud Langton, Rikard Landberg
Sourdough fermented bread has been suggested to have beneficial health effects, in part mediated by increased satiety in the postprandial phase, but only limited research has been conducted to verify this. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of the amounts of sourdough and rye in soft bread on postprandial appetite. On 6 occasions, 23 healthy volunteers consumed 5 different test breads, with varying amount of rye and sourdough, and a yeast-fermented refined wheat control bread as part of a breakfast meal...
October 30, 2018: Nutrients
Daniela Freitas, Steven Le Feunteun
Starch is a major determinant of the glycemic responses elicited by our diets, but the exact contribution of the two main amylolytic enzymes (salivary and pancreatic α-amylases) remains a matter of debate. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of the oral, gastric and intestinal phases to the hydrolysis of starch in bread and pasta during dynamic in vitro digestions using DiDGI®. Before its inactivation by the low gastric pH, salivary α-amylase released about 80% of the starch in bread and 30% of that in pasta, hydrolysing over half of it into oligosaccharides...
February 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Silvio D Rodríguez, Guido Rolandelli, M Pilar Buera
Quinoa flour has been receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for wheat flour in bread formulations due to immuno-nutritional features. This growing interest in quinoa has increased the demand and consequently the prices, being a target for possible adulterations with cheaper cereals. Fourier transform Mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) was used in the present work as a fingerprinting technique to detect the presence of three adulterants (soybean, maize and wheat flours). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) models were used to classify pure from adulterated samples...
February 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Xiaoyu Wang, Pengfei Zhi, Qingxin Fan, Meng Zhang, Cheng Chang
Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) is a detrimental disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).Bgt infection initiates with its conidia germination, which is stimulated by the plant cuticle-derived wax signals. Here, we identified wheat 3-KETOACYL-CoA SYNTHASE (TaKCS6), a homolog of barley HvKCS6, as a key enzyme in the wheat cuticular wax biosynthesis. We showed that both cuticular wax accumulation and Bgt germination were impeded on the TaKCS6-knockdown wheat leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TaKCS6 promoter-associated bHLH type transcription factor 1 (TaKPAB1) bound to the TaKCS6 promoters and recruited the CHD3 protein TaCHR729 to these promoters via physical association...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Qiannan Su, Xilan Zhang, Wei Zhang, Na Zhang, Liqiang Song, Lei Liu, Xin Xue, Guotao Liu, Jiajia Liu, Deyuan Meng, Liya Zhi, Jun Ji, Xueqiang Zhao, Chunling Yang, Yiping Tong, Zhiyong Liu, Junming Li
High-density genetic linkage maps are essential for precise mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, a high-density genetic linkage map consisted of 6312 SNP and SSR markers was developed to identify QTL controlling kernel size and weight, based on a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross of Shixin828 and Kenong2007. Seventy-eight putative QTL for kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW), kernel diameter ratio (KDR), and thousand kernel weight (TKW) were detected over eight environments by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Danielle Keidar-Friedman, Inbar Bariah, Khalil Kashkush
The sequence drafts of wild emmer and bread wheat facilitated high resolution, genome-wide analysis of transposable elements (TEs), which account for up to 90% of the wheat genome. Despite extensive studies, the role of TEs in reshaping nascent polyploid genomes remains to be fully understood. In this study, we retrieved miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) from the recently published genome drafts of Triticum aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, Aegilops tauschii and the available genome draft of Triticum urartu...
2018: PloS One
Henning Sören Kuchenbuch, Stefanie Becker, Mareike Schulz, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
The mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2 toxin are frequently occurring food contaminants which are produced by Fusarium species. Humans and animals are mainly exposed to these substances by the consumption of contaminated oats, maize and wheat. For the production of crunchy muesli, bread and bakery products, these cereals undergo multiple processing steps, including baking, roasting and extrusion cooking. However, the influence of food processing on T-2 and HT-2 toxin levels is to date poorly understood. Thus, the effects of baking and roasting on both mycotoxins were evaluated during biscuit-, crunchy muesli- and toasted oat flakes-production under precise variation of various parameters: heating time and temperature as well as recipe formulation were varied in the range they are applied in the food processing industry...
October 23, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Madhav Bhatta, P Stephen Baenziger, Brian M Waters, Rachana Poudel, Vikas Belamkar, Jesse Poland, Alexey Morgounov
Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW; Triticum durum L. × Aegilops tauschii Coss.) is a means of introducing novel genes/genomic regions into bread wheat ( T. aestivum L.) and a potential genetic resource for improving grain mineral concentrations. We quantified 10 grain minerals (Ca, Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Zn) using an inductively coupled mass spectrometer in 123 SHWs for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). A GWAS with 35,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified 92 marker-trait associations (MTAs), of which 60 were novel and 40 were within genes, and the genes underlying 20 MTAs had annotations suggesting a potential role in grain mineral concentration...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Philomin Juliana, Osval A Montesinos-López, José Crossa, Suchismita Mondal, Lorena González Pérez, Jesse Poland, Julio Huerta-Espino, Leonardo Crespo-Herrera, Velu Govindan, Susanne Dreisigacker, Sandesh Shrestha, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Francisco Pinto Espinosa, Ravi P Singh
Genomic selection and high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) are promising tools to accelerate breeding gains for high-yielding and climate-resilient wheat varieties. Hence, our objective was to evaluate them for predicting grain yield (GY) in drought-stressed (DS) and late-sown heat-stressed (HS) environments of the International maize and wheat improvement center's elite yield trial nurseries. We observed that the average genomic prediction accuracies using fivefold cross-validations were 0.50 and 0.51 in the DS and HS environments, respectively...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Yongpeng Li, Xing Fu, Meicheng Zhao, Wei Zhang, Bo Li, Diaoguo An, Junming Li, Aimin Zhang, Renyi Liu, Xigang Liu
Wheat spike development is a coordinated process of cell proliferation and differentiation with distinctive phases and architecture changes. However, the dynamic alteration of gene expression in this process remains enigmatic. Here, we characterized and dissected bread wheat spike into six developmental stages, and used genome-wide gene expression profiling, to investigate the underlying regulatory mechanisms. High gene expression correlations between any two given stages indicated that wheat early spike development is controlled by a small subset of genes...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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