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stem and leaf rust in wheat

Dhananjay Kumar, Summi Dutta, Dharmendra Singh, Kumble Vinod Prabhu, Manish Kumar, Kunal Mukhopadhyay
Deep sequencing identified 497 conserved and 559 novel miRNAs in wheat, while degradome analysis revealed 701 targets genes. QRT-PCR demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs during stages of leaf rust progression. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal food crop feeding 30 % of the world population. Major threat to wheat production is the rust epidemics. This study was targeted towards identification and functional characterizations of micro(mi)RNAs and their target genes in wheat in response to leaf rust ingression...
October 3, 2016: Planta
Amy Rinaldo, Brian Gilbert, Rainer Boni, Simon G Krattinger, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park, Evans Lagudah, Michael Ayliffe
The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in seedlings under standard growth conditions. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions...
September 29, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Jie Zhao, Meinan Wang, Xianming Chen, Zhensheng Kang
Cereal rusts, caused by obligate and biotrophic fungi in the genus Puccinia, are important diseases that threaten world food security. With the recent discovery of alternate hosts for the stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis), all cereal rust fungi are now known to be heteroecious, requiring two distinct plant species serving as primary or alternate hosts to complete their sexual life cycle. The roles of the alternate hosts in disease epidemiology and pathogen variation vary greatly from species to species and from region to region because of different climatic and cropping conditions...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
G Rijckaert, T Vanden Nest
Grass seed crops (ryegrass), a minor crop in Belgium, should be managed more intensively and in an arable way, comparable with the intensive wheat culture. Even more important than higher seed yields are stable, higher yields over time, Integrated pest management (IPM) forms the framework around this intensification. Two similar seed production field trials--one with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.)--were conducted in 2014, dealing with 4 SDHI fungicides (bixafen, boscalid, fluxapyroxad and isopyrazam) that were compared with an untreated control and some reference treatments...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Mandeep Randhawa, Urmil Bansal, Morten Lillemo, Hanif Miah, Harbans Bariana
Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions have been demonstrated as the sources of genetic variation for resistance to rust diseases. This study involved assessment of diversity for resistance to three rust diseases among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage against several pathotypes of three rust pathogens in the greenhouse. All stage stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30, and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in different combinations among these cultivars...
April 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Klaudia Kruppa, Edina Türkösi, Marianna Mayer, Viola Tóth, Gyula Vida, Éva Szakács, Márta Molnár-Láng
A Thinopyrum intermedium × Thinopyrum ponticum synthetic hybrid wheatgrass is an excellent source of leaf and stem rust resistance produced by N.V.Tsitsin. Wheat line Mv9kr1 was crossed with this hybrid (Agropyron glael) in Hungary in order to transfer its advantageous agronomic traits into wheat. As the wheat parent was susceptible to leaf rust, the transfer of resistance was easily recognizable in the progenies. Three different partial amphiploid lines with leaf rust resistance were selected from the wheat/Thinopyrum hybrid derivatives by multicolour genomic in situ hybridization...
February 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
J Smith, S Waterhouse, N Paveley
Zymoseptoria tritici (previously Mycosphaerella graminicola) is the causal agent of septoria tritici leaf blotch (STB), a globally important fungal disease of bread, feed and durum wheat. Airborne ascospores originating from over-winter crop residues are considered to be the primary source of initial infection. The active ingredient fluxapyroxad (BASF) belongs to the chemical group of carboxamides and is a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide. Fluxapyroxad has strong efficacy against the key foliar diseases of winter wheat: STB, yellow rust and brown rust...
2014: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Edward Arseniuk
Triticale has been considered as resistant to diseases over a long time. Although, many authors perpetuate this opinion, it is no longer true. However, in comparison to wheat and rye triticale still may look as a healthy crop, but its healthiness has been steadily declining. It could be explained by steady expansion of the growing area and longer exposure to pathogens. On the other hand, triticale is a crop on which meet pathogens of wheat and rye, but there is evidence that on triticale embedded more so called "wheat pathogens", than rye ones...
2014: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Zhien Pu, Guoyue Chen, Jirui Wang, Yaxi Liu, Qiantao Jiang, Wei Li, Xiujing Lan, Shoufen Dai, Yuming Wei, Youliang Zheng
In this study, the ARF genes were cloned, sequenced and located on the chromosomes. The gene expression of various stress conditions were analyzed through RT-PCR. Two important features of ARF in wheat were found: (1) High sequences homology among species in mammalian and plant and (2) Four exons and three introns were conserved in Poaceae. In this study the coding genes of ADP-ribosylation Factors (ARF) were characterized and they were located on chromosomes 3AL and 2DL in common wheat and its diploid progenitors...
June 2014: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Zijin Zhang, Jieming Chen, Yongying Su, Hanmei Liu, Yanger Chen, Peigao Luo, Xiaogang Du, Dan Wang, Huaiyu Zhang
LHY (late elongated hypocotyl) is an important gene that regulates and controls biological rhythms in plants. Additionally, LHY is highly expressed in the SSH (suppression subtractive hybridization) cDNA library-induced stripe rust pathogen (CYR32) in our previous research. To identify the function of the LHY gene in disease resistance against stripe rust, we used RACE-PCR technology to clone TaLHY in the wheat variety Chuannong19. The cDNA of TaLHY is 3085 bp long with an open reading frame of 1947 bp. TaLHY is speculated to encode a 70...
2015: PloS One
Mina Talajoor, Yue Jin, Anmin Wan, Xianming Chen, Sridhar Bhavani, Linda Tabe, Evans Lagudah, Li Huang
The spring wheat 'Canthatch' has been shown to suppress stem rust resistance genes in the background due to the presence of a suppressor gene located on the long arm of chromosome 7D. However, it is unclear whether the suppressor also suppresses resistance genes against leaf rust and stripe rust. In this study, we investigated the specificity of the resistance suppression. To determine whether the suppression is genome origin specific, chromosome location specific, or rust species or race specific, we introduced 11 known rust resistance genes into the Canthatch background, including resistance to leaf, stripe, or stem rusts, originating from A, B, or D genomes and located on different chromosome homologous groups...
April 2015: Phytopathology
(no author information available yet)
The genetic diversity of common wheat hybrid lines Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum (2n = 42, F(6-7)) using chromosome-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers and C-staining of chromosomes was studied. Cluster analysis of data obtained by 42 SSR markers indicated that the hybrid lines can be broken into three groups according to their origin. There were two cases of complete genetic similarity between lines 183(2)-2/184(1)-6 and-208-3/213-1, which were obtained using common wheat as the parental plants...
November 2013: Genetika
I N Leonova, E D Badaeva, O A Orlovskaya, M S Roder, L V Khotyleva, E A Salina, V K Shumny
The genetic diversity of common wheat hybrid lines Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum (2n = 42, F(6-7)) using chromosome-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers and C-staining of chromosomes was studied. Cluster analysis of data obtained by 42 SSR markers indicated that the hybrid lines can be broken into three groups according to their origin. There were two cases of complete genetic similarity between lines 183(2)-2/184(1)-6 and-208-3/213-1, which were obtained using common wheat as the parental plants...
November 2013: Genetika
A Singh, R E Knox, R M DePauw, A K Singh, R D Cuthbert, H L Campbell, S Shorter, S Bhavani
In wheat, advantageous gene-rich or pleiotropic regions for stripe, leaf, and stem rust and epistatic interactions between rust resistance loci should be accounted for in plant breeding strategies. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks) contribute to major production losses in many regions worldwide. The objectives of this research were to identify and study epistatic interactions of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stripe and leaf rust resistance in a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from the cross of Canadian wheat cultivars, AC Cadillac and Carberry...
November 2014: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hans D Daetwyler, Urmil K Bansal, Harbans S Bariana, Matthew J Hayden, Ben J Hayes
We have demonstrated that genomic selection in diverse wheat landraces for resistance to leaf, stem and strip rust is possible, as genomic breeding values were moderately accurate. Markers with large effects in the Bayesian analysis confirmed many known genes, while also discovering many previously uncharacterised genome regions associated with rust scores. Genomic selection, where selection decisions are based on genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) derived from genome-wide DNA markers, could accelerate genetic progress in plant breeding...
August 2014: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Adnane Nemri, Diane G O Saunders, Claire Anderson, Narayana M Upadhyaya, Joe Win, Gregory J Lawrence, David A Jones, Sophien Kamoun, Jeffrey G Ellis, Peter N Dodds
Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown...
2014: Frontiers in Plant Science
J G Paull, K J Chalmers, A Karakousis, J M Kretschmer, S Manning, P Langridge
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been used to characterise the genetic diversity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germplasm. One hundred and twenty-four accessions comprising all major Australian wheat varieties and lines important for breeding purposes were assayed for RFLPs with clones of known genetic location and selected to give uniform genome coverage. The objectives of this study were to determine RFLP-based genetic similarity between accessions and to derive associations between agronomically significant traits and RFLP phenotypes...
March 1998: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Dallas L Seifers, Steve Haber, Terry J Martin, Brent D McCallum
Stable resistance to infection with Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) can be evolved de novo in selfing bread wheat lines subjected to cycles of WSMV inoculation and selection of best-performing plants or tillers. To learn whether this phenomenon might be applied to evolve resistance de novo to pathogens unrelated to WSMV, we examined the responses to leaf rust of succeeding generations of the rust- and WSMV-susceptible cultivar 'Lakin' following WSMV inoculation and derived rust-resistant sublines. After three cycles of the iterative protocol five plants, in contrast to all others, expressed resistance to leaf and stripe rust...
2014: PloS One
Sambasivam Periyannan, Urmil Bansal, Harbans Bariana, Karin Deal, Ming-Cheng Luo, Jan Dvorak, Evans Lagudah
Fine mapping of the Ug99 effective stem rust resistance gene Sr45 introgressed into common wheat from the D -genome goatgrass Aegilops tauschii. Stem rust resistance gene Sr45, discovered in Aegilops tauschii, the progenitor of the D -genome of wheat, is effective against commercially important Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici races prevalent in Australia, South Africa and the Ug99 race group. A synthetic hexaploid wheat (RL5406) generated by crossing Ae. tauschii accession RL5289 (carrying Sr45 and the leaf rust resistance gene Lr21) with a tetraploid experimental line 'TetraCanthatch' was previously used as the source in the transfer of these rust resistance genes to other hexaploid cultivars...
April 2014: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Sybil A Herrera-Foessel, Ravi P Singh, Morten Lillemo, Julio Huerta-Espino, Sridhar Bhavani, Sukhwinder Singh, Caixia Lan, Violeta Calvo-Salazar, Evans S Lagudah
We demonstrate that Lr67/Yr46 has pleiotropic effect on stem rust and powdery mildew resistance and is associated with leaf tip necrosis. Genes are designated as Sr55, Pm46 and Ltn3 , respectively. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) accession RL6077, known to carry the pleiotropic slow rusting leaf and yellow rust resistance genes Lr67/Yr46 in Thatcher background, displayed significantly lower stem rust (P. graminis tritici; Pgt) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici; Bgt) severities in Kenya and in Norway, respectively, compared to its recurrent parent Thatcher...
April 2014: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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