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stem and leaf rust in wheat

Wenping Gong, Ran Han, Haosheng Li, Jianmin Song, Hongfei Yan, Genying Li, Aifeng Liu, Xinyou Cao, Jun Guo, Shengnan Zhai, Dungong Cheng, Zhendong Zhao, Cheng Liu, Jianjun Liu
Aegilops caudata is an important gene source for wheat breeding. Intensive evaluation of its utilization value is an essential first step prior to its application in breeding. In this research, the agronomical and quality traits of Triticum aestivum - Ae. caudata additions B-G (homoeologous groups not identified) were analyzed and evaluated. Disease resistance tests showed that chromosome D of Ae. caudata might possess leaf rust resistance, and chromosome E might carry stem rust and powdery mildew resistance genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Caixia Lan, Mandeep Singh Randhawa, Julio Huerta-Espino, Ravi P Singh
Leaf rust, stripe rust, and stem rust pose a significant threat to global wheat production. Growing rust resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environment friendly method to reduce yield losses. Genetic analysis is undertaken to identify genes and study their roles in conferring rust resistance in a given wheat background. This chapter summarizes the protocol for genetic analysis of rust resistance at both seedling and adult plant stages. Additionally, it examines statistical analysis and related software to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked with rust resistance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Meriem Aoun, James A Kolmer, Matthew N Rouse, Shiaoman Chao, Worku Denbel Bulbula, Elias M Elias, Maricelis Acevedo
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, and stem rust, caused by P. graminis f. sp. tritici, are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to P. triticina race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK in durum accessions. Eight leaf-rust-resistant genotypes were used to develop biparental populations. Accessions PI 192051 and PI 534304 were also resistant to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK...
December 2017: Phytopathology
Leonardo A Crespo-Herrera, Larisa Garkava-Gustavsson, Inger Åhman
Wheat is globally one of the most important crops. With the current human population growth rate, there is an increasing need to raise wheat productivity by means of plant breeding, along with development of more efficient and sustainable agricultural systems. Damage by pathogens and pests, in combination with adverse climate effects, need to be counteracted by incorporating new germplasm that makes wheat more resistant/tolerant to such stress factors. Rye has been used as a source for improved resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat during more than 50 years...
2017: Hereditas
Yi Dai, Yamei Duan, Huiping Liu, Dawn Chi, Wenguang Cao, Allen Xue, Yong Gao, George Fedak, Jianmin Chen
Fusarium head blight (FHB), leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) Dewey (2n = 2x = 14, EE) is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2n = 6x = 42, AABBEE), were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Philomin Juliana, Ravi P Singh, Pawan K Singh, Jose Crossa, Julio Huerta-Espino, Caixia Lan, Sridhar Bhavani, Jessica E Rutkoski, Jesse A Poland, Gary C Bergstrom, Mark E Sorrells
Genomic prediction for seedling and adult plant resistance to wheat rusts was compared to prediction using few markers as fixed effects in a least-squares approach and pedigree-based prediction. The unceasing plant-pathogen arms race and ephemeral nature of some rust resistance genes have been challenging for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs and farmers. Hence, it is important to devise strategies for effective evaluation and exploitation of quantitative rust resistance. One promising approach that could accelerate gain from selection for rust resistance is 'genomic selection' which utilizes dense genome-wide markers to estimate the breeding values (BVs) for quantitative traits...
July 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Raj K Pasam, Urmil Bansal, Hans D Daetwyler, Kerrie L Forrest, Debbie Wong, Joanna Petkowski, Nicholas Willey, Mandeep Randhawa, Mumta Chhetri, Hanif Miah, Josquin Tibbits, Harbans Bariana, Matthew J Hayden
BayesR and MLM association mapping approaches in common wheat landraces were used to identify genomic regions conferring resistance to Yr, Lr, and Sr diseases. Deployment of rust resistant cultivars is the most economically effective and environmentally friendly strategy to control rust diseases in wheat. However, the highly evolving nature of wheat rust pathogens demands continued identification, characterization, and transfer of new resistance alleles into new varieties to achieve durable rust control. In this study, we undertook genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using a mixed linear model (MLM) and the Bayesian multilocus method (BayesR) to identify QTL contributing to leaf rust (Lr), stem rust (Sr), and stripe rust (Yr) resistance...
April 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Amy Rinaldo, Brian Gilbert, Rainer Boni, Simon G Krattinger, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park, Evans Lagudah, Michael Ayliffe
The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad-spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in field-grown seedlings. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions...
July 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Sundeep Kumar, Sunil Archak, R K Tyagi, Jagdish Kumar, Vikas Vk, Sherry R Jacob, Kalyani Srinivasan, J Radhamani, R Parimalan, M Sivaswamy, Sandhya Tyagi, Mamata Yadav, Jyotisna Kumari, Deepali, Sandeep Sharma, Indoo Bhagat, Madhu Meeta, N S Bains, A K Chowdhury, B C Saha, P M Bhattacharya, Jyoti Kumari, M C Singh, O P Gangwar, P Prasad, S C Bharadwaj, Robin Gogoi, J B Sharma, Sandeep Kumar Gm, M S Saharan, Manas Bag, Anirban Roy, T V Prasad, R K Sharma, M Dutta, Indu Sharma, K C Bansal
A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers...
2016: PloS One
Dhananjay Kumar, Summi Dutta, Dharmendra Singh, Kumble Vinod Prabhu, Manish Kumar, Kunal Mukhopadhyay
Deep sequencing identified 497 conserved and 559 novel miRNAs in wheat, while degradome analysis revealed 701 targets genes. QRT-PCR demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs during stages of leaf rust progression. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal food crop feeding 30 % of the world population. Major threat to wheat production is the rust epidemics. This study was targeted towards identification and functional characterizations of micro(mi)RNAs and their target genes in wheat in response to leaf rust ingression...
January 2017: Planta
Amy Rinaldo, Brian Gilbert, Rainer Boni, Simon G Krattinger, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park, Evans Lagudah, Michael Ayliffe
The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in seedlings under standard growth conditions. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions...
September 29, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Jie Zhao, Meinan Wang, Xianming Chen, Zhensheng Kang
Cereal rusts, caused by obligate and biotrophic fungi in the genus Puccinia, are important diseases that threaten world food security. With the recent discovery of alternate hosts for the stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis), all cereal rust fungi are now known to be heteroecious, requiring two distinct plant species serving as primary or alternate hosts to complete their sexual life cycle. The roles of the alternate hosts in disease epidemiology and pathogen variation vary greatly from species to species and from region to region because of different climatic and cropping conditions...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
G Rijckaert, T Vanden Nest
Grass seed crops (ryegrass), a minor crop in Belgium, should be managed more intensively and in an arable way, comparable with the intensive wheat culture. Even more important than higher seed yields are stable, higher yields over time, Integrated pest management (IPM) forms the framework around this intensification. Two similar seed production field trials--one with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.)--were conducted in 2014, dealing with 4 SDHI fungicides (bixafen, boscalid, fluxapyroxad and isopyrazam) that were compared with an untreated control and some reference treatments...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Mandeep Randhawa, Urmil Bansal, Morten Lillemo, Hanif Miah, Harbans Bariana
Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions have been demonstrated as the sources of genetic variation for resistance to rust diseases. This study involved assessment of diversity for resistance to three rust diseases among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage against several pathotypes of three rust pathogens in the greenhouse. All stage stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30, and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in different combinations among these cultivars...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Klaudia Kruppa, Edina Türkösi, Marianna Mayer, Viola Tóth, Gyula Vida, Éva Szakács, Márta Molnár-Láng
A Thinopyrum intermedium × Thinopyrum ponticum synthetic hybrid wheatgrass is an excellent source of leaf and stem rust resistance produced by N.V.Tsitsin. Wheat line Mv9kr1 was crossed with this hybrid (Agropyron glael) in Hungary in order to transfer its advantageous agronomic traits into wheat. As the wheat parent was susceptible to leaf rust, the transfer of resistance was easily recognizable in the progenies. Three different partial amphiploid lines with leaf rust resistance were selected from the wheat/Thinopyrum hybrid derivatives by multicolour genomic in situ hybridization...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
J Smith, S Waterhouse, N Paveley
Zymoseptoria tritici (previously Mycosphaerella graminicola) is the causal agent of septoria tritici leaf blotch (STB), a globally important fungal disease of bread, feed and durum wheat. Airborne ascospores originating from over-winter crop residues are considered to be the primary source of initial infection. The active ingredient fluxapyroxad (BASF) belongs to the chemical group of carboxamides and is a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide. Fluxapyroxad has strong efficacy against the key foliar diseases of winter wheat: STB, yellow rust and brown rust...
2014: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Edward Arseniuk
Triticale has been considered as resistant to diseases over a long time. Although, many authors perpetuate this opinion, it is no longer true. However, in comparison to wheat and rye triticale still may look as a healthy crop, but its healthiness has been steadily declining. It could be explained by steady expansion of the growing area and longer exposure to pathogens. On the other hand, triticale is a crop on which meet pathogens of wheat and rye, but there is evidence that on triticale embedded more so called "wheat pathogens", than rye ones...
2014: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Zhien Pu, Guoyue Chen, Jirui Wang, Yaxi Liu, Qiantao Jiang, Wei Li, Xiujing Lan, Shoufen Dai, Yuming Wei, Youliang Zheng
In this study, the ARF genes were cloned, sequenced and located on the chromosomes. The gene expression of various stress conditions were analyzed through RT-PCR. Two important features of ARF in wheat were found: (1) High sequences homology among species in mammalian and plant and (2) Four exons and three introns were conserved in Poaceae. In this study the coding genes of ADP-ribosylation Factors (ARF) were characterized and they were located on chromosomes 3AL and 2DL in common wheat and its diploid progenitors...
June 2014: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Zijin Zhang, Jieming Chen, Yongying Su, Hanmei Liu, Yanger Chen, Peigao Luo, Xiaogang Du, Dan Wang, Huaiyu Zhang
LHY (late elongated hypocotyl) is an important gene that regulates and controls biological rhythms in plants. Additionally, LHY is highly expressed in the SSH (suppression subtractive hybridization) cDNA library-induced stripe rust pathogen (CYR32) in our previous research. To identify the function of the LHY gene in disease resistance against stripe rust, we used RACE-PCR technology to clone TaLHY in the wheat variety Chuannong19. The cDNA of TaLHY is 3085 bp long with an open reading frame of 1947 bp. TaLHY is speculated to encode a 70...
2015: PloS One
Mina Talajoor, Yue Jin, Anmin Wan, Xianming Chen, Sridhar Bhavani, Linda Tabe, Evans Lagudah, Li Huang
The spring wheat 'Canthatch' has been shown to suppress stem rust resistance genes in the background due to the presence of a suppressor gene located on the long arm of chromosome 7D. However, it is unclear whether the suppressor also suppresses resistance genes against leaf rust and stripe rust. In this study, we investigated the specificity of the resistance suppression. To determine whether the suppression is genome origin specific, chromosome location specific, or rust species or race specific, we introduced 11 known rust resistance genes into the Canthatch background, including resistance to leaf, stripe, or stem rusts, originating from A, B, or D genomes and located on different chromosome homologous groups...
April 2015: Phytopathology
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