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wheat breeding and genetics

Jianhui Wu, Qingdong Zeng, Qilin Wang, Shengjie Liu, Shizhou Yu, Jingmei Mu, Shuo Huang, Hanan Sela, Assaf Distelfeld, Lili Huang, Dejun Han, Zhensheng Kang
NGS-assisted super pooling emerging as powerful tool to accelerate gene mapping and haplotype association analysis within target region uncovering specific linkage SNPs or alleles for marker-assisted gene pyramiding. Conventional gene mapping methods to identify genes associated with important agronomic traits require significant amounts of financial support and time. Here, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based mapping approach, RNA-Seq and SNP array assisted super pooling analysis, was used for rapid mining of a candidate genomic region for stripe rust resistance gene Yr26 that has been widely used in wheat breeding programs in China...
April 17, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Ben Ovenden, Andrew Milgate, Len J Wade, Greg J Rebetzke, James B Holland
Abiotic stress tolerance traits are often complex and recalcitrant targets for conventional breeding improvement in many crop species. This study evaluated the potential of genomic selection to predict water-soluble carbohydrate concentration (WSCC), an important drought tolerance trait, in wheat under field conditions. A panel of 358 varieties and breeding lines constrained for maturity was evaluated under rainfed and irrigated treatments across two locations and two years. Whole-genome marker profiles and factor analytic mixed models were used to generate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for specific environments and environment groups...
April 16, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ruairidh J H Sawers, M Rosario Ramírez-Flores, Víctor Olalde-Portugal, Uta Paszkowski
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Cereals (rice, maize, wheat, sorghum and the millets) provide over 50% of the world's caloric intake, a value that rises to > 80% in developing countries. Since domestication, cereals have been under artificial selection, largely directed towards higher yield. Throughout this process, cereals have maintained their capacity to interact with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, beneficial symbionts that associate with the roots of most terrestrial plants. It has been hypothesized that the shift from the wild to cultivation, and above all the last c...
April 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Geoffrey P Gill, Catherine J Bryant, Mikhail Fokin, Jan Huege, Karl Fraser, Chris Jones, Mingshu Cao, Marty J Faville
BACKGROUND: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites that function as feeding deterrents in a range of different plant species. In perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) the only PAs that have been identified are the thesinine-rhamnoside group, which displays significant genetic variation. Homospermidine synthase (HSS) has evolved from deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and catalyses the first step in the PA pathway, making it a key candidate for the investigation of genes influencing observed PA trait variation...
April 6, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Zerihun Tadele
A changing climate, a growing world population, and a reduction in arable land devoted to food production are all problems facing the world food security. The development of crops that can yield under uncertain and extreme climatic and soil growing conditions can play a key role in mitigating these problems. Major crops such as maize, rice, and wheat are responsible for a large proportion of global food production but many understudied crops (commonly known as "orphan crops") including millets, cassava, and cowpea feed millions of people in Asia, Africa, and South America and are already adapted to the local environments in which they are grown...
2018: Scientifica
Stefan Böhmdorfer, Josua Timotheus Oberlerchner, Christina Fuchs, Thomas Rosenau, Heinrich Grausgruber
Background: Anthocyanins are abundant secondary metabolites responsible for most blue to blue-black, and red to purple colors of various plant organs. In wheat grains, anthocyanins are accumulated in the pericarp and/or aleurone layer. Anthocyanin pigmented wheat grains can be processed into functional foods with potential health benefits due to the antioxidant properties of the anthocyanins. The grain anthocyanin content can be increased by pyramidizing the different genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanins in the different grain layers...
2018: Plant Methods
Gioconda Garcia-Santamaria, Duc Hua, Clay Sneller
Information on the genetic control of the quality traits of soft wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) is essential for breeding. Our objective was to identify QTL associated with end-use quality. We developed 150 F4-derived lines from a cross of Pioneer 26R46 × SS550 and tested them in four environments. We measured flour yield (FY), softness equivalent (SE), test weight (TW), flour protein content (FP), alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC), and solvent retention capacity (SRC) of water (WA), lactic acid (LA), sucrose (SU), sodium carbonate (SO)...
2018: PeerJ
Shamseldeen Eltaher, Ahmed Sallam, Vikas Belamkar, Hamdy A Emara, Ahmed A Nower, Khaled F M Salem, Jesse Poland, Peter S Baenziger
The availability of information on the genetic diversity and population structure in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) breeding lines will help wheat breeders to better use their genetic resources and manage genetic variation in their breeding program. The recent advances in sequencing technology provide the opportunity to identify tens or hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in large genome species (e.g., wheat). These SNPs can be utilized for understanding genetic diversity and performing genome wide association studies (GWAS) for complex traits...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Kendra L Jernigan, Jayfred V Godoy, Meng Huang, Yao Zhou, Craig F Morris, Kimberly A Garland-Campbell, Zhiwu Zhang, Arron H Carter
Soft white wheat is used in domestic and foreign markets for various end products requiring specific quality profiles. Phenotyping for end-use quality traits can be costly, time-consuming and destructive in nature, so it is advantageous to use molecular markers to select experimental lines with superior traits. An association mapping panel of 469 soft white winter wheat cultivars and advanced generation breeding lines was developed from regional breeding programs in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. This panel was genotyped on a wheat-specific 90 K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ibrahim S Elbasyoni, A J Lorenz, M Guttieri, K Frels, P S Baenziger, J Poland, E Akhunov
The utilization of DNA molecular markers in plant breeding to maximize selection response via marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) has revolutionized plant breeding. A key factor affecting GS applicability is the choice of molecular marker platform. Genotyping-by-sequencing scored SNPs (GBS-scored SNPs) provides a large number of markers, albeit with high rates of missing data. Array scored SNPs are of high quality, but the cost per sample is substantially higher. The objectives of this study were 1) compare GBS-scored SNPs, and array scored SNPs for genomic selection applications, and 2) compare estimates of genomic kinship and population structure calculated using the two marker platforms...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Alice Brunazzi, Davide Scaglione, Rebecca Fiorella Talini, Mara Miculan, Federica Magni, Jesse Poland, Mario Enrico Pè, Andrea Brandolini, Matteo Dell'Acqua
Modern plant breeding can benefit from the allelic variation existing in natural populations of crop wild relatives that evolved under natural selection in varying pedoclimatic conditions. In this study, next-generation sequencing was used to generate 1.3 million genome-wide SNPs on ex situ collections of Triticum urartu L., the wild donor of the Au sub-genome of modern wheat. A set of 75,511 high quality SNPs were retained to describe 298 T. urartu accessions collected throughout the Fertile Crescent. Triticum urartu showed a complex pattern of genetic diversity, with two main genetic groups distributed sequentially from West to East...
March 24, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Guowen Tang, Xuming Liu, Guo-Hua Chen, R Jeff Witworth, Ming-Shun Chen
Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a destructive pest of wheat and is mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. Unfortunately, wheat resistance to Hessian fly is often lost when temperatures rise to a certain level. This study analyzed temperature sensitivity of 20 wheat cultivars that contain different resistance (R) genes. The lowest temperatures at which the percentage of resistant plants fell below 50% in an assay were 18°C for 'D6647 H17' (921680D1-7) (containing the R gene H17), 20°C for 'Redland' (H18), 22°C for '84702B14-1-3-4-3' (H19), 24°C for 'Carol' (H3) and 'Sincape90' (H29), 26°C for 'Erin' (H5), 'Jori 13' (H20), and 'PI59190' (H28), 28°C for 'Joy' (H10), 'KS99WGRC42' (Hdic), 'Karen' (H11), 'Caldwell' (H6), and 'Seneca' (H7H8), 30°C for 'KS85WGRC01' (H22) and 'KS92WGRC20' (H25), 32°C for 'Molly' (H13), and 34°C for 'Iris' (H9)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Penny J Tricker, Abdeljalil ElHabti, Jessica Schmidt, Delphine Fleury
Drought and heat stress cause losses in wheat productivity in major growing regions worldwide, and both the occurrence and the severity of these events is likely to increase with global climate change. Water deficits and high temperatures frequently occur simultaneously at sensitive growth stages, reducing wheat yields by reducing grain number or weight. Although genetic variation and underlying quantitative trait loci for either individual stress are known, the combination of the two stresses has rarely been studied...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mingxia Zhao, Guomei Wang, Yueqiang Leng, Humphrey Wanjugi, Pinggen Xi, Mike Grosz, Mohamed Mergoum, Shaobin Zhong
ND2710 is a hard red spring wheat line with a very high level of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was selected from the progeny of a cross between ND2603 (an advanced breeding line derived from the Sumai 3/Wheaton cross) and Grandin (a spring wheat cultivar). The FHB resistance of ND2710 is presumably derived from Sumai 3 since the other parents Grandin and Wheaton are very susceptible to FHB. To identify and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance in ND2710, we developed a mapping population consisting of 233 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross between ND2710 and the spring wheat cultivar 'Bobwhite'...
March 21, 2018: Phytopathology
Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad Nawaz, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Khalid Al-Hashmi, Faisal Nadeem, Aman Ullah
BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency represents the major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize the 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness. RESULTS: There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, these wheat genotypes differed greatly for yield related traits and grain mineral concentration (Zn, Ca and protein) and Zn bioavailability...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zuzana Tulpová, Ming-Cheng Luo, Helena Toegelová, Paul Visendi, Satomi Hayashi, Petr Vojta, Etienne Paux, Andrzej Kilian, Michaël Abrouk, Jan Bartoš, Marián Hajdúch, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards, Jaroslav Doležel, Hana Šimková
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for a significant part of the world's population. The growing demand on its production can be satisfied by improving yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Knowledge of the genome sequence would aid in discovering genes and QTLs underlying these traits and provide a basis for genomics-assisted breeding. Physical maps and BAC clones associated with them have been valuable resources from which to generate a reference genome of bread wheat and to assist map-based gene cloning...
March 8, 2018: New Biotechnology
Kelly Breeds, N Francois V Burger, Anna-Maria Botha
Epigenetic modifications provide a means for aphid biotype development that a lack of genetic variation, owing to an anholocyclic reproduction lifecycle, fails to do. Here we present data on the DNA methylation status in four South African Russian wheat aphids (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjomov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes expressing different levels of virulence against its host, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae, Triticeae). The DNA methylation status of these biotypes was determined through the use of methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis, restriction site-specific fluorescence labeling-a novel technique, and measuring relative global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
M Rapp, V Lein, F Lacoudre, J Lafferty, E Müller, G Vida, V Bozhanova, A Ibraliu, P Thorwarth, H P Piepho, W L Leiser, T Würschum, C F H Longin
Simultaneous improvement of protein content and grain yield by index selection is possible but its efficiency largely depends on the weighting of the single traits. The genetic architecture of these indices is similar to that of the primary traits. Grain yield and protein content are of major importance in durum wheat breeding, but their negative correlation has hampered their simultaneous improvement. To account for this in wheat breeding, the grain protein deviation (GPD) and the protein yield were proposed as targets for selection...
March 6, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Guaiqiang Chai, Chunlian Li, Feng Xu, Yang Li, Xue Shi, Yong Wang, Zhonghua Wang
BACKGROUND: The cuticle covers the surface of the polysaccharide cell wall of leaf epidermal cells and forms an essential diffusion barrier between the plant and the environment. The cuticle is composed of cutin and wax. Cuticular wax plays an important role in the survival of plants by serving as the interface between plants and their biotic and abiotic environments, especially restricting nonstomatal water loss. Leaf cuticular waxes of hexaploid wheat at the seedling stage mainly consist of primary alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, alkane and esters...
March 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Jared Crain, Suchismita Mondal, Jessica Rutkoski, Ravi P Singh, Jesse Poland
Genomics and phenomics have promised to revolutionize the field of plant breeding. The integration of these two fields has just begun and is being driven through big data by advances in next-generation sequencing and developments of field-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms. Each year the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) evaluates tens-of-thousands of advanced lines for grain yield across multiple environments. To evaluate how CIMMYT may utilize dynamic HTP data for genomic selection (GS), we evaluated 1170 of these advanced lines in two environments, drought (2014, 2015) and heat (2015)...
March 2018: Plant Genome
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