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wheat breeding and genetics

Christiane Gebhardt
This article evaluates the main contributions of tomato, tobacco, petunia, potato, pepper and eggplant to classical and molecular plant genetics and genomics since the beginning of the twentieth century. Species from the Solanaceae family form integral parts of human civilizations as food sources and drugs since thousands of years, and, more recently, as ornamentals. Some Solanaceous species were subjects of classical and molecular genetic research over the last 100 years. The tomato was one of the principal models in twentieth century classical genetics and a pacemaker of genome analysis in plants including molecular linkage maps, positional cloning of disease resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL)...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Traci Kantarski, Steve Larson, Xiaofei Zhang, Lee DeHaan, Justin Borevitz, James Anderson, Jesse Poland
Development of the first consensus genetic map of intermediate wheatgrass gives insight into the genome and tools for molecular breeding. Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) has been identified as a candidate for domestication and improvement as a perennial grain, forage, and biofuel crop and is actively being improved by several breeding programs. To accelerate this process using genomics-assisted breeding, efficient genotyping methods and genetic marker reference maps are needed. We present here the first consensus genetic map for intermediate wheatgrass (IWG), which confirms the species' allohexaploid nature (2n = 6x = 42) and homology to Triticeae genomes...
October 13, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hossein Ramshini, Tahere Mirzazadeh, Mohsen Esmaeilzadeh Moghaddam, Reza Amiri
A primary concern of modern plant breeding is that genetic diversity has decreased during the past century. This study set out to explore changes in genetic variation during 84 years of breeding by investigating the germination-related traits, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting and osmotic stress tolerance of 30 Iranian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Seeds were planted under control and osmotic stress (-2, -4 and -6 bar) in three replications. The ISSR experiment was carried out using 32 different primers...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Meng Lin, Dadong Zhang, Shubing Liu, Guorong Zhang, Jianming Yu, Allan K Fritz, Guihua Bai
BACKGROUND: Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat can cause substantial reduction in grain yield and end-use quality. Grain color (GC) together with other components affect PHS resistance. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been reported for PHS resistance, and two of them on chromosome 3AS (TaPHS1) and 4A have been cloned. METHODS: To determine genetic architecture of PHS and GC and genetic relationships of the two traits, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted by evaluating a panel of 185 U...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Ankita Mishra, Anuradha Singh, Monica Sharma, Pankaj Kumar, Joy Roy
BACKGROUND: Starch is a major part of cereal grain. It comprises two glucose polymer fractions, amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP), that make up about 25 and 75 % of total starch, respectively. The ratio of the two affects processing quality and digestibility of starch-based food products. Digestibility determines nutritional quality, as high amylose starch is considered a resistant or healthy starch (RS type 2) and is highly preferred for preventive measures against obesity and related health conditions...
October 6, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Noemie Prat, Camille Guilbert, Ursa Prah, Elisabeth Wachter, Barbara Steiner, Thierry Langin, Olivier Robert, Hermann Buerstmayr
The QTL Fhb1 was successfully introgressed and validated in three durum wheat populations. The novel germplasm and the QTL detected will support improvement of Fusarium resistance in durum wheat. Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is particularly susceptible to Fusarium head blight (FHB) and breeding for resistance is hampered by limited genetic variation within this species. To date, resistant sources are mainly available in a few wild relative tetraploid wheat accessions. In this study, the effect of the well-known hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
September 23, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Jyoti Singla, Linda Lüthi, Thomas Wicker, Urmil Bansal, Simon G Krattinger, Beat Keller
Here, we describe a strategy to improve broad-spectrum leaf rust resistance by marker-assisted combination of two partial resistance genes. One of them represents a novel partial adult plant resistance gene, named Lr75. Leaf rust caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia triticina is a damaging disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The combination of several, additively-acting partial disease resistance genes has been proposed as a suitable strategy to breed wheat cultivars with high levels of durable field resistance...
September 22, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Peng Jiang, Ping-Ping Zhang, Xu Zhang, Hong-Xiang Ma
Founder parent usually plays an important role in wheat breeding. Ningmai 9 is a soft wheat variety with good performance in yield, quality, and resistance to wheat disease. Therefore it serves as an important commercial variety and founder parent in middle and lower Yangtze River of China. To date, 20 new cultivars have been developed from Ningmai 9 and released to wheat production in the last 10 years. In this study, the 90K iSELECT ILLUMINA chip was used to analyze the genotype of Ningmai 9 and its 17 derivatives...
2016: International Journal of Genomics
Liqiang Song, Yuqing Lu, Jinpeng Zhang, Cuili Pan, Xinming Yang, Xiuquan Li, Weihua Liu, Lihui Li
Agropyron cristatum (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP) is a wild relative of common wheat and confers several desirable agronomic traits to wheat, such as high grain number per spike and enhanced resistance to certain diseases. Development of wheat - A. cristatum 6P translocation lines facilitates its utilization in wheat improvement. In this study, 26 wheat - A. cristatum 6P translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization (ISH) and 6P-specific sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers. These translocation lines carried different 6P chromosomal segments, which covered the whole 6P chromosome...
October 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Alexandra M Allen, Mark O Winfield, Amanda J Burridge, Rowena C Downie, Harriet R Benbow, Gary L A Barker, Paul A Wilkinson, Jane Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Alessandro Davassi, Geoff Scopes, Ali Pirani, Teresa Webster, Fiona Brew, Claire Bloor, Simon Griffiths, Alison R Bentley, Mark Alda, Peter Jack, Andrew L Phillips, Keith J Edwards
Targeted selection and inbreeding have resulted in a lack of genetic diversity in elite hexaploid bread wheat accessions. Reduced diversity can be a limiting factor in the breeding of high yielding varieties and crucially can mean reduced resilience in the face of changing climate and resource pressures. Recent technological advances have enabled the development of molecular markers for use in the assessment and utilisation of genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat. Starting with a large collection of 819,571 previously characterised wheat markers, here we describe the identification of 35,143 single nucleotide polymorphism-based markers, which are highly suited to the genotyping of elite hexaploid wheat accessions...
September 14, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Learnmore Mwadzingeni, Hussein Shimelis, Samson Tesfay, Toi J Tsilo
Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marco Scutari, Ian Mackay, David Balding
The prediction of phenotypic traits using high-density genomic data has many applications such as the selection of plants and animals of commercial interest; and it is expected to play an increasing role in medical diagnostics. Statistical models used for this task are usually tested using cross-validation, which implicitly assumes that new individuals (whose phenotypes we would like to predict) originate from the same population the genomic prediction model is trained on. In this paper we propose an approach based on clustering and resampling to investigate the effect of increasing genetic distance between training and target populations when predicting quantitative traits...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Peng Qin, Yu Lin, Yaodong Hu, Kun Liu, Shuangshuang Mao, Zhanyi Li, Jirui Wang, Yaxi Liu, Yuming Wei, Youliang Zheng
The D-genome progenitor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, possesses numerous genes for resistance to abiotic stresses, including drought. Therefore, information on the genetic architecture of A. tauschii can aid the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties. Here, we evaluated 13 traits in 373 A. tauschii accessions grown under normal and polyethylene glycol-simulated drought stress conditions and performed a genome-wide association study using 7,185 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers...
July 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Shengnan Zhai, Xianchun Xia, Zhonghu He
Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lia S Arraiano, James K M Brown
An association genetics analysis was conducted to investigate the genetics of resistance to Septoria tritici blotch, caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici (alternatively Mycosphaerella graminicola), in cultivars and breeding lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum) used in the United Kingdom between 1860 and 2000. The population was tested with Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and simple-sequence repeat (SSR or microsatellite) markers. The lines formed a single population, with no evidence for sub-division because there were several common ancestors of large parts of the pedigree...
August 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Philipp H G Boeven, C Friedrich H Longin, Willmar L Leiser, Sonja Kollers, Erhard Ebmeyer, Tobias Würschum
This study revealed a complex genetic architecture of male floral traits in wheat, and Rht-D1 was identified as the only major QTL. Genome-wide prediction approaches but also phenotypic recurrent selection appear promising to increase outcrossing ability required for hybrid wheat seed production. Hybrid wheat breeding is a promising approach to increase grain yield and yield stability. However, the identification of lines with favorable male floral characteristics required for hybrid seed production currently poses a severe bottleneck for hybrid wheat breeding...
August 23, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Alireza Nakhforoosh, Thomas Bodewein, Fabio Fiorani, Gernot Bodner
Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jindong Liu, Zhonghu He, Ling Wu, Bin Bai, Weie Wen, Chaojie Xie, Xianchun Xia
Nine QTL for black point resistance in wheat were identified using a RIL population derived from a Linmai 2/Zhong 892 cross and 90K SNP assay. Black point, discoloration of the embryo end of the grain, downgrades wheat grain quality leading to significant economic losses to the wheat industry. The availability of molecular markers will accelerate improvement of black point resistance in wheat breeding. The aims of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for black point resistance and tightly linked molecular markers, and to search for candidate genes using a high-density genetic linkage map of wheat...
August 16, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Colin W Hiebert, Mulualem T Kassa, Curt A McCartney, Frank M You, Matthew N Rouse, Pierre Fobert, Tom G Fetch
Resistance to Ug99 stem rust in Triumph 64 was conferred by SrTmp on chromosome arm 6DS and was mapped to the same position as SrCad and Sr42 , however, the three genes show functional differences. Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is an important disease of wheat that can be controlled by effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. The emergence of virulent Pgt races in Africa, namely Ug99 and its variants, has stimulated the search for new Sr genes and genetic characterization of known sources of resistance...
August 9, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
X Y Chen, X Y Cao, Y J Zhang, S Islam, J J Zhang, R C Yang, J J Liu, G Y Li, R Appels, G Keeble-Gagnere, W Q Ji, Z H He, W J Ma
The wheat avenin-like proteins (ALP) are considered atypical gluten constituents and have shown positive effects on dough properties revealed using a transgenic approach. However, to date the genetic architecture of ALP genes is unclear, making it impossible to be utilized in wheat breeding. In the current study, three genes of type-b ALPs were identified and mapped to chromosomes 7AS, 4AL and 7DS. The coding gene sequence of both TaALP-7A and TaALP-7D was 855 bp long, encoding two identical homologous 284 amino acid long proteins...
2016: Scientific Reports
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