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wheat breeding and genetics

Whitney Pilcher, Hana Zandkamiri, Kelly Arceneaux, Stephen Harrison, Niranjan Baisakh
Herbicides are an important component of weed management in wheat, particularly in the southeastern US where weeds actively compete with wheat throughout the winter for nutrients and reduce tillering and ultimately the yield of the crop. Some wheat varieties are sensitive to metribuzin, a low-cost non-selective herbicide, leading to leaf chlorosis, stand loss, and decreased yield. Knowledge of the genetics of herbicide tolerance in wheat is very limited and most new varieties have not been screened for metribuzin tolerance...
2017: PloS One
Ekaterina D Badaeva, Alevtina S Ruban, Alexandra A Shishkina, Sergei N Sibikeev, Alexander E Druzhin, Sergei A Surzhikov, Alexandra Yu Dragovich
<i>Aegilops columnaris</i> is tetraploid <i>Aegilops</i> species originated from <i>Ae. umbellulata </i>(2n=2x=14, UU) and yet unknown diploid grass species. Although <i>Ae. columnaris </i>possesses some agronomically valuable traits, such as heat and drought tolerance, resistance to pests, it has never been used in wheat breeding due to difficulties of hybrid production and lack of information on the relationships between <i>Ae. columnaris </i>and common wheat chromosomes...
December 7, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Julie King, Surbhi Grewal, Cai-Yun Yang, Stella Hubbart Edwards, Duncan Scholefield, Stephen Ashling, John A Harper, Alexandra M Allen, Keith J Edwards, Amanda J Burridge, Ian P King
Background and Aims: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been through a severe genetic bottleneck as a result of its evolution and domestication. It is therefore essential that new sources of genetic variation are generated and utilized. This study aimed to generate genome-wide introgressed segments from Aegilops speltoides. Introgressions generated from this research will be made available for phenotypic analysis. Methods: Aegilops speltoides was crossed as the male parent to T...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Botany
Petteri Karisto, Andreas Hund, Kang Yu, Jonas Anderegg, Achim Walter, Fabio Mascher, Bruce A McDonald, Alexey Mikaberidze
Quantitative resistance is likely to be more durable than major gene resistance for controlling Septoria tritici blotch (STB) on wheat. Earlier studies hypothesized that resistance affecting the degree of host damage, as measured by the percentage of leaf area covered by STB lesions, is distinct from resistance that affects pathogen reproduction, as measured by the density of pycnidia produced within lesions. We tested this hypothesis using a collection of 335 elite European winter wheat cultivars that was naturally infected by a diverse population of Zymoseptoria tritici in a replicated field experiment...
December 6, 2017: Phytopathology
Takashi Okada, J E A Ridma M Jayasinghe, Moureen Nansamba, Mathieu Baes, Patricia Warner, Allan Kouidri, David Correia, Vy Nguyen, Ryan Whitford, Ute Baumann
Bread wheat is strongly autogamous; however, an opportunity for outcrossing occurs when self-pollination fails and florets open. The first phase of floret opening at anthesis is short and induced by lodicule turgidity. Some wheat florets re-open post-anthesis for several days, known as the 'second opening', for which the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We performed detailed physiological, anatomical, and histological investigations to understand the biological basis of the flower opening process...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Albert W Schulthess, Yusheng Zhao, C Friedrich H Longin, Jochen C Reif
Predictabilities for wheat hybrids less related to the estimation set were improved by shifting from single- to multiple-trait genomic prediction of Fusarium head blight severity. Breeding for improved Fusarium head blight resistance (FHBr) of wheat is a very laborious and expensive task. FHBr complexity is mainly due to its highly polygenic nature and because FHB severity (FHBs) is greatly influenced by the environment. Associated traits plant height and heading date may provide additional information related to FHBr, but this is ignored in single-trait genomic prediction (STGP)...
December 2, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Lei Lei, Genqiao Li, Hailin Zhang, Carol Powers, Tilin Fang, Yihua Chen, Shuwen Wang, Xinkai Zhu, Brett F Carver, Liuling Yan
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) has low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The genetic mechanisms controlling NUE are unknown. Positional cloning of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for N-related agronomic traits showed that the vernalization gene TaVRN-A1 was tightly linked with TaNUE1, the gene shown to influence NUE in wheat. Because of an Ala180 /Val180 substitution, TaVRN-A1a and TaVRN-A1b proteins interact differentially with TaANR1, a protein encoded by a wheat orthologue of Arabidopsis nitrate regulated 1 (ANR1)...
November 28, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Umar M Quraishi, Caroline Pont, Qurat-Ul Ain, Raphael Flores, Laura Burlot, Michael Alaux, Hadi Quesneville, Jerome Salse
The high resolution integration of bread wheat genetic and genomic resources accumulated during the last decades offers the opportunity to unveil candidate genes driving major agronomical traits to an unprecedented scale. We combined 27 public quantitative genetic studies and four genetic maps to deliver an exhaustive consensus map consisting of 140,315 molecular markers hosting 221, 73, and 82 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for respectively yield, baking quality, and grain protein content (GPC) related traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Michael Habig, Jakob Quade, Eva Holtgrewe Stukenbrock
The fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici possesses a large complement of accessory chromosomes showing presence/absence polymorphism among isolates. These chromosomes encode hundreds of genes; however, their functional role and why the chromosomes have been maintained over long evolutionary times are so far not known. In this study, we addressed the functional relevance of eight accessory chromosomes in reference isolate IPO323. We induced chromosome losses by inhibiting the β-tubulin assembly during mitosis using carbendazim and generated several independent isogenic strains, each lacking one of the accessory chromosomes...
November 28, 2017: MBio
Manuel Geyer, Theresa Albrecht, Lorenz Hartl, Volker Mohler
Hybrid wheat breeding has the potential to significantly increase wheat productivity compared to line breeding. The induction of male sterility by the cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. is a widely discussed approach to ensure cross-pollination between parental inbred lines in hybrid wheat seed production. As fertility restoration in hybrids with this cytoplasm is often incomplete, understanding the underlying genetics is a prerequisite to apply this technology. A promising component for fertility restoration is the restorer locus Rf1, which was first detected on chromosome 1A of the restorer accession R3...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Sheng-Xing Wang, Yu-Lei Zhu, De-Xin Zhang, Hui Shao, Peng Liu, Jian-Bang Hu, Heng Zhang, Hai-Ping Zhang, Cheng Chang, Jie Lu, Xian-Chun Xia, Gen-Lou Sun, Chuan-Xi Ma
Genetic improvement of grain yield is always an important objective in wheat breeding. Here, a genome-wide association study was conducted to parse the complex genetic composition of yield-related traits of 105 elite wheat varieties (lines) using the Wheat 90K Illumina iSelect SNP array. Nine yield-related traits, including maximum number of shoots per square meter (MSN), effective number of spikes per square meter (ESN), percentage of effective spike (PES), number of kernels per spike (KPS), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), the ratio of kernel length/kernel width (RLW), leaf-area index (LAI), plant height (PH), and grain yield (GY), were evaluated across four environments...
2017: PloS One
Jindong Liu, Zhonghu He, Awais Rasheed, Weie Wen, Jun Yan, Pingzhi Zhang, Yingxiu Wan, Yong Zhang, Chaojie Xie, Xianchun Xia
BACKGROUND: Black point is a serious threat to wheat production and can be managed by host resistance. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to accelerate genetic improvement of black point resistance in wheat breeding. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the high-density wheat 90 K and 660 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays to better understand the genetic basis of black point resistance and identify associated molecular markers. RESULTS: Black point reactions were evaluated in 166 elite wheat cultivars in five environments...
November 23, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Rebecca D Curland, Liangliang Gao, Carolee T Bull, Boris Vinatzer, Ruth Dill-Macky, Leon Von Eck, Carol Ishimaru
Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) of wheat and barley, caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa and Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens, has been of growing concern in small grains production in the Upper Midwestern United States. To optimize disease resistance breeding, a greater awareness is needed of the pathovars and genetic diversity within the pathogens causing BLS in the region. Multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and analysis (MLSA) of four common housekeeping genes (rpoD, dnaK, fyuA and gyrB) was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 82 strains of X...
November 22, 2017: Phytopathology
Huagang He, Yaoyong Ji, Shanying Zhu, Bin Li, Renhui Zhao, Zhengning Jiang, Tongde Bie
Pm21, originating from wheat wild relative Dasypyrum villosum, confers immunity to all known races of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and has been widely utilized in wheat breeding. However, little is known on the genetic basis of the Pm21 locus. In the present study, four seedling-susceptible D. villosum lines (DvSus-1 ∼ DvSus-4) were identified from different natural populations. Based on the collinearity among genomes of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza, and Triticeae, a set of 25 gene-derived markers were developed declaring the polymorphisms between DvRes-1 carrying Pm21 and DvSus-1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sam W Henderson, Jake D Dunlevy, Yue Wu, Deidre H Blackmore, Rob R Walker, Everard J Edwards, Matthew Gilliham, Amanda R Walker
Under salinity, Vitis spp. rootstocks can mediate salt (NaCl) exclusion from grafted V. vinifera scions enabling higher grapevine yields and production of superior wines with lower salt content. Until now, the genetic and mechanistic elements controlling sodium (Na+ ) exclusion in grapevine were unknown. Using a cross between two Vitis interspecific hybrid rootstocks, we mapped a dominant quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with leaf Na+ exclusion (NaE) under salinity stress. The NaE locus encodes six high-affinity potassium transporters (HKT)...
November 21, 2017: New Phytologist
Kahraman Gurcan, Fatih Demirel, Mehmet Tekin, Serap Demirel, Taner Akar
BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the important gene centers for many crop species. In this research, some ancient wheats such as tetraploid and diploid hulled wheats together with hexaploid tir wheats (Triticum aestivum ssp. leucospermum Korn.) landraces mainly adapted to harsh winter conditions of Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey were characterized at agro-morphological and molecular level. Totally 50 hulled wheat population from Kastamonu, Konya and Kayseri provinces and 15 tir wheats from Kars provinces of Turkey were in-situ collected for characterization in 2013...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Yerlan Turuspekov, Aida Baibulatova, Kanat Yermekbayev, Laura Tokhetova, Vladimir Chudinov, Grigoriy Sereda, Martin Ganal, Simon Griffiths, Saule Abugalieva
BACKGROUND: Spring wheat is the largest agricultural crop grown in Kazakhstan with an annual sowing area of 12 million hectares in 2016. Annually, the country harvests around 15 million tons of high quality grain. Despite environmental stress factors it is predicted that the use of new technologies may lead to increases in productivity from current levels of 1.5 to up to 3 tons per hectare. One way of improving wheat productivity is by the application of new genomic oriented approaches in plant breeding projects...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Quddoos H Muqaddasi, Klaus Pillen, Jörg Plieske, Martin W Ganal, Marion S Röder
The production and cultivation of hybrid wheat is a possible strategy to close the yield gap in wheat. Efficient hybrid wheat seed production largely depends on high rates of cross-pollination which can be ensured through high anther extrusion (AE) by male parental lines. Here, we report the AE capacity and elucidate its genetics in 514 elite European winter wheat varieties via genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We observed a wide range of variation among genotypes and a high heritability (0.80) for AE...
2017: PloS One
Fang Liu, Pandi Wang, Xiaobo Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Xiaohong Yan, Donghui Fu, Gang Wu
This review presents genetic and molecular basis of crop height using a rice crop model. Height is controlled by multiple genes with potential to be manipulated through breeding strategies to improve productivity. Height is an important factor affecting crop architecture, apical dominance, biomass, resistance to lodging, tolerance to crowding and mechanical harvesting. The impressive increase in wheat and rice yield during the 'green revolution' benefited from a combination of breeding for high-yielding dwarf varieties together with advances in agricultural mechanization, irrigation and agrochemical/fertilizer use...
November 6, 2017: Planta
Thomas Müller, Beate Schierscher-Viret, Dario Fossati, Cécile Brabant, Arnold Schori, Beat Keller, Simon G Krattinger
High-throughput genotyping of Swiss bread wheat and spelt accessions revealed differences in their gene pools and identified bread wheat landraces that were not used in breeding. Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs...
November 4, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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