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wheat breeding and genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526913/mapping-qtls-controlling-kernel-dimensions-in-a-wheat-inter-varietal-ril-mapping-population
#1
Ruiru Cheng, Zhongxin Kong, Liwei Zhang, Quan Xie, Haiyan Jia, Dong Yu, Yulong Huang, Zhengqiang Ma
Seven kernel dimension QTLs were identified in wheat, and kernel thickness was found to be the most important dimension for grain weight improvement. Kernel morphology and weight of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) affect both yield and quality; however, the genetic basis of these traits and their interactions has not been fully understood. In this study, to investigate the genetic factors affecting kernel morphology and the association of kernel morphology traits with kernel weight, kernel length (KL), width (KW) and thickness (KT) were evaluated, together with hundred-grain weight (HGW), in a recombinant inbred line population derived from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai, with data from five trials (two different locations over 3 years)...
May 19, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500796/high-density-genotyping-of-the-a-e-watkins-collection-of-hexaploid-landraces-identifies-a-large-molecular-diversity-compared-to-elite-bread-wheat
#2
Mark O Winfield, Alexandra M Allen, Paul A Wilkinson, Amanda J Burridge, Gary L A Barker, Jane Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Luzie U Wingen, Simon Griffiths, Keith J Edwards
The importance of wheat as a food crop makes it a major target for agricultural improvements. As one of the most widely grown cereal grains, together with maize and rice, wheat is the leading provider of calories in the global diet, constituting 29% of global cereal production in 2015. In the last few decades, however, yields have plateaued, suggesting that the green revolution, at least for wheat, might have run its course and that new sources of genetic variation are urgently required. The overall aim of our work is to identify novel variation that may then be used to enable the breeding process...
May 13, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497807/a-trim-insertion-in-the-promoter-of-ms2-causes-male-sterility-in-wheat
#3
Chuan Xia, Lichao Zhang, Cheng Zou, Yongqiang Gu, Jialei Duan, Guangyao Zhao, Jiajie Wu, Yue Liu, Xiaohua Fang, Lifeng Gao, Yuannian Jiao, Jiaqiang Sun, Yinghong Pan, Xu Liu, Jizeng Jia, Xiuying Kong
The male-sterile ms2 mutant has been known for 40 years and has become extremely important in the commercial production of wheat. However, the gene responsible for this phenotype has remained unknown. Here we report the map-based cloning of the Ms2 gene. The Ms2 locus is remarkable in several ways that have implications in basic biology. Beyond having no functional annotation, barely detectable transcription in fertile wild-type wheat plants, and accumulated destructive mutations in Ms2 orthologs, the Ms2 allele in the ms2 mutant has acquired a terminal-repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) element in its promoter...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491078/the-importance-of-being-on-time-regulatory-networks-controlling-photoperiodic-flowering-in-cereals
#4
REVIEW
Vittoria Brambilla, Jorge Gomez-Ariza, Martina Cerise, Fabio Fornara
Flowering is the result of the coordination between genetic information and environmental cues. Gene regulatory networks have evolved in plants in order to measure diurnal and seasonal variation of day length (or photoperiod), thus aligning the reproductive phase with the most favorable season of the year. The capacity of plants to discriminate distinct photoperiods classifies them into long and short day species, depending on the conditions that induce flowering. Plants of tropical origin and adapted to short day lengths include rice, maize, and sorghum, whereas wheat and barley were originally domesticated in the Fertile Crescent and are considered long day species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476859/william-friedman-geneticist-turned-cryptographer
#5
Irwin L Goldman
William Friedman (1891-1969), trained as a plant geneticist at Cornell University, was employed at Riverbank Laboratories by the eccentric millionaire George Fabyan to work on wheat breeding. Friedman, however, soon became intrigued by and started working on a pet project of Fabyan's involving the conjecture that Francis Bacon, a polymath known for the study of ciphers, was the real author of Shakespeare's plays. Thus, beginning in ∼1916, Friedman turned his attention to the so called "Baconian cipher," and developed decryption techniques that bore similarity to approaches for solving problems in population genetics...
May 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464069/phenotypic-and-haplotype-diversity-among-tetraploid-and-hexaploid-wheat-accessions-with-potentially-novel-insect-resistance-genes-for-wheat-stem-sawfly
#6
J P Cook, N K Blake, H Y Heo, J M Martin, D K Weaver, L E Talbert
Genetic diversity in breeding programs can be impaired by fixation of alleles derived from a limited number of founder lines. This is demonstrated with the use of a solid-stem trait derived from the Portuguese landrace 'S-615' over 70 yrs ago that is widely used to resist the wheat stem sawfly ( Norton, WSS) in North America. The objective of this study was to evaluate haplotype diversity underlying the quantitative trait locus (QTL) that controls the majority of the S-615 derived solid-stem genetic variation using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays in a diverse set of 228 solid-stem tetraploid and hexaploid wheat accessions originating from areas of the world infested with various species of WSS...
March 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451771/epistatic-determinism-of-durum-wheat-resistance-to-the-wheat-spindle-streak-mosaic-virus
#7
Yan Holtz, Michel Bonnefoy, Véronique Viader, Morgane Ardisson, Nicolas O Rode, Gérard Poux, Pierre Roumet, Véronique Marie-Jeanne, Vincent Ranwez, Sylvain Santoni, David Gouache, Jacques L David
The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar...
April 27, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446328/combined-gc-and-uhplc-hr-ms-based-metabolomics-to-analyze-durable-anti-fungal-resistance-processes-in-cereals
#8
Rahel Bucher, Daniel Veyel, Lothar Willmitzer, Simon Krattinger, Beat Keller, Laurent Biglera
Introduction of durable resistance genes in crops is an important strategy to prevent yield loss caused by pathogens. The durable multi-pathogen resistance gene Lr34 originating from wheat is widely used in breeding, and is functionally transferable to barley and rice. The molecular resistance mechanism of Lr34, encoding for an adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter, is not known yet. To understand the molecular function and the defense response of durable disease resistance in cereals, the metabolic response of Lr34 was investigated in, except for the Lr34 gene, genetically identical lines of barley, rice and wheat...
April 26, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400774/elite-haplotypes-of-a-protein-kinase-gene-tasnrk2-3-associated-with-important-agronomic-traits-in-common-wheat
#9
Lili Miao, Xinguo Mao, Jingyi Wang, Zicheng Liu, Bin Zhang, Weiyu Li, Xiaoping Chang, Matthew Reynolds, Zhenhua Wang, Ruilian Jing
Plant-specific protein kinase SnRK2s play crucial roles in response to various environmental stimuli. TaSnRK2.3, a SnRK2 member, was involved in the response to multiple abiotic stresses in wheat. To facilitate the use of TaSnRK2.3 in wheat breeding, the three genomic sequences of TaSnRK2.3, originating from the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, were obtained. Sequence polymorphism assays showing 4 and 10 variations were detected at TaSnRK2.3-1A and at TaSnRK2.3-1B, respectively, yet no variation was identified at TaSnRK2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399136/high-density-mapping-and-haplotype-analysis-of-the-major-stem-solidness-locus-sst1-in-durum-and-common-wheat
#10
Kirby T Nilsen, Amidou N'Diaye, P R MacLachlan, John M Clarke, Yuefeng Ruan, Richard D Cuthbert, Ron E Knox, Krystalee Wiebe, Aron T Cory, Sean Walkowiak, Brian L Beres, Robert J Graf, Fran R Clarke, Andrew G Sharpe, Assaf Distelfeld, Curtis J Pozniak
Breeding for solid-stemmed durum (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is one strategy to minimize yield losses caused by the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton). Major stem-solidness QTL have been localized to the long arm of chromosome 3B in both wheat species, but it is unclear if these QTL span a common genetic interval. In this study, we have improved the resolution of the QTL on chromosome 3B in a durum (Kofa/W9262-260D3) and common wheat (Lillian/Vesper) mapping population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394901/chromosomal-localization-of-genes-conferring-desirable-agronomic-traits-from-agropyron-cristatum-chromosome-1p
#11
Cuili Pan, Qingfeng Li, Yuqing Lu, Jinpeng Zhang, Xinming Yang, Xiuquan Li, Lihui Li, Weihua Liu
Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable genes for wheat breeding. To transfer these genes into wheat, a series of wheat-A. cristatum derivatives have been obtained in our laboratory. In this study, a wheat-A. cristatum derivative II-3-1 was obtained, which was proven to contain a 1P (1A) disomic substitution and 2P disomic addition line with 40 wheat chromosomes and two pairs of A. cristatum chromosomes by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular markers analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384183/qtl-mapping-of-wheat-plant-architectural-characteristics-and-their-genetic-relationship-with-seven-qtls-conferring-resistance-to-sheath-blight
#12
Yan Guo, Ziyi Du, Jiang Chen, Zhongjun Zhang
Sheath blight is one of the most devastating wheat diseases worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is the most powerful strategy to defeat the disease. Plant resistance on "disease escape" works through modulation of morphological traits and shows sustainable resistance to disease. Plant architectural traits have been reported to play a significant role in disease response. Therefore, exploring the genetic relationship between plant architecture and disease resistance is of importance to the understanding of plant resistance via "disease escape"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367153/pentaploid-wheat-hybrids-applications-characterisation-and-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Sriram Padmanaban, Peng Zhang, Ray A Hare, Mark W Sutherland, Anke Martin
Interspecific hybridisation between hexaploid and tetraploid wheat species leads to the development of F1 pentaploid hybrids with unique chromosomal constitutions. Pentaploid hybrids derived from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum Desf.) crosses can improve the genetic background of either parent by transferring traits of interest. The genetic variability derived from bread and durum wheat and transferred into pentaploid hybrids has the potential to improve disease resistance, abiotic tolerance, and grain quality, and to enhance agronomic characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366879/proteomic-insight-into-the-mitigation-of-wheat-root-drought-stress-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizae
#14
Letizia Bernardo, Caterina Morcia, Paolo Carletti, Roberta Ghizzoni, Franz W Badeck, Fulvia Rizza, Luigi Lucini, Valeria Terzi
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are plant growth promoters that ameliorate plant-water relations and the nutrient uptake of wheat. In this work, two cultivars of Triticum spp., a bread and a durum wheat, grown under drought stress and inoculated or not by AMF, are evaluated through a shotgun proteomic approach. The AMF association had beneficial effects as compared to non-mycorrhizal roots, in both bread and durum wheat. The beneficial symbiosis was confirmed by measuring morphological and physiological traits...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363003/genetic-progress-in-homogeneous-regions-of-wheat-cultivation-in-rio-grande-do-sul-state-brazil
#15
D N Follmann, A Cargnelutti Filho, A D Lúcio, V Q de Souza, M Caraffa, C A Wartha
The State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) stands out as the largest wheat producer in Brazil. Wheat is the most emphasized winter cereal in RS, attracting public and private investments directed to wheat genetic breeding. The study of genetic progress should be performed routinely at breeding programs to study the behavior of cultivars developed for homogeneous regions of cultivation. The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the genetic progress of wheat grain yield in RS; 2) to evaluate the influence of cultivar competition trial stratification in homogeneous regions of cultivation on the study of genetic progress...
March 30, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337069/detection-of-alien-genetic-introgressions-in-bread-wheat-using-dot-blot-genomic-hybridisation
#16
María-Dolores Rey, Pilar Prieto
Simple, reliable methods for the identification of alien genetic introgressions are required in plant breeding programmes. The use of genomic dot-blot hybridisation allows the detection of small Hordeum chilense genomic introgressions in the descendants of genetic crosses between wheat and H. chilense addition or substitution lines in wheat when molecular markers are difficult to use. Based on genomic in situ hybridisation, DNA samples from wheat lines carrying putatively H. chilense introgressions were immobilised on a membrane, blocked with wheat genomic DNA and hybridised with biotin-labelled H...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332204/evaluation-of-hmw-gs-20-and-2-2-from-near-isogenic-lines-nils-of-wheat-variety-hd2329-for-bread-quality-improvement
#17
Sonia Goel, Sapna Grewal, N K Singh
BACKGROUND: Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dominates the list of the most important human food sources ever. Its complex genetic background is the reason behind the wide diversity that exists in nutritional as well as food end- product quality. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are the main grain storage proteins in the endosperm of wheat and related species. It is well established that the composition and quantity of allelic variation in (HMW-GS) genes substantially affect the taste and appearance of dough products and therefore work in this area is highly desired...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330167/genetic-characterization-of-moroccan-and-the-exotic-bread-wheat-cultivars-using-functional-and-random-dna-markers-linked-to-the-agronomic-traits-for-genomics-assisted-improvement
#18
Fatima Henkrar, Jamal El-Haddoury, Hassan Ouabbou, Najib Bendaou, Sripada M Udupa
Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most important traits for wheat breeding...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326434/genetic-architecture-of-male-fertility-restoration-of-triticum-timopheevii-cytoplasm-and-fine-mapping-of-the-major-restorer-locus-rf3-on-chromosome-1b
#19
Tobias Würschum, Willmar L Leiser, Sigrid Weissmann, Hans Peter Maurer
Restoration of fertility in the cytoplasmic male sterility-inducing Triticum timopheevii cytoplasm can be achieved with the major restorer locus Rf3 located on chromosome 1B, but is also dependent on modifier loci. Hybrid breeding relies on a hybrid mechanism enabling a cost-efficient hybrid seed production. In wheat and triticale, cytoplasmic male sterility based on the T. timopheevii cytoplasm is commonly used, and the aim of this study was to dissect the genetic architecture underlying fertility restoration...
March 21, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326096/tagw2-a-good-reflection-of-wheat-polyploidization-and-evolution
#20
Lin Qin, Junjie Zhao, Tian Li, Jian Hou, Xueyong Zhang, Chenyang Hao
Hexaploid wheat consists of three subgenomes, namely, A, B, and D. These well-characterized ancestral genomes also exist at the diploid and tetraploid levels, thereby rendering wheat as a good model species for studying polyploidization. Here, we performed intra- and inter-species comparative analyses of wheat and its relatives to dissect polymorphism and differentiation of the TaGW2 genes. Our results showed that genetic diversity of TaGW2 decreased with progression from the diploids to tetraploids and hexaploids...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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