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wheat breeding and genetics

Samuel R A Collins, David R Wilson, Graham K Moates, Andrea L Harper, Ian Bancroft, Keith W Waldron
BACKGROUND: Wheat straw forms an important, reliable source of lignocellulosic biomass for use in second-generation ethanol production. However, there is limited understanding of the variation in quality of straw from current breeding cultivars, and studies on such variation have generally employed suboptimal pretreatments. There is also a degree of confusion regarding phenotypic characteristics relevant to optimising the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose after suitable pretreatments for biorefining compared with those which determine good ruminant digestibility...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Berhanu Tadesse Ertiro, Kassa Semagn, Biswanath Das, Michael Olsen, Maryke Labuschagne, Mosisa Worku, Dagne Wegary, Girum Azmach, Veronica Ogugo, Tolera Keno, Beyene Abebe, Temesgen Chibsa, Abebe Menkir
BACKGROUND: Molecular characterization is important for efficient utilization of germplasm and development of improved varieties. In the present study, we investigated the genetic purity, relatedness and population structure of 265 maize inbred lines from the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) using 220,878 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers obtained using genotyping by sequencing (GBS)...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
Dew Kumari Sharma, Anna Maria Torp, Eva Rosenqvist, Carl-Otto Ottosen, Sven B Andersen
Despite the fact that Fv/Fm (maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II) is the most widely used parameter for a rapid non-destructive measure of stress detection in plants, there are barely any studies on the genetic understanding of this trait under heat stress. Our aim was to identify quantitative trait locus (QTL) and the potential candidate genes linked to Fv/Fm for improved photosynthesis under heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Three bi-parental F2 mapping populations were generated by crossing three heat tolerant male parents (origin: Afghanistan and Pakistan) selected for high Fv/Fm with a common heat susceptible female parent (origin: Germany) selected for lowest Fv/Fm out of a pool of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse geographic origin...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shenghui Zhou, Baiqiang Yan, Fei Li, Jinpeng Zhang, Jing Zhang, Huihui Ma, Weihua Liu, Yuqing Lu, Xinming Yang, Xiuquan Li, Xu Liu, Lihui Li
Agropyron cristatum, which is a wild grass of the tribe Triticeae, grows widely in harsh environments and provides many desirable genetic resources for wheat improvement. However, unclear interspecific phylogeny and genome-wide variation has limited the utilization of A. cristatum in the production of superior wheat varieties. In this study, by sequencing the transcriptome of the representative tetraploid A. cristatum Z559 and the common wheat variety Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho), which are often used as parents in a wide cross, their phylogenetic relationship and interspecific variation were dissected...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ravi C Nirmal, Agnelo Furtado, Parimalan Rangan, Robert J Henry
A large portion of the global wheat crop is milled to produce flour for use in the production of foods such as bread. Pressure to increase food supplies sustainably can be address directly by reducing post-harvest losses during processes such as flour milling. The recovery of flour in the milling of wheat is genetically determined but difficult to assess in wheat breeding due to the requirement for a large sample. Here we report the discovery that human selection for altered expression of putative cell adhesion proteins is associated with wheats that give high yields of flour on milling...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jianhui Wu, Shengjie Liu, Qilin Wang, Qingdong Zeng, Jingmei Mu, Shuo Huang, Shizhou Yu, Dejun Han, Zhensheng Kang
High-throughput SNP array analysis of pooled extreme phenotypes in a segregating population by KASP marker genotyping permitted rapid, cost-effective location of a stripe rust resistance QTL in wheat. German wheat cultivar "Friedrichswerther" has exhibited high levels of adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust in field environments for many years. F2:3 lines and F6 recombinant inbred line (RILs) populations derived from a cross between Friedrichswerther and susceptible landrace Mingxian 169 were evaluated in the field in 2013, 2016 and 2017...
September 30, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Yosef G Kidane, Bogale N Hailemariam, Dejene K Mengistu, Carlo Fadda, Mario Enrico Pè, Matteo Dell'Acqua
Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is a devastating fungal disease affecting durum and bread wheat cultivation worldwide. The identification, development, and employment of resistant wheat genetic material is the key to overcoming costs and limitations of fungicide treatments. The search for resistance sources in untapped genetic material may speed up the deployment of STB genetic resistance in the field. Ethiopian durum wheat landraces represent a valuable source of such diversity. In this study, 318 Ethiopian durum wheat genotypes, for the most part traditional landraces, were phenotyped for resistance to different aspects of STB infection...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jiping Wang, Runzhi Li, Xinguo Mao, Ruilian Jing
Calreticulin (CRT), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Ca(2+)-binding/buffering protein, is highly conserved and extensively expressed in animal and plant cells. To understand the function of CRTs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), particularly their roles in stress tolerance, we cloned the full-length genomic sequence of the TaCRT-D isoform from D genome of common hexaploid wheat, and characterized its function by transgenic Arabidopsis system. TaCRT-D exhibited different expression patterns in wheat seedling under different abiotic stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Oluwaseyi Shorinola, Barbara Balcárková, Jessica Hyles, Josquin F G Tibbits, Matthew J Hayden, Katarina Holušova, Miroslav Valárik, Assaf Distelfeld, Atsushi Torada, Jose M Barrero, Cristobal Uauy
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is an important cause of quality loss in many cereal crops and is particularly prevalent and damaging in wheat. Resistance to PHS is therefore a valuable target trait in many breeding programs. The Phs-A1 locus on wheat chromosome arm 4AL has been consistently shown to account for a significant proportion of natural variation to PHS in diverse mapping populations. However, the deployment of sprouting resistance is confounded by the fact that different candidate genes, including the tandem duplicated Plasma Membrane 19 (PM19) genes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (TaMKK3-A) gene, have been proposed to underlie Phs-A1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jayfred Gaham Godoy, Sheri Rynearson, Xianming Chen, Michael Pumphrey
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss. (Pst), is a major yield-limiting foliar disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. In this study, the genetic variability of elite spring wheat germplasm from North America was investigated to characterize the genetic basis of effective all-stage and adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 237 elite spring wheat lines genotyped with an Illumina Infinium 90K SNP array...
September 27, 2017: Phytopathology
Tobias Würschum, Simon M Langer, C Friedrich H Longin, Matthew R Tucker, Willmar L Leiser
Wheat yield increases during the late 20(th) century Green Revolution were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin and are now widespread through international breeding programs. However, this interference with the plants' response to gibberellin also ensues adverse effects on a range of important agronomic traits and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required...
September 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jiayin Song, Brett F Carver, Carol Powers, Liuling Yan, Jaroslav Klápště, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Charles Chen
Crop improvement is a long-term, expensive institutional endeavor. Genomic selection (GS), which uses single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information to estimate genomic breeding values, has proven efficient to increasing genetic gain by accelerating the breeding process in animal breeding programs. As for crop improvement, with few exceptions, GS applicability remains in the evaluation of algorithm performance. In this study, we examined factors related to GS applicability in line development stage for grain yield using a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Dharmendra Singh, Dhananjay Kumar, Lopamudra Satapathy, Jyoti Pathak, Saket Chandra, Adnan Riaz, Govindraj Bhaganagre, Raman Dhariwal, Manish Kumar, Kumble Vinod Prabhu, Harindra Singh Balyan, Pushpendra Kumar Gupta, Kunal Mukhopadhyay
Leaf rust is a fungal disease that causes severe yield losses in wheat. Resistant varieties with major and quantitative resistance genes are the most effective method to control the disease. However, the main problem is inadequate information for understanding resistance mechanism and its usefulness. This paper presents Lr28 mediated genome-wide response of known and unknown genes during wheat-Puccinia triticina interaction. In this study, we prepared Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) libraries using seedling wheat mRNA for infected and mock conditions...
September 18, 2017: Gene
Cristobal Uauy, Brande B H Wulff, Jorge Dubcovsky
Induced mutations have been used to generate novel variation for breeding purposes since the early 1900s. However, the combination of this old technology with the new capabilities of high-throughput sequencing has resulted in powerful reverse genetic approaches in polyploid crops. Sequencing genomes or exomes of large mutant populations can generate extensive databases of mutations for most genes. These mutant collections, together with genome editing, are being used in polyploid species to combine mutations in all copies of a gene (homoeologs), and to expose phenotypic variation that was previously hidden by functional redundancy among homoeologs...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
Na Liu, Guihua Bai, Meng Lin, Xiangyang Xu, Wenming Zheng
Wheat powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat worldwide. It can cause considerable yield losses when epidemics occur. Use of genetic resistance is the most effective approach to control the disease. To determine the genomic regions responsible for PM resistance in a set of U.S. winter wheat and identify DNA markers in these regions, we conducted a genome-wide association study on a set of 185 U.S. winter wheat accessions using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 90 K wheat SNP arrays...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amanda J Burridge, Mark O Winfield, Alexandra M Allen, Paul A Wilkinson, Gary L A Barker, Jane Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Keith J Edwards
A lack of genetic diversity between wheat breeding lines has been recognized as a significant block to future yield increases. Wheat breeding and prebreeding strategies are increasingly using material from wheat ancestors or wild relatives to reintroduce diversity. Where molecular markers are polymorphic between the host and introgressed material, they may be used to track the size and location of the introgressed material through generations of backcrossing. To generate markers for this purpose, sequence capture targeted resequencing was carried out for a range of wheat varieties, wheat relatives, and wheat progenitors...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Harsh Chauhan, Paramjit Khurana
Feeding the growing population utilizing the limited agricultural resources remains a great challenge. Plant biotechnology plays a vital role in crop improvement by incorporating desired quality traits, tolerance to abiotic stresses and resistance to biotic stresses, which are otherwise tough to achieve by conventional plant breeding methodologies. Genetic engineering is a powerful tool to develop desired traits in selected crops to make the crops suitable for future demand and environment. For genetic engineering of crops like wheat, the development of efficient transformation and regeneration systems has always been a prime requirement...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Goetz Hensel, Cornelia Marthe, Jochen Kumlehn
Methods of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been improved in recent years so that genetic engineering can be routinely used for functional genomics as well as for wheat breeding. In the protocol described here, immature embryos of the spring-type model genotype Bobwhite SH 98 26 have been used. Preculture and temperature pretreatment of these explants have led to the reproducible generation of transgenic plants at efficiencies between 5 and 15%. Whereas primary transgenic plants regenerated in vitro commonly show reduced fitness and fertility, no apparent variations with regard to morphology and grain set in their transgenic progeny as compared to wild-type counterparts were observed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jiapeng Han, Xiaofen Yu, Junli Chang, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
In the past two decades, Chinese scientists have achieved significant progress on three aspects of wheat genetic transformation. First, the wheat transformation platform has been established and optimized to improve the transformation efficiency, shorten the time required from starting of transformation procedure to the fertile transgenic wheat plants obtained as well as to overcome the problem of genotype-dependent for wheat genetic transformation in wide range of wheat elite varieties. Second, with the help of many emerging techniques such as CRISPR/cas9 function of over 100 wheat genes has been investigated...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hadi Alipour, Mohammad R Bihamta, Valiollah Mohammadi, Seyed A Peyghambari, Guihua Bai, Guorong Zhang
Background: Genetic diversity is an essential resource for breeders to improve new cultivars with desirable characteristics. Recently, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology that can simplify complex genomes, has now be used as a high-throughput and cost-effective molecular tool for routine breeding and screening in many crop species, including the species with a large genome. Results: We genotyped a diversity panel of 369 Iranian hexaploid wheat accessions including 270 landraces collected between 1931 and 1968 in different climate zones and 99 cultivars released between 1942 to 2014 using 16,506 GBS-based single nucleotide polymorphism (GBS-SNP) markers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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