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wheat breeding and genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430678/zebularine-treatment-is-associated-with-deletion-of-ft-b1-leading-to-an-increase-in-spikelet-number-in-bread-wheat
#1
E Jean Finnegan, Brett Ford, Xiaomei Wallace, Filomena Pettolino, Patrick T Griffin, Robert J Schmitz, Peng Zhang, Jose M Barrero, Matthew J Hayden, Scott A Boden, Colin A Cavanagh, Steve M Swain, Ben Trevaskis
The number of rachis nodes (spikelets) on a wheat spike is a component of grain yield that correlates with flowering time. The genetic basis regulating flowering in cereals is well understood, but there are reports that flowering time can be modified at high frequency by selective breeding, suggesting that it may be regulated by both epigenetic and genetic mechanisms. We investigated the role of DNA methylation in regulating spikelet number and flowering time by treating a semi-spring wheat with the demethylating agent, Zebularine...
February 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415008/genome-wide-associations-for-multiple-pest-resistances-in-a-northwestern-united-states-elite-spring-wheat-panel
#2
Kaori Ando, Sheri Rynearson, Kebede T Muleta, Jhonatan Gedamu, Bedada Girma, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Ming-Shun Chen, Mike O Pumphrey
Northern areas of the western United States are one of the most productive wheat growing regions in the United States. Increasing productivity through breeding is hindered by several biotic stresses which slow and constrain targeted yield improvement. In order to understand genetic variation for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici), Septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola), and Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) in regional germplasm, a panel of 408 elite spring wheat lines was characterized and genotyped with an Illumina 9K wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip to enable genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398942/genetic-variation-in-heat-tolerance-related-traits-in-a-population-of-wheat-multiple-synthetic-derivatives
#3
Awad A E Elbashir, Yasir S A Gorafi, Izzat S A Tahir, Ashraf M A Elhashimi, Modather G A Abdalla, Hisashi Tsujimoto
In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) high temperature (≥30°C) during grain filling leads to considerable reduction in grain yield. We studied 400 multiple synthetic derivatives (MSD) lines to examine the genetic variability of heat stress-adaptive traits and to identify new sources of heat tolerance to be used in wheat breeding programs. The experiment was arranged in an augmented randomized complete block design in four environments in Sudan. A wide range of genetic variability was found in most of the traits in all environments...
December 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398940/improving-preharvest-sprouting-resistance-in-durum-wheat-with-bread-wheat-genes
#4
Keita Kato, Wakako Maruyama-Funatsuki, Mikiko Yanaka, Yusuke Ban, Kanenori Takata
Preharvest sprouting (PHS) of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) is an important problem in Japan, where the rainy season overlaps with the harvest season. Since there are few PHS-resistant genetic resources in durum wheat, we introduced an R-gene for red seeds, the MFT gene, and the QPhs-5AL QTL, all of which are associated with PHS resistance, into durum wheat from a PHS-resistant bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivar, 'Zenkoujikomugi' (Zen), by backcross breeding. Developed near isogenic lines (NILs) with red seeds had a lower percentage germination (PG) and germination index (GI) than the recurrent parent, and seed color had the greatest effect...
December 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398847/characterization-of-some-bread-wheat-genotypes-using-molecular-markers-for-drought-tolerance
#5
Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Begüm Terzi
Because of its wide geographical adaptation and importance in human nutrition, wheat is one of the most important crops in the world. However, wheat yield has reduced due to drought stress posing threat to sustainability and world food security in agricultural production. The first stage of drought tolerant variety breeding occurs on the molecular and biochemical characterization and classification of wheat genotypes. The aim of the present study is characterization of widely grown bread wheat cultivars and breeding lines for drought tolerance so as to be adapted to different regions in Turkey...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381740/variation-in-grain-zn-concentration-and-the-grain-ionome-in-field-grown-indian-wheat
#6
Jaswant Singh Khokhar, Sindhu Sareen, Bhudeva Singh Tyagi, Gyanendra Singh, Lolita Wilson, Ian P King, Scott D Young, Martin R Broadley
Wheat is an important dietary source of zinc (Zn) and other mineral elements in many countries. Dietary Zn deficiency is widespread, especially in developing countries, and breeding (genetic biofortification) through the HarvestPlus programme has recently started to deliver new wheat varieties to help alleviate this problem in South Asia. To better understand the potential of wheat to alleviate dietary Zn deficiency, this study aimed to characterise the baseline effects of genotype (G), site (E), and genotype by site interactions (GxE) on grain Zn concentration under a wide range of soil conditions in India...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373804/quantitative-trait-loci-qtl-analysis-of-root-traits-under-phosphorus-deficiency-at-the-seedling-stage-in-wheat
#7
Xilan Yang, Yaxi Liu, Fangkun Wu, Xiaojun Jiang, Yu Lin, Zhiqiang Wang, Zhengli Zhang, Jian Ma, Guangdeng Chen, Yuming Wei, Youliang Zheng
Deficiency of available phosphorus (P) in soil limits wheat production and creates a need to develop P-deficiency-tolerant cultivars. Plant roots, important organs for absorbing nutrients and synthesizing growth regulators, are good candidates for P-efficiency screening. In this study, we evaluated five root traits under hydroponic culture conditions either with (AP) or without (NP) applied P in a recombinant inbred line population H461/CM107 of <i>Triticum aestivum </i>L. at the seedling stage...
January 26, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372282/mapping-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-in-barley-reveals-a-large-effect-nonhost-resistance-qtl
#8
Cynara C T Romero, Jasper P Vermeulen, Anton Vels, Axel Himmelbach, Martin Mascher, Rients E Niks
Resistance factors against non-adapted powdery mildews were mapped in barley. Some QTLs seem effective only to non-adapted mildews, while others also play a role in defense against the adapted form. The durability and effectiveness of nonhost resistance suggests promising practical applications for crop breeding, relying upon elucidation of key aspects of this type of resistance. We investigated which genetic factors determine the nonhost status of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to powdery mildews (Blumeria graminis)...
January 25, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361778/analysis-of-the-genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-austrian-and-belgian-wheat-germplasm-within-a-regional-context-based-on-dart-markers
#9
Mohamed A El-Esawi, Jacques Witczak, Abd El-Fatah Abomohra, Hayssam M Ali, Mohamed S Elshikh, Margaret Ahmad
Analysis of crop genetic diversity and structure provides valuable information needed to broaden the narrow genetic base as well as to enhance the breeding and conservation strategies of crops. In this study, 95 Austrian and Belgian wheat cultivars maintained at the Centre for Genetic Resources (CGN) in the Netherlands were characterised using 1052 diversity array technology (DArT) markers to evaluate their genetic diversity, relationships and population structure. The rarefacted allelic richness recorded in the Austrian and Belgian breeding pools (A25 = 1...
January 22, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359263/qtl-mapping-of-flag-leaf-related-traits-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#10
Kaiye Liu, Hao Xu, Gang Liu, Panfeng Guan, Xueyao Zhou, Huiru Peng, Yingyin Yao, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Jinkun Du
QTL controlling flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf area and flag leaf angle were mapped in wheat. This study aimed to advance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying morphological traits of the flag leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from ND3331 and the Tibetan semi-wild wheat Zang1817 was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), flag leaf area (FLA), and flag leaf angle (FLANG)...
January 23, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357813/dissection-of-the-multigenic-wheat-stem-rust-resistance-present-in-the-montenegrin-spring-wheat-accession-pi-362698
#11
Jason D Zurn, Matthew N Rouse, Shiaoman Chao, Meriem Aoun, Godwin Macharia, Colin W Hiebert, Zacharias A Pretorius, J Michael Bonman, Maricelis Acevedo
BACKGROUND: Research to identify and characterize stem rust resistance genes in common wheat, Triticum aestivum, has been stimulated by the emergence of Ug99-lineage races of the wheat stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), in Eastern Africa. The Montenegrin spring wheat landrace PI 362698 was identified as a source of Pgt resistance. This accession exhibits resistance to multiple Ug99-lineage and North American Pgt races at seedling and adult-plant stages. A recombinant inbred population was developed by crossing the susceptible line LMPG-6 with a single plant selection of PI 362698...
January 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343667/genotypic-effects-on-sugar-and-by-products-of-liquid-hydrolysates-and-on-saccharification-of-acid-insoluble-residues-of-from-wheat-straw
#12
Ryoko Ohno, Hiroshi Teramura, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo, Shigeo Takumi
Wheat straw is one of the major attractive resources for low-cost raw materials for renewable energy, biofuels and biochemicals. However, like other sources of lignocellulosic biomass, straw is a heterogeneous material due to its mixed origin from different tissue and cell types. Here, to examine the genotypic effects on biorefinery usage of wheat straw, straw obtained from different wheat cultivars and experimental lines was pretreated with dilute acid. Significant differences between cultivars were observed in the concentrations of glucose and toxic by-products of the liquid hydrolysates...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343665/molecular-characterization-of-gliadins-of-chinese-spring-wheat-in-relation-to-celiac-disease-elicitors
#13
Kanako Kawaura, Mayuko Miura, Yoko Kamei, Tatsuya M Ikeda, Yasunari Ogihara
The wheat seed storage proteins gliadin and glutenin are encoded by multigenes. Gliadins are further classified into α-, γ-, δ- and ω-gliadins. Genes encoding α-gliadins belong to a large multigene family, whose members are located on the homoeologous group 6 chromosomes at the Gli-2 loci. Genes encoding other gliadins are located on the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes at the Gli-1 loci. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to characterize and profile the gliadins. The gliadins in aneuploid Chinese Spring wheat lines were then compared in this study...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340753/can-spelt-wheat-be-used-as-heterotic-group-for-hybrid-wheat-breeding
#14
Wessam Akel, Patrick Thorwarth, Vilson Mirdita, Elmar A Weissman, Guozheng Liu, Tobias Würschum, C Friedrich H Longin
Spelt wheat is a distinct genetic group to elite bread wheat, but heterosis for yield and protein quality is too low for spelt to be recommended as heterotic group for hybrid breeding in wheat. The feasibility to switch from line to hybrid breeding is currently a hot topic in the wheat community. One limitation seems to be the lack of divergent heterotic groups within wheat adapted to a certain region. Spelt wheat is a hexaploid wheat that can easily be crossed with bread wheat and that forms a divergent genetic group when compared to elite bread wheat...
January 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324803/genetic-dissection-of-the-relationships-between-grain-yield-components-by-genome-wide-association-mapping-in-a-collection-of-tetraploid-wheats
#15
Giacomo Mangini, Agata Gadaleta, Pasqualina Colasuonno, Ilaria Marcotuli, Antonio M Signorile, Rosanna Simeone, Pasquale De Vita, Anna M Mastrangelo, Giovanni Laidò, Nicola Pecchioni, Antonio Blanco
Increasing grain yield potential in wheat has been a major target of most breeding programs. Genetic advance has been frequently hindered by negative correlations among yield components that have been often observed in segregant populations and germplasm collections. A tetraploid wheat collection was evaluated in seven environments and genotyped with a 90K SNP assay to identify major and stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain yield per spike (GYS), kernel number per spike (KNS) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW), and to analyse the genetic relationships between the yield components at QTL level...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321647/molecular-marker-assisted-breeding-and-genome-composition-analysis-of-zhengmai-7698-an-elite-winter-wheat-cultivar
#16
Chun-Xin Li, Wei-Gang Xu, Rui Guo, Jian-Zhou Zhang, Xue-Li Qi, Lin Hu, Ming-Zhong Zhao
Zhengmai 7698 is an elite winter wheat variety widely cultivated in the Southern regions of the Yellow-Huai River Valley of China. Here, we report the molecular markers used for breeding Zhengmai 7698 and the genome composition of this cultivar revealed using genome-wide SNPs. A total of 26 DNA markers derived from the genes controlling gluten protein quality, grain hardness, flour color, disease resistance, or pre-harvesting sprouting resistance were used during breeding. Consequently, Zhengmai 7698 had strong gluten, high grain hardness index, white flour color, and high levels of resistance to powdery mildew, stripe rust infections, and pre-harvesting sprouting...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283996/genome-wide-association-study-and-genetic-diversity-analysis-on-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-a-central-european-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-collection
#17
István Monostori, Fruzsina Szira, Alessandro Tondelli, Tamás Árendás, Krisztián Gierczik, Luigi Cattivelli, Gábor Galiba, Attila Vágújfalvi
To satisfy future demands, the increase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield is inevitable. Simultaneously, maintaining high crop productivity and efficient use of nutrients, especially nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), are essential for sustainable agriculture. NUE and its components are inherently complex and highly influenced by environmental factors, nitrogen management practices and genotypic variation. Therefore, a better understanding of their genetic basis and regulation is fundamental. To investigate NUE-related traits and their genetic and environmental regulation, field trials were evaluated in a Central European wheat collection of 93 cultivars at two nitrogen input levels across three seasons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259968/drought-response-in-wheat-key-genes-and-regulatory-mechanisms-controlling-root-system-architecture-and-transpiration-efficiency
#18
REVIEW
Manoj Kulkarni, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Satoshi Ogawa, Yusaku Uga, Michael G Selvaraj, Sateesh Kagale
Abiotic stresses such as, drought, heat, salinity, and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258426/inferring-defense-related-gene-families-in-arabidopsis-and-wheat
#19
Rong-Cai Yang, Fred Y Peng, Zhiqiu Hu
BACKGROUND: A large number of disease resistance genes or QTLs in crop plants are identified through conventional genetics and genomic tools, but their functional or molecular characterization remains costly, labor-intensive and inaccurate largely due to the lack of deep sequencing of large and complex genomes of many important crops such as allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). On the other hand, gene annotation and relevant genomic resources for disease resistance and other defense-related traits are more abundant in model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
December 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240874/wheat-genetic-resources-in-the-post-genomics-era-promise-and-challenges
#20
Awais Rasheed, Abdul Mujeeb-Kazi, Francis Chuks Ogbonnaya, Zhonghu He, Sanjaya Rajaram
Background: Wheat genetic resources have been used for genetic improvement since 1876, when Stephen Wilson (Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 12: 286) consciously made the first wide hybrid involving wheat and rye in Scotland. Wide crossing continued with sporadic attempts in the first half of 19th century and became a sophisticated scientific discipline during the last few decades with considerable impact in farmers' fields. However, a large diversity of untapped genetic resources could contribute in meeting future wheat production challenges...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Botany
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