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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348231/metabolic-evolution-and-the-self-organization-of-ecosystems
#1
Rogier Braakman, Michael J Follows, Sallie W Chisholm
Metabolism mediates the flow of matter and energy through the biosphere. We examined how metabolic evolution shapes ecosystems by reconstructing it in the globally abundant oceanic phytoplankter Prochlorococcus To understand what drove observed evolutionary patterns, we interpreted them in the context of its population dynamics, growth rate, and light adaptation, and the size and macromolecular and elemental composition of cells. This multilevel view suggests that, over the course of evolution, there was a steady increase in Prochlorococcus' metabolic rate and excretion of organic carbon...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297646/inferring-mechanistic-parameters-from-amyloid-formation-kinetics-by-approximate-bayesian-computation
#2
Eri Nakatani-Webster, Abhinav Nath
Amyloid formation is implicated in a number of human diseases, and is thought to proceed via a nucleation-dependent polymerization mechanism. Experimenters often wish to relate changes in amyloid formation kinetics, for example, in response to small molecules to specific mechanistic steps along this pathway. However, fitting kinetic fibril formation data to a complex model including explicit rate constants results in an ill-posed problem with a vast number of potential solutions. The levels of uncertainty remaining in parameters calculated from these models, arising both from experimental noise and high levels of degeneracy or codependency in parameters, is often unclear...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271800/physical-activity-inactivity-and-health-during-youth-2016
#3
Alex V Rowlands
2016 has been an exciting year for research in physical activity, inactivity and health. Recognition of the importance of all physical behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time and sleep) across the 24-hr day continues to grow. Notable advances have included: applications of recent methodological innovations that account for the codependence of the behaviors in the finite 24-hr period showing that the balance of these behaviors is associated with health; methodological innovations focusing on the classification of behaviors and/or quantification of the 24-hr diurnal activity pattern; and a series of systematic reviews that helped provide the evidence base for the release of the innovative 24-hr movement guidelines earlier this year...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207193/new-insights-and-changing-paradigms-in-the-regulation-of-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-development
#4
REVIEW
Stephen R Shannon, Alexander R Moise, Paul A Trainor
Vitamin A and its active metabolite retinoic acid are essential for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Surprisingly, excess or deficiency of vitamin A and retinoic acid can cause similar developmental defects. Therefore, strict feedback and other mechanisms exist to regulate the levels of retinoic acid within a narrow physiological range. The oxidation of vitamin A to retinal has recently been established as a critical nodal point in the synthesis of retinoic acid, and over the past decade, RDH10 and DHRS3 have emerged as the predominant enzymes that regulate this reversible reaction...
February 16, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167999/informatics-metrics-and-measures-for-a-smart-public-health-systems-approach-information-science-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Timothy Jay Carney, Christopher Michael Shea
Public health informatics is an evolving domain in which practices constantly change to meet the demands of a highly complex public health and healthcare delivery system. Given the emergence of various concepts, such as learning health systems, smart health systems, and adaptive complex health systems, health informatics professionals would benefit from a common set of measures and capabilities to inform our modeling, measuring, and managing of health system "smartness." Here, we introduce the concepts of organizational complexity, problem/issue complexity, and situational awareness as three codependent drivers of smart public health systems characteristics...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165486/alcohol-and-nicotine-codependence-associated-dna-methylation-changes-in-promoter-regions-of-addiction-related-genes
#6
Hongqin Xu, Fan Wang, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter, Huiping Zhang
Altered DNA methylation in addiction-related genes may modify the susceptibility to alcohol or drug dependence (AD or ND). We profiled peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 addiction-related genes in 256 African Americans (AAs) (117 cases with AD-ND codependence and 139 controls) and 196 European Americans (103 cases with AD-ND codependence and 93 controls) using Illumina's GoldenGate DNA methylation array assays. AD-ND codependence-associated DNA methylation changes were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models with consideration of batch effects and covariates age, sex, and ancestry proportions...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119474/negative-autogenous-control-of-the-master-type-iii-secretion-system-regulator-hrpl-in-pseudomonas-syringae
#7
Christopher Waite, Jörg Schumacher, Milija Jovanovic, Mark Bennett, Martin Buck
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a principal virulence determinant of the model bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae T3SS effector proteins inhibit plant defense signaling pathways in susceptible hosts and elicit evolved immunity in resistant plants. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL coordinates the expression of most T3SS genes. Transcription of hrpL is dependent on sigma-54 and the codependent enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS for hrpL promoter activation. hrpL is oriented adjacently to and divergently from the HrpL-dependent gene hrpJ, sharing an intergenic upstream regulatory region...
January 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101885/what-is-the-true-in%C3%A2-vitro-potency-of-oxytetracycline-for-the-pig-pneumonia-pathogens-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-and-pasteurella-multocida
#8
L Dorey, S Hobson, P Lees
The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011044/association-of-radiomics-and-metabolic-tumor-volumes-in-radiation-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#9
Christopher J Lopez, Natalya Nagornaya, Nestor A Parra, Deukwoo Kwon, Fazilat Ishkanian, Arnold M Markoe, Andrew Maudsley, Radka Stoyanova
PURPOSE: To build a framework for investigation of the associations between imaging, clinical target volumes (CTVs), and metabolic tumor volumes (MTVs) features for better understanding of the underlying information in the CTVs and dependencies between these volumes. High-throughput extraction of imaging and metabolomic quantitative features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) results in tens of variables per patient...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892807/the-effect-of-early-life-stress-on-the-cognitive-phenotype-of-children-with-an-extra-x-chromosome-47-xxy-47-xxx
#10
Sophie van Rijn, Petra Barneveld, Mie-Jef Descheemaeker, Jacques Giltay, Hanna Swaab
Studies on gene-environment interactions suggest that some individuals may be more susceptible to life adversities than others due to their genetic profile. This study assesses whether or not children with an extra X chromosome are more vulnerable to the negative impact of early life stress on cognitive functioning than typically-developing children. A total of 50 children with an extra X chromosome and 103 non-clinical controls aged 9 to 18 years participated in the study. Cognitive functioning in domains of language, social cognition and executive functioning were assessed...
November 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882207/living-with-addicted-men-and-codependency-the-moderating-effect-of-personality-traits
#11
Leili Panaghi, Zohreh Ahmadabadi, Najmeh Khosravi, Mansoureh Sadat Sadeghi, Ali Madanipour
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the moderating effect of personality traits on the relationship between living with an addicted man and codependency. METHODS: We selected 140 women (70 wives of addicted men and 70 wives of non-addicted men) through convenience sampling method and asked them to complete Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. FINDINGS: Codependency score was significantly higher among addicted men's wives...
April 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872183/roles-of-the-essential-protein-ftsa-in-cell-growth-and-division-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#12
Andrea Mura, Daniela Fadda, Amilcar J Perez, Madeline L Danforth, Daniela Musu, Ana Isabel Rico, Marcin Krupka, Dalia Denapaite, Ho-Ching T Tsui, Malcolm E Winkler, Pavel Branny, Miguel Vicente, William Margolin, Orietta Massidda
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an ovoid-shaped Gram-positive bacterium that grows by carrying out peripheral and septal peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis, analogous to model bacilli such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis In the model bacilli, FtsZ and FtsA proteins assemble into a ring at midcell and are dedicated to septal PG synthesis, but not peripheral PG synthesis; hence inactivation of FtsZ or FtsA results in long filamentous cells unable to divide. Here we demonstrate that FtsA and FtsZ colocalize at midcell in S...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869189/species-specific-standard-redox-potential-of-thiol-disulfide-systems-a-key-parameter-to-develop-agents-against-oxidative-stress
#13
Arash Mirzahosseini, Béla Noszál
Microscopic standard redox potential, a new physico-chemical parameter was introduced and determined to quantify thiol-disulfide equilibria of biological significance. The highly composite, codependent acid-base and redox equilibria of thiols could so far be converted into pH-dependent, apparent redox potentials (E'°) only. Since the formation of stable metal-thiolate complexes precludes the direct thiol-disulfide redox potential measurements by usual electrochemical techniques, an indirect method had to be elaborated...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831555/activation-and-cleavage-of-sash1-by-caspase-3-mediates-an-apoptotic-response
#14
Joshua T Burgess, Emma Bolderson, Mark N Adams, Anne-Marie Baird, Shu-Dong Zhang, Kathy A Gately, Kazuo Umezawa, Kenneth J O'Byrne, Derek J Richard
Apoptosis is a highly regulated cellular process that functions to remove undesired cells from multicellular organisms. This pathway is often disrupted in cancer, providing tumours with a mechanism to avoid cell death and promote growth and survival. The putative tumour suppressor, SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain containing protein 1), has been previously implicated in the regulation of apoptosis; however, the molecular role of SASH1 in this process is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that SASH1 is cleaved by caspase-3 following UVC-induced apoptosis...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754731/six-month-outcomes-of-a-randomized-motivational-tele-intervention-for-change-in-the-codependent-behavior-of-family-members-of-drug-users
#15
Cassandra Borges Bortolon, Taís de Campos Moreira, Luciana Signor, Bárbara Léa Guahyba, Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Maristela Ferigolo, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros
Families of substance abusers may develop maladaptive strategies, such as codependency, to address drug-related problems. It is important for families to receive specialist treatment in order to contribute to the recovery process. The Tele-intervention Model and Monitoring of Families of Drug Users (TMMFDU), based on motivational interviewing and stages of change, aims to encourage the family to change the codependents' behaviors. A randomized clinical trial was carried out to verify the change in codependent behavior after intervention with 6 months of follow-up...
January 28, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701426/coupled-hybrid-continuum-discrete-model-of-tumor-angiogenesis-and-growth
#16
Jie Lyu, Jinfeng Cao, Peiming Zhang, Yang Liu, Hongtao Cheng
The processes governing tumor growth and angiogenesis are codependent. To study the relationship between them, we proposed a coupled hybrid continuum-discrete model. In this model, tumor cells, their microenvironment (extracellular matrixes, matrix-degrading enzymes, and tumor angiogenic factors), and their network of blood vessels, described by a series of discrete points, were considered. The results of numerical simulation reveal the process of tumor growth and the change in microenvironment from avascular to vascular stage, indicating that the network of blood vessels develops gradually as the tumor grows...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692539/macrophage-monocyte-specific-deletion-of-ras-homolog-gene-family-member-a-rhoa-downregulates-fractalkine-receptor-and-inhibits-chronic-rejection-of-mouse-cardiac-allografts
#17
Yianzhu Liu, Wenhao Chen, Chenglin Wu, Laurie J Minze, Jacek Z Kubiak, Xian C Li, Malgorzata Kloc, Rafik M Ghobrial
BACKGROUND: The cellular and molecular mechanisms of chronic rejection of transplanted organs remain obscure; however, macrophages are known to play a critical role in the injury and repair of allografts. Among multiple factors influencing macrophage infiltration to allografts, the fractalkine chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1(CX3CL1)/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling pathway and actin cytoskeleton, which is regulated by a small guanosine-5׳-triphosphatase Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA), are of the utmost importance...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679850/compartment-and-signal-specific-codependence-in-the-transcriptional-control-of-salmonella-periplasmic-copper-homeostasis
#18
Alejandro Pezza, Lucas B Pontel, Carolina López, Fernando C Soncini
Copper homeostasis is essential for bacterial pathogen fitness and infection, and has been the focus of a number of recent studies. In Salmonella, envelope protection against copper overload and macrophage survival depends on CueP, a major copper-binding protein in the periplasm. This protein is also required to deliver the metal ion to the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase SodCII. The Salmonella-specific CueP-coding gene was originally identified as part of the Cue regulon under the transcriptional control of the cytoplasmic copper sensor CueR, but its expression differs from the rest of CueR-regulated genes...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604400/space-time-codependence-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-can-be-explained-by-novel-and-separable-components-of-their-receptive-fields
#19
Cameron S Cowan, Jasdeep Sabharwal, Samuel M Wu
Reverse correlation methods such as spike-triggered averaging consistently identify the spatial center in the linear receptive fields (RFs) of retinal ganglion cells (GCs). However, the spatial antagonistic surround observed in classical experiments has proven more elusive. Tests for the antagonistic surround have heretofore relied on models that make questionable simplifying assumptions such as space-time separability and radial homogeneity/symmetry. We circumvented these, along with other common assumptions, and observed a linear antagonistic surround in 754 of 805 mouse GCs...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588285/the-evolution-of-per-cell-organelle-number
#20
REVIEW
Logan W Cole
Organelles with their own distinct genomes, such as plastids and mitochondria, are found in most eukaryotic cells. As these organelles and their host cells have evolved, the partitioning of metabolic processes and the encoding of interacting gene products have created an obligate codependence. This relationship has played a role in shaping the number of organelles in cells through evolution. Factors such as stochastic evolutionary forces acting on genes involved in organelle biogenesis, organelle-nuclear gene interactions, and physical limitations may, to varying degrees, dictate the selective constraint that per-cell organelle number is under...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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