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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116977/the-evolving-purposes-of-medical-revalidation-in-the-united-kingdom-a-qualitative-study-of-professional-and-regulatory-narratives
#1
Abigail Tazzyman, Jane Ferguson, Kieran Walshe, Alan Boyd, John Tredinnick-Rowe, Charlotte Hillier, Samantha Regan De Bere, Julian Archer
PURPOSE: Previous research found professionalism and regulation to be competing discourses when plans for medical revalidation in the United Kingdom were being developed in 2011. The purpose of this study was to explore how these competing discourses developed and how the perceived purposes of revalidation evolved as the policy was implemented. METHOD: Seventy-one interviews with 60 UK policy makers and senior health care leaders were conducted during the development and implementation of revalidation: 31 in 2011, 26 in 2013, and 14 in 2015...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101114/synthetic-lethal-vulnerabilities-in-kras-mutant-cancers
#2
Andrew J Aguirre, William C Hahn
KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human cancer. Most KRAS-mutant cancers depend on sustained expression and signaling of KRAS, thus making it a high-priority therapeutic target. Unfortunately, development of direct small molecule inhibitors of KRAS function has been challenging. An alternative therapeutic strategy for KRAS-mutant malignancies involves targeting codependent vulnerabilities or synthetic lethal partners that are preferentially essential in the setting of oncogenic KRAS. KRAS activates numerous effector pathways that mediate proliferation and survival signals...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081909/geometric-comparison-of-the-mitral-and-tricuspid-valve-annulus-insights-from-three-dimensional-transesophageal-echocardiography
#3
Amgad N Makaryus, Haisam Ismail, John N Makaryus, Dali Fan
AIM: To apply real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D TEE) for quantitative and qualitative assessment of the mitral valve annulus (MVA) and tricuspid valve annulus (TVA) in the same patient. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study examined the MVA and TVA in 49 patients by RT3D TEE. MVA and TVA shape were examined by TEE. The MVA and TVA volume data set images were acquired in the mid esophageal 4-chamber view. The MVA and TVA were acquired separately, with optimization of each for the highest frame rate and image quality...
September 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079959/integrating-natural-language-processing-and-machine-learning-algorithms-to-categorize-oncologic-response-in-radiology-reports
#4
Po-Hao Chen, Hanna Zafar, Maya Galperin-Aizenberg, Tessa Cook
A significant volume of medical data remains unstructured. Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML) techniques have shown to successfully extract insights from radiology reports. However, the codependent effects of NLP and ML in this context have not been well-studied. Between April 1, 2015 and November 1, 2016, 9418 cross-sectional abdomen/pelvis CT and MR examinations containing our internal structured reporting element for cancer were separated into four categories: Progression, Stable Disease, Improvement, or No Cancer...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077608/a-prospective-international-multicentre-cohort-study-of-intraoperative-heart-rate-and-systolic-blood-pressure-and-myocardial-injury-after-noncardiac-surgery-results-of-the-vision-study
#5
Tom E F Abbott, Rupert M Pearse, R Andrew Archbold, Tahania Ahmad, Edyta Niebrzegowska, Andrew Wragg, Reitze N Rodseth, Philip J Devereaux, Gareth L Ackland
BACKGROUND: The association between intraoperative cardiovascular changes and perioperative myocardial injury has chiefly focused on hypotension during noncardiac surgery. However, the relative influence of blood pressure and heart rate (HR) remains unclear. We investigated both individual and codependent relationships among intraoperative HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). METHODS: Secondary analysis of the Vascular Events in Noncardiac Surgery Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study, a prospective international cohort study of noncardiac surgical patients...
October 26, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053718/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-vessel-density-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#6
Joanna Gołębiewska, Andrzej Olechowski, Marta Wysocka-Mincewicz, Dominik Odrobina, Marta Baszyńska-Wilk, Artur Groszek, Mieczysław Szalecki, Wojciech Hautz
PURPOSE: To assess the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) retinal vessel density and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and compare potential pathologic early changes in this population to healthy age-matched controls. METHODS: This study included 130 pubescent children: 94 with T1D (188 eyes) and 36 of their age-matched control group (60 eyes). OCTA was performed using AngioVue (Avanti, Optivue). FAZ area (mm2) in superficial plexus, whole superficial capillary vessel density (wsVD), fovea superficial vessel density (fsVD), parafovea superficial vessel density (psVD), whole deep vessel density (wdVD), fovea deep vessel density (fdVD), parafovea deep vessel density (pdVD), foveal thickness (FT) (μm) and parafoveal thickness (PFT) (μm) were taken into analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892347/two-cooperative-glycosyltransferases-are-responsible-for-the-sugar-diversity-of-saquayamycins-isolated-from-streptomyces-sp-ky-40-1
#7
Shaimaa M Salem, Stevi Weidenbach, Jürgen Rohr
Glycosyltransferases are key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of valuable natural products providing an excellent drug-tailoring tool. Herein, we report the identification of two cooperative glycosyltransferases from the sqn gene cluster directing the biosynthesis of saquayamycins in Streptomyces sp. KY40-1: SqnG1 and SqnG2. Gene inactivation of sqnG1 leads to 50-fold decrease in saquayamycin production, while inactivation of sqnG2 leads to complete production loss, suggesting that SqnG2 acts as dual O- and C-glycosyltransferase...
September 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859284/understanding-avian-egg-cuticle-formation-in-the-oviduct-a-study-of-its-origin-and-deposition
#8
Peter W Wilson, Ceara S Suther, Maureen M Bain, Wiebke Icken, Anita Jones, Fiona Quinlan-Pluck, Victor Olori, Joël Gautron, Ian C Dunn
The cuticle is a unique invisible oviduct secretion that protects avian eggs from bacterial penetration through gas exchange pores. Despite its importance, experimental evidence is lacking for where, when, and what is responsible for its deposition. By using knowledge about the ovulatory cycle and oviposition, we have manipulated cuticle deposition to obtain evidence on these key points. Cuticle deposition was measured using staining and spectrophotometry. Experimental evidence supports the location of cuticle deposition to be the shell gland pouch (uterus), not the vagina, and the time of deposition to be within the final hour before oviposition...
July 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734176/cancer-immunotherapy-moving-forward-with-peptide-t-cell-vaccines
#9
REVIEW
Takumi Kumai, Aaron Fan, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis
Recent advances in cancer immunology, such as the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have validated immune cells as potential key players for effective cancer treatment. The efficacy of these therapies seems to be codependent on a tumor-reactive T lymphocyte response. For many years, numerous attempts and strategies in developing vaccines to generate tumor-reactive T cells have yielded poor results in the clinic due to suboptimal immunogenicity and the inability to overcome an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644761/effectiveness-of-satir-informed-family-therapy-on-the-codependency-of-drug-dependents-family-members-in-iran-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Fatemeh Karimi Ahmad-Abadi, Masoomeh Maarefvand, Hakimeh Aghaei, Samaneh Hosseinzadeh, Mahboubeh Abbasi, Jagdish Khubchandani
PURPOSE: Social workers in substance abuse treatment settings are responsible for involving families in treatment program to improve family functioning. The effectiveness of available interventions in treating codependency of family members of drug users in Iran is not well explored. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Satir communication family therapy (CFT) in healing codependency of drug dependents' family members in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: The intervention group participants (n = 27) received a seven-session social work intervention with CFT approach and the control group (n = 26) received treatment as usual...
July 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619995/codependence-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-receptor-2-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-in-elastic-fiber-assembly-and-its-perturbation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#11
Nancy F Tojais, Aiqin Cao, Ying-Ju Lai, Lingli Wang, Pin-I Chen, Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar, Vinicio A de Jesus Perez, Rachel K Hopper, Christopher J Rhodes, Matthew A Bill, Lynn Y Sakai, Marlene Rabinovitch
OBJECTIVE: We determined in patients with pulmonary arterial (PA) hypertension (PAH) whether in addition to increased production of elastase by PA smooth muscle cells previously reported, PA elastic fibers are susceptible to degradation because of their abnormal assembly. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Fibrillin-1 and elastin are the major components of elastic fibers, and fibrillin-1 binds bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and the large latent complex of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1)...
August 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606389/etiology-of-alcoholic-cardiomyopathy-mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang
Putative mechanisms leading to the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) include the interrelated cellular processes of mitochondria metabolism, oxidative stress and apoptosis. As mitochondria fuel the constant energy demands of this continually contracting tissue, it is not surprising that alcohol-induced molecular changes in this organelle contribute to cardiac dysfunction and ACM. As the causal relationship of these processes with ACM has already been established, the primary objective of this review is to provide an update of the experimental findings to more completely understand the aforementioned mechanisms...
August 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598717/inhibitory-plasticity-balance-control-and-codependence
#13
Guillaume Hennequin, Everton J Agnes, Tim P Vogels
Inhibitory neurons, although relatively few in number, exert powerful control over brain circuits. They stabilize network activity in the face of strong feedback excitation and actively engage in computations. Recent studies reveal the importance of a precise balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits, which often requires exquisite fine-tuning of inhibitory connections. We review inhibitory synaptic plasticity and its roles in shaping both feedforward and feedback control. We discuss the necessity of complex, codependent plasticity mechanisms to build nontrivial, functioning networks, and we end by summarizing experimental evidence of such interactions...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581376/improving-collaboration-between-professionals-supporting-mentally-ill-offenders
#14
Sarah Hean, Atle Ødegård, Elisabeth Willumsen
Purpose Interprofessional collaboration is necessary when supporting mentally ill offenders but little is understood of these interactions. The purpose of this paper is to explore prison officers' perceptions of current and desirable levels of interprofessional collaboration (relational coordination (RC)) to understand how collaboration between these systems can be improved. Design/methodology/approach Gittell's RC scale was administered to prison officers within the Norwegian prison system ( n=160) using an adaptation of the instrument in which actual and desired levels of RC are evaluated...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515334/central-acting-therapeutics-alleviate-respiratory-weakness-caused-by-heart-failure-induced-ventilatory-overdrive
#15
Andrew J Foster, Mathew J Platt, Jason S Huber, Ashley L Eadie, Alicia M Arkell, Nadya Romanova, David C Wright, Todd E Gillis, Coral L Murrant, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson
Diaphragmatic weakness is a feature of heart failure (HF) associated with dyspnea and exertional fatigue. Most studies have focused on advanced stages of HF, leaving the cause unresolved. The long-standing theory is that pulmonary edema imposes a mechanical stress, resulting in diaphragmatic remodeling, but stable HF patients rarely exhibit pulmonary edema. We investigated how diaphragmatic weakness develops in two mouse models of pressure overload-induced HF. As in HF patients, both models had increased eupneic respiratory pressures and ventilatory drive...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348231/metabolic-evolution-and-the-self-organization-of-ecosystems
#16
Rogier Braakman, Michael J Follows, Sallie W Chisholm
Metabolism mediates the flow of matter and energy through the biosphere. We examined how metabolic evolution shapes ecosystems by reconstructing it in the globally abundant oceanic phytoplankter Prochlorococcus To understand what drove observed evolutionary patterns, we interpreted them in the context of its population dynamics, growth rate, and light adaptation, and the size and macromolecular and elemental composition of cells. This multilevel view suggests that, over the course of evolution, there was a steady increase in Prochlorococcus' metabolic rate and excretion of organic carbon...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297646/inferring-mechanistic-parameters-from-amyloid-formation-kinetics-by-approximate-bayesian-computation
#17
Eri Nakatani-Webster, Abhinav Nath
Amyloid formation is implicated in a number of human diseases, and is thought to proceed via a nucleation-dependent polymerization mechanism. Experimenters often wish to relate changes in amyloid formation kinetics, for example, in response to small molecules to specific mechanistic steps along this pathway. However, fitting kinetic fibril formation data to a complex model including explicit rate constants results in an ill-posed problem with a vast number of potential solutions. The levels of uncertainty remaining in parameters calculated from these models, arising both from experimental noise and high levels of degeneracy or codependency in parameters, is often unclear...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271800/physical-activity-inactivity-and-health-during-youth-2016
#18
Alex V Rowlands
2016 has been an exciting year for research in physical activity, inactivity and health. Recognition of the importance of all physical behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time and sleep) across the 24-hr day continues to grow. Notable advances have included: applications of recent methodological innovations that account for the codependence of the behaviors in the finite 24-hr period showing that the balance of these behaviors is associated with health; methodological innovations focusing on the classification of behaviors and/or quantification of the 24-hr diurnal activity pattern; and a series of systematic reviews that helped provide the evidence base for the release of the innovative 24-hr movement guidelines earlier this year...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207193/new-insights-and-changing-paradigms-in-the-regulation-of-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-development
#19
REVIEW
Stephen R Shannon, Alexander R Moise, Paul A Trainor
Vitamin A and its active metabolite retinoic acid are essential for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Surprisingly, excess or deficiency of vitamin A and retinoic acid can cause similar developmental defects. Therefore, strict feedback and other mechanisms exist to regulate the levels of retinoic acid within a narrow physiological range. The oxidation of vitamin A to retinal has recently been established as a critical nodal point in the synthesis of retinoic acid, and over the past decade, RDH10 and DHRS3 have emerged as the predominant enzymes that regulate this reversible reaction...
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167999/informatics-metrics-and-measures-for-a-smart-public-health-systems-approach-information-science-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Timothy Jay Carney, Christopher Michael Shea
Public health informatics is an evolving domain in which practices constantly change to meet the demands of a highly complex public health and healthcare delivery system. Given the emergence of various concepts, such as learning health systems, smart health systems, and adaptive complex health systems, health informatics professionals would benefit from a common set of measures and capabilities to inform our modeling, measuring, and managing of health system "smartness." Here, we introduce the concepts of organizational complexity, problem/issue complexity, and situational awareness as three codependent drivers of smart public health systems characteristics...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
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