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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650734/clostridium-difficile-associated-colitis-post-transplant-is-not-associated-with-elevation-of-tacrolimus-concentrations
#1
Hugo J R Bonatti, Karim W Sadik, Elizabeth Krebs, Costi D Sifri, Timothy L Pruett, Robert G Sawyer
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a common condition after solid organ transplant (SOT); Clostridium difficile-associated colitis (CDAC) is one of the most common infections after SOT. We documented previously that some types of enteritis are associated with an elevation of tacrolimus (TAC) trough concentrations by interfering with the drug's complex metabolism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tacrolimus concentrations of 25 SOT recipients including 12 renal and 13 liver recipients before, during, and after CDAC were analyzed retrospectively...
June 26, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-tacrolimus-add-on-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-without-an-adequate-response-to-biological-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs-dmards-post-marketing-surveillance-in-japan
#2
Tsutomu Takeuchi, Kota Ishida, Katsuhisa Shiraki, Takashi Yoshiyasu
OBJECTIVES: Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus (TAC) add-on therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). METHODS: Patients with RA from 180 medical sites across Japan were registered centrally with an electronic investigation system. The observational period was 24 weeks from the first day of TAC administration concomitantly with biological DMARDs...
June 26, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647385/hunger-and-disinhibition-but-not-cognitive-restraint-are-associated-with-central-norepinephrine-transporter-availability
#3
A Bresch, M Rullmann, J Luthardt, G A Becker, M Patt, Y-S Ding, A Hilbert, O Sabri, S Hesse
The relationship between food-intake related behaviours measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and in vivo norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability has not been explored yet. We investigated ten obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 42.4 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) and ten normal-weight healthy controls (HC, BMI 23.9 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) with (S,S)-[(11)C]-O-methylreboxetine ([(11)C]MRB) positron emission tomography (PET). All participants completed the TFEQ, which measures cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger...
June 21, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646569/nanosilver-particles-increase-follicular-atresia-correlation-with-oxidative-stress-and-aromatization
#4
Masumeh Mirzaei, Mazdak Razi, Rajabali Sadrkhanlou
Present study was performed in order to update the possible mechanism(s), involving in nanosilver particles (NSPs)-induced detrimental impacts in ovarian tissue. For this purpose, 24 mature female rats were divided into control and 0.5, 1, 5 mg/kg NSPs-received groups (intraperitoneally, for 35 days). Follicular growth and atresia, ovarian total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents, serum estrogen (E2 ) level and macrophages infiltration were investigated. Moreover, ovarian angiogenesis, cellular mRNA damage and cytochrome aromatase CYP19 expression were analyzed...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644546/-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-uptake-in-advanced-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-voxel-by-voxel-pet-kinetics-study
#5
Daniel R McGowan, Ruth E Macpherson, Sara L Hackett, Dan Liu, Fergus V Gleeson, W Gillies McKenna, Geoff S Higgins, John D Fenwick
PURPOSE: To determine the relative abilities of compartment models to describe time-courses of 18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) uptake in tumor voxels of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) imaged using dynamic positron emission tomography. Also to use fits of the best-performing model to investigate changes in fitted rate-constants with distance from the tumor edge. METHODS: Reversible and irreversible two- and three-tissue compartment models were fitted to 24,662 individual voxel time activity curves (TACs) obtained from tumors in 9 patients, each imaged twice...
June 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642729/inconsistent-effects-of-parietal-%C3%AE-tacs-on-pseudoneglect-across-two-experiments-a-failed-internal-replication
#6
Domenica Veniero, Christopher S Y Benwell, Merle M Ahrens, Gregor Thut
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is being investigated as an experimental and clinical interventional technique in human participants. While promising, important limitations have been identified, including weak effect sizes and high inter- and intra-individual variability of outcomes. Here, we compared two "inhibitory" tES-techniques with supposedly different mechanisms of action as to their effects on performance in a visuospatial attention task, and report on a direct replication attempt. In two experiments, 2 × 20 healthy participants underwent tES in three separate sessions testing different protocols (10 min stimulation each) with a montage targeting right parietal cortex (right parietal-left frontal, electrode-sizes: 3cm × 3cm-7 cm × 5 cm), while performing a perceptual line bisection (landmark) task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642710/tacrolimus-updated-guidelines-through-poppk-modeling-how-to-benefit-more-from-cyp3a-pre-emptive-genotyping-prior-to-kidney-transplantation
#7
Jean-Baptiste Woillard, Michel Mourad, Michael Neely, Arnaud Capron, Ron H van Schaik, Teun van Gelder, Nuria Lloberas, Dennis A Hesselink, Pierre Marquet, Vincent Haufroid, Laure Elens
Tacrolimus (Tac) is a profoundly effective immunosuppressant that reduces the risk of rejection after solid organ transplantation. However, its use is hampered by its narrow therapeutic window along with its highly variable pharmacological (pharmacokinetic [PK] and pharmacodynamic [PD]) profile. Part of this variability is explained by genetic polymorphisms affecting the metabolic pathway. The integration of CYP3A4 and CY3A5 genotype in tacrolimus population-based PK (PopPK) modeling approaches has been proven to accurately predict the dose requirement to reach the therapeutic window...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641980/cardiomyocyte-specific-overexpression-of-a-37-amino-acid-domain-of-regulator-of-g-protein-signalling-2-inhibits-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-improves-function-in-response-to-pressure-overload-in-mice
#8
Katherine N Lee, Xiangru Lu, Chau Nguyen, Qingping Feng, Peter Chidiac
Regulator of G protein signalling 2 (RGS2) is known to play a protective role in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure via its ability to inhibit Gq and Gs mediated GPCR signalling. We previously demonstrated that RGS2 can also inhibit protein translation and can thereby attenuate cell growth. This G protein-independent inhibitory effect has been mapped to a 37 amino acid domain (RGS2(eb)) within RGS2 that binds to eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). When expressed in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, RGS2(eb) attenuates both protein synthesis and hypertrophy induced by Gq- and Gs- activating agents...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640063/pharmacodynamic-monitoring-of-tacrolimus-based-immunosuppression-in-cd14-monocytes-after-kidney-transplantation
#9
Nynke M Kannegieter, Dennis A Hesselink, Marjolein Dieterich, Gretchen N De Graav, Rens Kraaijeveld, Ajda T Rowshani, Pieter Jm Leenen, Carla C Baan
BACKGROUND: Monocytes significantly contribute to ischemia reperfusion injury and allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. However, the knowledge about the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on monocyte activation is limited. Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for immunosuppressive drug monitoring are not cell type-specific. In this study, phosphorylation of three signaling proteins was measured to determine the pharmacodynamic effects of immunosuppression on monocyte activation in kidney transplant patients...
June 19, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638404/puerarin-protects-against-cardiac-fibrosis-associated-with-the-inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad2-mediated-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#10
Ya-Ge Jin, Yuan Yuan, Qing-Qing Wu, Ning Zhang, Di Fan, Yan Che, Zhao-Peng Wang, Yang Xiao, Sha-Sha Wang, Qi-Zhu Tang
BACKGROUND: Puerarin is a kind of flavonoids and is extracted from Chinese herb Kudzu root. Puerarin is widely used as an adjuvant therapy in Chinese clinics. But little is known about its effects on regulating cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: Mice were subjected to transverse aorta constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks; meanwhile puerarin was given 1 week after TAC. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed by pathological staining. The mRNA and protein changes of CD31 and vimentin in both animal and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) models were detected...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638348/the-redox-balance-in-erythrocytes-plasma-and-periosteum-of-patients-with-titanium-fixation-of-the-jaw
#11
Jan Borys, Mateusz Maciejczyk, Adam J Krȩtowski, Bozena Antonowicz, Wioletta Ratajczak-Wrona, Ewa Jabłońska, Piotr Załęski, Danuta Waszkiel, Jerzy R Ładny, Piotr Żukowski, Anna Zalewska
Titanium miniplates and screws are commonly used for fixation of jaw fractured or osteotomies. Despite the opinion of their biocompatibility, in clinical practice symptoms of chronic inflammation around the fixation develop in some patients, even many years after the application of miniplates and screws. The cause of these complications is still an unanswered question. Taking into account that oxidative stress is one of the toxic action of titanium, we have evaluated the antioxidant barrier as well as oxidative stress in the erythrocytes, plasma and periosteum covering the titanium fixation of the jaw...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638254/inflammation-and-oxidation-biomarkers-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-the-influence-of-azithromycin
#12
Casilda Olveira, Alicia Padilla, Antonio Dorado, Victoria Contreras, Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes, Elehazara Rubio-Martin, Nuria Porras, Esperanza Doña, Ana Carmona, Gabriel Olveira
OBJECTIVE: In addition to their antibiotic effect, macrolides appear to modulate the inflammatory response in cystic fibrosis (CF) and could influence oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to assess oxidation biomarkers and levels of inflammation and to determine whether there is an association between these parameters and the intake of macrolides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects included in this cross-sectional study were, on the one hand, clinically stable patients with CF and, on the other, healthy controls...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638174/near-real-time-measurement-of-carbonaceous-aerosol-using-microplasma-spectroscopy-application-to-measurement-of-carbon-nanomaterials
#13
Lina Zheng, Pramod Kulkarni, M Eileen Birch, Gregory Deye, Dionysios D Dionysiou
A sensitive, field-portable microplasma spectroscopy method has been developed for real-time measurement of carbon nanomaterials. The method involves microconcentration of aerosol on a microelectrode tip for subsequent analysis for atomic carbon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) or spark emission spectroscopy (SES). The spark-induced microplasma was characterized by measuring the excitation temperature (15,000 - 35,000 K), electron density (1.0 × 10(17) - 2.2 × 10(17) cm(-3)), and spectral responses as functions of time and interelectrode distance...
August 18, 2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637784/tnfr2-stimulation-promotes-mitochondrial-fusion-via-stat3-and-nf-kb-dependent-activation-of-opa1-expression
#14
Jinliang Nan, Hengxun Hu, Yong Sun, Lianlian Zhu, Yingchao Wang, Zhiwei Zhong, Jing Zhao, Na Zhang, Ya Wang, Yaping Wang, Jian Ye, Ling Zhang, Xinyang Hu, Wei Zhu, Jian'an Wang
Rationale: Mitochondria are important cellular organelles and play essential roles in maintaining cell structure and function. Emerging evidence indicates that in addition to having pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic effects, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) can, under certain circumstances, promote improvements in mitochondrial integrity and function, phenomena that can be ascribed to the existence of TNFα receptor 2 (TNFR2). Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether and how TNFR2 activation mediates the effects of TNFα on mitochondria...
June 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637706/endothelial-mineralocorticoid-receptor-contributes-to-systolic-dysfunction-induced-by-pressure-overload-without-modulating-cardiac-hypertrophy-or-inflammation
#15
Ane M Salvador, M Elizabeth Moss, Mark Aronovitz, Kathleen B Mueller, Robert M Blanton, Iris Z Jaffe, Pilar Alcaide
Heart Failure (HF) is associated with increased circulating levels of aldosterone and systemic inflammation. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists block aldosterone action and decrease mortality in patients with congestive HF However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits of MR antagonists remain unclear. MR is expressed in all cell types in the heart, including the endothelial cells (EC), in which aldosterone induces the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635340/from-seed-to-cooked-pasta-influence-of-traditional-and-non-conventional-transformation-processes-on-total-antioxidant-capacity-and-phenolic-acid-content
#16
Daniela Martini, Roberto Ciccoritti, Isabella Nicoletti, Francesca Nocente, Danilo Corradini, Maria Grazia D'Egidio, Federica Taddei
The aim of this work was to compare the traditional with a non-conventional (i.e. kernel micronisation) durum wheat milling process by monitoring the content of bound, conjugated and free phenolic acids (PAs) and the level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) occurring in the durum wheat pasta production chain, from seed to cooked pasta. The traditional transformation processes negatively influenced TAC and PA content (40% and 89% decrease from seed to cooked pasta, respectively), mainly during the milling process (25% and 84% decrease of TAC and PA, respectively), which has been related to the removal of external layers of kernels...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635157/longitudinal-study-on-the-use-of-dried-blood-spots-for-home-monitoring-in-children-after-kidney-transplantation
#17
A Al-Uzri, K A Freeman, Jordan Wade, K Clark, L A Bleyle, M Munar, D R Koop
The use of DBSs for home monitoring has been limited due to unsatisfactory blood sampling and analytical difficulties. The aim of this longitudinal feasibility trial was to assess the utility of DBS to monitor TAC and Cr at home in transplant recipients. A total of 30 participants (2-21 years, mean±SD, 13.6±5.4 year) were enrolled over 12 months. Eighteen were males. Monthly DBS samples were obtained at home and mailed to the central laboratory for analysis of TAC and Cr. Nineteen patients completed the study, and 216 cards were received in the laboratory from a total of 279 cards expected, with 416/519 (80%) blood spots being suitable for analysis...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633556/oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-newborns-born-to-mothers-with-hyperglycemia-%C3%A2-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
K Dulasi Durga, B Adhisivam, G Vidya, B Vishnu Bhat, Bobby Zachariahc, Chand Parkashd
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemic mothers have increased oxidative stress during pregnancy which can adversely affect the outcome in their neonates Objectives: To measure the oxidative stress and DNA damage in newborns born to mothers with hyperglycemia and correlate their immediate outcome with the amount of oxidative stress and DNA damage. METHODS: This prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India included 3 groups - newborns born to pregestational diabetic mothers (PGDM), gestational diabetic mothers (GDM) and euglycemic mothers with 24 newborns in each...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633267/perventricular-implantation-of-melody-valve-in-child-with-pulmonary-hypertension-after-a-potts-shunt
#19
Tomasz Mroczek, Marcin Demkow, Tomasz Moszura, Aleksandra Morka, Janusz Skalski
The Potts operation is a surgical option for the treatment of children with suprasystemic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Its positive hemodynamic effect may be obliterated by pulmonary valvar insufficiency. We describe a case in which the Potts shunt was followed by perventricular Melody valve implantation in the pulmonary position in a 12-kg child with a previously repaired truncus arteriosus communis (TAC) in whom PAH developed. The combined approach using both procedures significantly improved functional capacity and led to spectacular reverse remodeling of the right ventricle seen at 2-year follow-up...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631890/oxidative-stress-and-psychiatric-morbidity-in-patients-with-facial-acne
#20
Sara M Awad, Hanan Morsy, Ayat A Sayed, Nahed A Mohamed, Ghada M Ezzat, Mostafa M Noaman
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a common cosmetic problem that is frequently associated with psychosocial disturbances as well as increased oxidative stress. However, oxidative stress and psychological aspects have been studied separately in acne. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in acne patients. METHODS: Sixty patients with facial acne and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were included in the study...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
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