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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099062/rectal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-in-intensive-care-units-in-tunisia
#1
Samia Hammami, Chaima Dahdeh, Kelthoum Mamlouk, Sana Ferjeni, Elaa Maamar, Zeineb Hamzaoui, Mabrouka Saidani, Salma Ghedira, Mohamed Houissa, Amin Slim, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben Boubaker
This study was conducted to evaluate the rate of fecal carriage of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (third GC) in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis and to identify the enzymatic mechanisms involved. From February to April 2014, rectal swabs were collected from all patients (n = 38) at admission and once weekly thereafter to identify acquisition. They were cultured on desoxycholate-lactose-agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 mg/L)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073895/evaluation-of-genotypic-and-phenotypic-methods-to-detect-carbapenemase-production-in-gram-negative-bacilli
#2
Allison R McMullen, Melanie L Yarbrough, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, Carey-Ann D Burnham
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) are an urgent and expanding public health threat. Rapid and accurate identification of these organisms facilitates infection prevention efforts in healthcare facilities. The objective of our study was to evaluate methods to detect and identify CP-GNB. METHODS: We examined 189 carbapenem-resistant GNB (CR-GNB), including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii complex, using 3 different methods: 2 methods to screen isolates of GNB for carbapenemase production [the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) and 2 chromogenic agars] and a molecular method (Cepheid GeneXpert Carba-R) to identify the mechanism of carbapenem resistance and the associated resistance genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaOXA-48-like, and blaVIM)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007716/optimizing-colistin-dosing-is-a-loading-dose-necessary
#3
Lama H Nazer, Nadine Anabtawi
PURPOSE: Published literature on the pharmacokinetics and effectiveness of colistin loading doses is reviewed. SUMMARY: Colistin is increasingly used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB). A literature search identified seven reports on studies of colistin loading doses. All reviewed studies involved small samples of critically ill patients, with considerable variation in the colistin products and loading doses used...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007519/genetic-characterisation-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-the-university-hospital-mohamed-boudiaf-in-ouargla-southern-algeria
#4
Mounira Yagoubat, Aminata Ould El-Hadj-Khelil, Ali Malki, Sofiane Bakour, Abdelaziz Touati, Jean-Marc Rolain
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and the genetic support of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. isolates collected in the University Hospital of Ouargla, southern Algeria. METHODS: A total of 99 Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were collected from stool samples of colonised patients and from inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment between December 2014 and August 2015. Selected Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006773/discrete-distribution-based-on-compound-sum-to-model-dental-caries-count-data
#5
Jean-Noel Vergnes, Jean-Philippe Boucher, Nathalie Lelong, Michel Sixou, Cathy Nabet
Methods for analysing dental caries and associated risk indicators have evolved considerably in recent decades. The use of zero-inflated or hurdle models is increasing so as to take account of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) distribution, which is positively skewed and has a high proportion of zero scores. However, there is a need to develop new statistical models that involve pragmatic biological considerations on dental caries in epidemiological surveys. In this paper, we show that the zero-inflated and the hurdle models can both be expressed as a compound sum...
December 23, 2016: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994915/intravenous-colistin-use-for-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#6
Ayşe Karaaslan, Eren Çağan, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Serkan Atıcı, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, Mustafa Bakır
BACKGROUND: The emergence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) has led to the resurrection of colistin use. The data on colistin use and drug-related adverse effects in children are scarce. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of colistin use in critically ill pediatric patients. STUDY DESIGN: This study has a retrospective study design. METHODS: Sixty-one critically ill children were identified through the department's patient files archive during the period from January 2011 to November 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981921/emerging-trends-of-bloodstream-infections-a-six-year-study-at-a-paediatric-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kabul
#7
Tariq Mahmud Tariq, Esmatullah Rasool
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of pathogens causing bloodstream infections and evaluate their trends and antibiogram patterns among in-patients in a paediatric tertiary care centre. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC), Kabul, Afghanistan in two phases, from January 2010 to December 2015. METHODOLOGY: Results of blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis admitted in the FMIC, from January 2010 to December 2012 (Period-1), and from January 2013 to December 2015 (Period-2) were completed...
November 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979420/procalcitonin-levels-in-bloodstream-infections-caused-by-different-sources-and-species-of-bacteria
#8
Sheng Tao Yan, Li Chao Sun, Hong Bing Jia, Wen Gao, Jian Ping Yang, Guo Qiang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT) diagnostic accuracy in discriminating gram-negative (GN) from gram-positive (GP) bloodstream infections and determining the relationship between PCT levels, infection sites, and pathogen types. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients with blood culture (BC)-positive sepsis between January 2014 and December 2015. PCT levels at different infection sites were compared, as was the presence of GN and GP bloodstream infection...
December 10, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932288/pressure-ulcer-as-a-reservoir-of-multiresistant-gram-negative-bacilli-risk-factors-for-colonization-and-development-of-bacteremia
#9
Iolanda A Braga, Cristiane S Brito, Augusto Diogo Filho, Paulo P Gontijo Filho, Rosineide M Ribas
The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors that predispose patients who are hospitalized with pressure ulcers (PUs) colonized by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) to develop bacteremia. In addition, we also detected main phenotypes of resistance in infected and uninfected PUs. A prospective cohort study was conducted at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia including patients with Stage II or greater PUs, colonized or not with GNB, from August 2009 to July 2010. Infected ulcers were defined based on clinical signs and on positive evaluation of smears of wound material translated by a ratio of polymorphonuclear cells to epithelial cells ≥2:1, after Giemsa staining...
December 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923346/comparison-of-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-hematogenous-pyogenic-spondylodiscitis-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-treatment
#10
Ching-Yu Lee, Meng-Huang Wu, Chin-Chang Cheng, Tsung-Jen Huang, Tsung-Yu Huang, Chien-Yin Lee, Jou-Chen Huang, Yen-Yao Li
BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, no study has compared gram-negative bacillary hematogenous pyogenic spondylodiscitis (GNB-HPS) with gram-positive coccal hematogenous pyogenic spondylodiscitis (GPC-HPS) regarding their clinical characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: From January 2003 to January 2013, 54 patients who underwent combined antibiotic and surgical therapy in the treatment of hematogenous pyogenic spondylodiscitis were included. RESULTS: Compared with 37 GPC-HPS patients, the 17 GNB-HPS patients were more often found to be older individuals, a history of cancer, and a previous history of symptomatic urinary tract infection...
December 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917692/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-dosing-for-optimal-clinical-effectiveness-dosing-matters-revisited
#11
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
Tigecycline has emerged as first line therapy for serious systemic infections due to important pathogens (except P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp.), including multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB), including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriae. Tigecycline has a 'low resistance potential,' is protective against C. difficile, and is often the only antibiotic effective against MDR GNB, e.g., Klebsiella sp. Areas covered: Standard dose tigecycline therapy has been used for intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin/skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and CAP...
December 22, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905262/should-the-patients-colonized-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-e-gnb-coming-to-hospital-from-the-community-with-pneumonia-get-anti-e-gnb-active-empirical-treatment
#12
Lara Peterlin, Mateja Žagar, Tatjana Lejko Zupanc, Marija Paladin, Bojana Beović
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are responsible for resistance of Gram-negative bacilli to several beta-lactam antibiotics, including those prescribed for treatment pneumonia. To evaluate the importance of colonization with E-GNB for the choice of empirical treatment we performed a retrospective case-control study including 156 patients, hospitalized for treatment of pneumonia from 2009 through 2013. Empirical treatment success and in-hospital survival were significantly lower in patients colonized with E-GNB compared to non-colonized (p = 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897434/time-to-positivity-type-of-culture-media-and-oxidase-test-performed-on-positive-blood-culture-vials-to-predict-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-gram-negative-bacilli-bacteraemia
#13
N Cobos-Trigueros, Y Zboromyrska, L Morata, I Alejo, C De La Calle, A Vergara, C Cardozo, M P Arcas, A Soriano, F Marco, J Mensa, M Almela, J A Martínez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of oxidase test and time-to-positivity (TTP) in aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vials to detect the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteraemia. METHODS: TTP was recorded for each aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vial of monomicrobial bacteraemia due to GNB. Oxidase test was performed in a pellet of the centrifuged content of the positive blood culture...
25, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882325/identification-of-hot-spots-in-protein-structures-using-gaussian-network-model-and-gaussian-naive-bayes
#14
Hua Zhang, Tao Jiang, Guogen Shan
Residue fluctuations in protein structures have been shown to be highly associated with various protein functions. Gaussian network model (GNM), a simple representative coarse-grained model, was widely adopted to reveal function-related protein dynamics. We directly utilized the high frequency modes generated by GNM and further performed Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB) to identify hot spot residues. Two coding schemes about the feature vectors were implemented with varying distance cutoffs for GNM and sliding window sizes for GNB based on tenfold cross validations: one by using only a single high mode and the other by combining multiple modes with the highest frequency...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850320/681-aerosolized-amikacin-as-adjunctive-therapy-of-vap-caused-by-mdr-gnb
#15
Chang Liu, Jianguo Li, Zhiyong Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794265/molecular-epidemiology-of-environmental-and-clinical-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-from-hospitals-in-guelma-algeria-multiple-genetic-lineages-and-first-report-of-oxa-48-in-enterobacter-cloacae
#16
Widad Bouguenoun, Sofiane Bakour, Ahmed Aimen Bentorki, Charbel Al Bayssari, Tarek Merad, Jean-Marc Rolain
This study was designed to investigate environmental colonisation in Algerian hospitals by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), including molecular characterisation of their resistance, and to perform a comparative molecular analysis between clinical and environmental strains. GNB isolated from hospitalised patients and the hospital environment were identified using microbiological methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion and Etest methods...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765296/predictors-of-mortality-in-bloodstream-infections-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-4-years-of-collection
#17
Weiwei Wang, Ting Jiang, Weihong Zhang, Chunyu Li, Jun Chen, Dandan Xiang, Kejiang Cao, Lian-Wen Qi, Ping Li, Wei Zhu, Wensen Chen, Yan Chen
The study was undertaken to describe the profile of patients and the characteristics of all multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and to assess mortality. We examined 138 patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by MDR-GNB. Clinical characteristics, antibiotic therapy, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Survivor and nonsurvivor subgroups were compared to identify predictors of mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate was 25.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that comorbidities and inadequate initial antimicrobial treatment could increase risk of death...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730778/antibiotic-lock-therapy-in-the-era-of-gram-negative-resistance
#18
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729249/galacto-n-biose-is-neuroprotective-against-glutamate-induced-excitotoxicity-in-vitro
#19
Yo Shinoda, Yui Nakajima, Hirotoshi Iguchi, Satoshi Tatsumi, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Masahiro Nakajima, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yasuyuki Fujiwara, Teiichi Furuichi
Galacto-N-biose (GNB: Galβ1-3GalNAc) is an O-glycan disaccharide core moiety that is a core component of mucin in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the physiological properties of GNB are not well understood. Glutamate excitotoxicity causes neuronal death in acute neurological disorders including stroke, trauma, and neurodegenerative disease. Therefore the discovery of drugs to treat glutamate excitotoxicity is an important goal. Here, we report that GNB is neuroprotective against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714445/human-milk-and-mucosal-lacto-and-galacto-n-biose-synthesis-by-transgalactosylation-and-their-prebiotic-potential-in-lactobacillus-species
#20
Gonzalo N Bidart, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Vicente Monedero, María J Yebra
Lacto-N-biose (LNB) and galacto-N-biose (GNB) are major building blocks of free oligosaccharides and glycan moieties of glyco-complexes present in human milk and gastrointestinal mucosa. We have previously characterized the phospho-β-galactosidase GnbG from Lactobacillus casei BL23 that is involved in the metabolism of LNB and GNB. GnbG has been used here in transglycosylation reactions, and it showed the production of LNB and GNB with N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine as acceptors, respectively...
January 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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