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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932288/pressure-ulcer-as-a-reservoir-of-multiresistant-gram-negative-bacilli-risk-factors-for-colonization-and-development-of-bacteremia
#1
Iolanda A Braga, Cristiane S Brito, Augusto Diogo Filho, Paulo P Gontijo Filho, Rosineide M Ribas
The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors that predispose patients who are hospitalized with pressure ulcers (PUs) colonized by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) to develop bacteremia. In addition, we also detected main phenotypes of resistance in infected and uninfected PUs. A prospective cohort study was conducted at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia including patients with Stage II or greater PUs, colonized or not with GNB, from August 2009 to July 2010. Infected ulcers were defined based on clinical signs and on positive evaluation of smears of wound material translated by a ratio of polymorphonuclear cells to epithelial cells ≥2:1, after Giemsa staining...
December 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923346/comparison-of-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-hematogenous-pyogenic-spondylodiscitis-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-treatment
#2
Ching-Yu Lee, Meng-Huang Wu, Chin-Chang Cheng, Tsung-Jen Huang, Tsung-Yu Huang, Chien-Yin Lee, Jou-Chen Huang, Yen-Yao Li
BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, no study has compared gram-negative bacillary hematogenous pyogenic spondylodiscitis (GNB-HPS) with gram-positive coccal hematogenous pyogenic spondylodiscitis (GPC-HPS) regarding their clinical characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: From January 2003 to January 2013, 54 patients who underwent combined antibiotic and surgical therapy in the treatment of hematogenous pyogenic spondylodiscitis were included. RESULTS: Compared with 37 GPC-HPS patients, the 17 GNB-HPS patients were more often found to be older individuals, a history of cancer, and a previous history of symptomatic urinary tract infection...
December 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917692/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-dosing-for-optimal-clinical-effectiveness-dosing-matters-revisited
#3
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
Tigecycline has emerged as first line therapy for serious systemic infections due to important pathogens (except P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp.), including multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB), including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriae. Tigecycline has a "low resistance potential," is protective against C. difficile, and is often the only antibiotic effective against MDR GNB, e.g., Klebsiella sp. Areas covered: Standard dose tigecycline therapy has been used for intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin/skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and CAP...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905262/should-the-patients-colonized-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-e-gnb-coming-to-hospital-from-the-community-with-pneumonia-get-anti-e-gnb-active-empirical-treatment
#4
Lara Peterlin, Mateja Žagar, Tatjana Lejko Zupanc, Marija Paladin, Bojana Beović
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are responsible for resistance of Gram-negative bacilli to several beta-lactam antibiotics, including those prescribed for treatment pneumonia. To evaluate the importance of colonization with E-GNB for the choice of empirical treatment we performed a retrospective case-control study including 156 patients, hospitalized for treatment of pneumonia from 2009 through 2013. Empirical treatment success and in-hospital survival were significantly lower in patients colonized with E-GNB compared to non-colonized (p = 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897434/time-to-positivity-type-of-culture-media-and-oxidase-test-performed-on-positive-blood-culture-vials-to-predict-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-gram-negative-bacilli-bacteraemia
#5
N Cobos-Triguero, Y Zboromyrska, L Morata, I Alejo, C De La Calle, A Vergara, C Cardozo, M P Arcas, A Soriano, F Marco, J Mensa, M Almela, J A Martínez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of oxidase test and time-to-positivity (TTP) in aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vials to detect the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteraemia. METHODS: TTP was recorded for each aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vial of monomicrobial bacteraemia due to GNB. Oxidase test was performed in a pellet of the centrifuged content of the positive blood culture...
November 25, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882325/identification-of-hot-spots-in-protein-structures-using-gaussian-network-model-and-gaussian-naive-bayes
#6
Hua Zhang, Tao Jiang, Guogen Shan
Residue fluctuations in protein structures have been shown to be highly associated with various protein functions. Gaussian network model (GNM), a simple representative coarse-grained model, was widely adopted to reveal function-related protein dynamics. We directly utilized the high frequency modes generated by GNM and further performed Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB) to identify hot spot residues. Two coding schemes about the feature vectors were implemented with varying distance cutoffs for GNM and sliding window sizes for GNB based on tenfold cross validations: one by using only a single high mode and the other by combining multiple modes with the highest frequency...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850320/681-aerosolized-amikacin-as-adjunctive-therapy-of-vap-caused-by-mdr-gnb
#7
Chang Liu, Jianguo Li, Zhiyong Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794265/molecular-epidemiology-of-environmental-and-clinical-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-from-hospitals-in-guelma-algeria-multiple-genetic-lineages-and-first-report-of-oxa-48-in-enterobacter-cloacae
#8
Widad Bouguenoun, Sofiane Bakour, Ahmed Aimen Bentorki, Charbel Al Bayssari, Tarek Merad, Jean-Marc Rolain
This study was designed to investigate environmental colonisation in Algerian hospitals by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), including molecular characterisation of their resistance, and to perform a comparative molecular analysis between clinical and environmental strains. GNB isolated from hospitalised patients and the hospital environment were identified using microbiological methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion and Etest methods...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765296/predictors-of-mortality-in-bloodstream-infections-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-4-years-of-collection
#9
Weiwei Wang, Ting Jiang, Weihong Zhang, Chunyu Li, Jun Chen, Dandan Xiang, Kejiang Cao, Lian-Wen Qi, Ping Li, Wei Zhu, Wensen Chen, Yan Chen
The study was undertaken to describe the profile of patients and the characteristics of all multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and to assess mortality. We examined 138 patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by MDR-GNB. Clinical characteristics, antibiotic therapy, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Survivor and nonsurvivor subgroups were compared to identify predictors of mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate was 25.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that comorbidities and inadequate initial antimicrobial treatment could increase risk of death...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730778/antibiotic-lock-therapy-in-the-era-of-gram-negative-resistance
#10
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729249/galacto-n-biose-is-neuroprotective-against-glutamate-induced-excitotoxicity-in-vitro
#11
Yo Shinoda, Yui Nakajima, Hirotoshi Iguchi, Satoshi Tatsumi, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Masahiro Nakajima, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yasuyuki Fujiwara, Teiichi Furuichi
Galacto-N-biose (GNB: Galβ1-3GalNAc) is an O-glycan disaccharide core moiety that is a core component of mucin in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the physiological properties of GNB are not well understood. Glutamate excitotoxicity causes neuronal death in acute neurological disorders including stroke, trauma, and neurodegenerative disease. Therefore the discovery of drugs to treat glutamate excitotoxicity is an important goal. Here, we report that GNB is neuroprotective against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714445/human-milk-and-mucosal-lacto-and-galacto-n-biose-synthesis-by-transgalactosylation-and-their-prebiotic-potential-in-lactobacillus-species
#12
Gonzalo N Bidart, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Vicente Monedero, María J Yebra
Lacto-N-biose (LNB) and galacto-N-biose (GNB) are major building blocks of free oligosaccharides and glycan moieties of glyco-complexes present in human milk and gastrointestinal mucosa. We have previously characterized the phospho-β-galactosidase GnbG from Lactobacillus casei BL23 that is involved in the metabolism of LNB and GNB. GnbG has been used here in transglycosylation reactions, and it showed the production of LNB and GNB with N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine as acceptors, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681907/carbapenem-resistance-in-gram-negative-bacteria-the-not-so-little-problem-in-the-little-red-dot
#13
REVIEW
Jocelyn Qi Min Teo, Yiying Cai, Tze-Peng Lim, Thuan Tong Tan, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
Singapore is an international travel and medical hub and faces a genuine threat for import and dissemination of bacteria with broad-spectrum resistance. In this review, we described the current landscape and management of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Singapore. Notably, the number of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has exponentially increased in the past two years. Resistance is largely mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Polymyxin resistance has also emerged. Interestingly, two Escherichia coli isolates with plasmid-mediated mcr-1 genes have been detected...
February 16, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575938/role-of-age-and-sex-in-determining-antibiotic-resistance-in-febrile-urinary-tract-infections
#14
Dong Sup Lee, Hyun-Sop Choe, Hee Youn Kim, Je Mo Yoo, Woong Jin Bae, Yong Hyun Cho, Sun Wook Kim, Chang Hee Han, Sang Rak Bae, Hoon Jang, Su Bum Park, Byung Il Yoon, Seung-Ju Lee
OBJECTIVES: To identify the age- and sex-specific antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in outpatient febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Korea. METHODS: A total 2262 consecutive samples collected from patients aged 1-101 years with febrile UTIs, during the period January 2012 to December 2014, were analyzed in this multicentre, retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: The sensitivities to cefotaxime and cefoxitin were over 85% for females but under 75% for males...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572416/clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-development-of-breakthrough-gram-negative-bacteremia-during-carbapenem-therapy
#15
Ji-Yong Lee, Cheol-In Kang, Jae-Hoon Ko, Woo Joo Lee, Hye-Ri Seok, Ga Eun Park, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Doo Ryeon Chung, Nam Yong Lee, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of carbapenems, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have become a major concern in healthcare-associated infections. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical and microbiological features of breakthrough Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) during carbapenem therapy and to assess risk factors for development of breakthrough GNB. METHODS: A case-control study was performed at a tertiary hospital from 2005 to 2014. Cases were defined as individuals whose blood cultures grew Gram-negative bacteria while receiving carbapenems for at least 48 hours before breakthrough GNB...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570854/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-gram-negative-bacilli-causing-blood-stream-infection-in-patients-with-malignancy
#16
Fawzia E Al-Otaibi, Elham E Bukhari, Mona Badr, Abdulkarim A Alrabiaa
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology, risk factors, and antibiotic resistance of Gram negative bacteria (GNB) in patients with hematologic or solid organ malignancies.   METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 61 episodes of GNB bacteremia occurring in 56 patients with malignancy admitted to the Oncology Units in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2013 to October 2015. Data were retrieved from the computerized database of the microbiology laboratory and the patient's medical records...
September 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547615/a-terahertz-vibration-to-terahertz-radiation-converter-based-on-gold-nanoobjects-a-feasibility-study
#17
Kamil Moldosanov, Andrei Postnikov
BACKGROUND: The need for practical and adaptable terahertz sources is apparent in the areas of application such as early cancer diagnostics, nondestructive inspection of pharmaceutical tablets, visualization of concealed objects. We outline the operation principle and suggest the design of a simple appliance for generating terahertz radiation by a system of nanoobjects - gold nanobars (GNBs) or nanorings (GNRs) - irradiated by microwaves. RESULTS: Our estimations confirm a feasibility of the idea that GNBs and GNRs irradiated by microwaves could become terahertz emitters with photon energies within the full width at half maximum of the longitudinal acoustic phononic DOS of gold (ca...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517016/the-incidence-and-microbiological-profile-of-surgical-site-infections-following-internal-fixation-of-closed-and-open-fractures
#18
Priscila Rosalba Oliveira, Vladimir Cordeiro Carvalho, Cassia da Silva Felix, Adriana Pereira de Paula, Jorge Santos-Silva, Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz Lima
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and microbiological profile of surgical site infections (SSIs) associated with internal fixation of fractures and to compare differences in the SSIs observed among patients with closed and open fractures. METHODS: Retrospective study. Analyzed data included information from all patients who underwent surgery for fixation of closed or open fractures from January 2005 to December 2012 and remained outpatients for at least one year following surgery...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505270/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-neonatal-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacteremia-a-12-year-case-control-control-study-of-a-referral-center-in-taiwan
#19
Ming-Horng Tsai, I-Ta Lee, Shih-Ming Chu, Reyin Lien, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ren-Huei Fu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Yhu-Chering Huang
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in the neonatal intensive care unit was characterized by comparison with two control groups: a susceptible control group and a general base population group over 2001 to 2012. The influence of ESBL production on mortality was studied in all study subjects and ESBL-GNB isolates were microbiologically characterized. We identified 77 episodes of ESBL-GNB (14.2% of all neonatal late-onset GNB), which were caused by Klebsiella spp. (62...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504686/electrochemical-sensing-of-bisphenol-using-a-multilayer-graphene-nanobelt-modified-photolithography-patterned-platinum-electrode
#20
Padmanathan Karthick Kannan, Chunxiao Hu, Hywel Morgan, Stanislav A Moshkalev, Chandra Sekhar Rout
An electrochemical sensor has been developed for the detection of Bisphenol-A (BPA) using photolithographically patterned platinum electrodes modified with multilayer graphene nanobelts (GNB). Compared to bare electrodes, the GNB modified electrode exhibited enhanced BPA oxidation current, due to the high effective surface area and high adsorption capacity of the GNB. The sensor showed a linear response over the concentration range from 0.5 μM-9 μM with a very low limit of detection = 37.33 nM. In addition, the sensor showed very good stability and reproducibility with good specificity, demonstrating that GNB is potentially a new material for the development of a practical BPA electrochemical sensor with application in both industrial and plastic industries...
September 16, 2016: Nanotechnology
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