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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904017/eliciting-improved-antibacterial-efficacy-of-host-proteins-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#1
Joanna Jammal, Fadia Zaknoon, Amram Mor
We recently reported the aptitude of a membrane-active lipopeptide (C10OOc12O) to sensitize gram-negative bacilli (GNB) to host antibacterial proteins. Here we explored the potential of harnessing such capacity in the presence of antibiotics. For this purpose, we compared Escherichia coli sensitization to antibiotics in broth and plasma; assessed inner and outer membrane damages using scanning electron microscopy, dyes, and mutant strains; and assessed the ability to affect disease course using the mouse peritonitis-sepsis model for mono- and combination therapies...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877514/fast-gaussian-na%C3%A3-ve-bayes-for-searchlight-classification-analysis
#2
Marlis Ontivero-Ortega, Agustin Lage-Castellanos, Giancarlo Valente, Rainer Goebel, Mitchell Valdes-Sosa
The searchlight technique is a variant of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) that examines neural activity across large sets of small regions, exhaustively covering the whole brain. This usually involves application of classifier algorithms across all searchlights, which entails large computational costs especially when testing the statistical significance of the accuracies with permutation methods. In this article, a new implementation of the Gaussian Naive Bayes classifier is presented (henceforth massive-GNB)...
September 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877288/effect-of-rewetting-solutions-on-micropush-out-dentin-bond-strength-of-new-bioceramic-endodontic-material
#3
Giovana Cunha Gritti, Salma Ivanna Araújo Cavalcante, Etevaldo Matos Maia-Filho, José Bauer, Matheus Coêlho Bandéca, Giulio Gavini, Ceci Nunes Carvalho
To evaluate the influence of rewetting solutions on bond strength to root dentin of conventional gutta-percha (GP) or niobium phosphate glass-based gutta-percha (GNb) associated with a bioceramic sealer. The root canals of 80 human mandibular premolars were prepared using nickel-titanium instruments and irrigation with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups according to the gutta-percha used: GNb or GP associated with EndoSequence BC Sealer (BC) and the solution for rewetting dentin before filling (distilled water; phosphate buffer saline solution - PBS; simulated body fluid - SBF; or no solution)...
August 31, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872972/expression-and-significance-of-th17-and-treg-cells-in-pulmonary-infections-with-gram-negative-bacteria
#4
Ying Liu, Jia-Kui Sun, Xiang Qi, Yong-Ming Chen, Jing Li, Shang-Yu Chen, Han Liu
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and significance of T helper type 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in severe pulmonary infection with gram-negative bacteria (GNB). The peripheral venous blood (PVB) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected from patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU) owing to: (1) pulmonary GNB infection (group I) and (2) nonpulmonary infection (group NI). Patients from the two groups were matched based on their Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores and were recruited in the same period...
October 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870265/predicting-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-colonization-and-associated-infection-on-hospital-admission
#5
Wen-Pin Tseng, Yee-Chun Chen, Bey-Jing Yang, Shang-Yu Chen, Jr-Jiun Lin, Ya-Huei Huang, Chia-Ming Fu, Shan-Chwen Chang, Shey-Ying Chen
OBJECTIVE Isolation of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) from patients in the community has been increasingly observed. A prediction model for MDR-GNB colonization and infection risk stratification on hospital admission is needed to improve patient care. METHODS A 2-stage, prospective study was performed with 995 and 998 emergency department patients enrolled, respectively. MDR-GNB colonization was defined as isolates resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics, identified in either the surveillance or early (≤48 hours) clinical cultures...
October 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852678/the-risk-of-cardiac-device-related-infection-in-bacteremic-patients-is-species-specific-results-of-a-12-year-prospective-cohort
#6
Stacey A Maskarinec, Joshua T Thaden, Derek D Cyr, Felicia Ruffin, Maria Souli, Vance G Fowler
BACKGROUND: The species-specific risk of cardiac device-related infection (CDRI) among bacteremic patients is incompletely understood. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients from October 2002 to December 2014 with a cardiac device (CD) and either Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) or Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB). Cardiac devices were defined as either prosthetic heart valves (PHVs), including valvular support rings, permanent pacemakers (PPMs)/automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillators (AICDs), or left ventricular assist devices (LVADs)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836366/lipoteichoic-acid-upregulates-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-expression-in-parapneumonic-effusions
#7
Kai-Ling Lee, Wei-Lin Chen, Ray-Jade Chen, Kevin S Lai, Chi-Li Chung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parapneumonic effusion (PPE) is commonly caused by Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and often presents with pleural loculation, which is characterized by overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a surface adhesion molecule of GPB, binds to the pleural mesothelium and triggers inflammation. However, the effects of LTA on PAI-1 expression in PPE and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with PPE were enrolled, including uncomplicated culture negative (CN, n = 11), Gram-negative bacteria (GNB, n = 7) and GPB (n = 12) groups stratified by pleural fluid characteristics and bacteriology, and the effusion PAI-1 levels were measured...
August 23, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830942/diabetes-exacerbates-infection-via-hyperinflammation-by-signaling-through-tlr4-and-rage
#8
Travis B Nielsen, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Jun Yan, Brian M Luna, Ken Dekitani, Kevin Bruhn, Brandon Tan, Justin Junus, Robert A Bonomo, Ann Marie Schmidt, Michael Everson, Frederick Duncanson, Terence M Doherty, Lin Lin, Brad Spellberg
For more than a century, diabetic patients have been considered immunosuppressed due to defects in phagocytosis and microbial killing. We confirmed that diabetic mice were hypersusceptible to bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), dying at inocula nonlethal to nondiabetic mice. Contrary to the pervasive paradigm that diabetes impedes phagocytic function, the bacterial burden was no greater in diabetic mice despite excess mortality. However, diabetic mice did exhibit dramatically increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in response to GNB infections, and immunosuppressing these cytokines with dexamethasone restored their resistance to infection, both of which are consistent with excess inflammation...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830807/the-relationship-between-gram-negative-colonisation-and-bloodstream-infections-in-neonates-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Laura Folgori, Chiara Tersigni, Yingfen Hsia, Christina Kortsalioudaki, Paul Heath, Mike Sharland, Julia Bielicki
OBJECTIVES: Neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) are at significant risk of developing bloodstream infections (BSIs). Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) both colonise and infect, but the association between these entities is unclear. By conducting a systematic literature review, we aimed to explore the impact of factors on the association between GN colonisation and GN-BSI at both baby level and unit level. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815094/add-on-therapy-with-ertapenem-in-infections-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-pediatric-experience
#10
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Kamile Oktay Arıkan, Ayse Buyukcam, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Mehmet Ceyhan, Ates Kara
Optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant GNB is not well established due to the weakness of data. Patients presenting with bloodstream infections caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were treated with a combination treatment. Optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a serious problem in pediatric patients. We presented three cases who were successfully treated with addition of ertapenem to the combination treatment for bacteremia with multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811074/management-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-set-gesitra-seimc-reipi-recommendations
#11
REVIEW
J M Aguado, J T Silva, M Fernández-Ruiz, E Cordero, J Fortún, C Gudiol, L Martínez-Martínez, E Vidal, L Almenar, B Almirante, R Cantón, J Carratalá, J J Caston, E Cercenado, C Cervera, J M Cisneros, M G Crespo-Leiro, V Cuervas-Mons, J Elizalde-Fernández, M C Fariñas, J Gavaldà, M J Goyanes, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, D Hernández, O Len, R López-Andujar, F López-Medrano, P Martín-Dávila, M Montejo, A Moreno, A Oliver, A Pascual, E Pérez-Nadales, A Román-Broto, R San-Juan, D Serón, A Solé-Jover, M Valerio, P Muñoz, J Torre-Cisneros
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk of developing infections by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), as they are frequently exposed to antibiotics and the healthcare setting, and are regulary subject to invasive procedures. Nevertheless, no recommendations concerning prevention and treatment are available. A panel of experts revised the available evidence; this document summarizes their recommendations: (1) it is important to characterize the isolate's phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile; (2) overall, donor colonization should not constitute a contraindication to transplantation, although active infected kidney and lung grafts should be avoided; (3) recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection, but is not a contraindication to transplantation; (4) different surgical prophylaxis regimens are not recommended for patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant GNB; (5) timely detection of carriers, contact isolation precautions, hand hygiene compliance and antibiotic control policies are important preventive measures; (6) there is not sufficient data to recommend intestinal decolonization; (7) colonized lung transplant recipients could benefit from prophylactic inhaled antibiotics, specially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (8) colonized SOT recipients should receive an empirical treatment which includes active antibiotics, and directed therapy should be adjusted according to susceptibility study results and the severity of the infection...
July 26, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782646/%C3%AE-lacta-%C3%A2-test-performance-for-detection-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-directly-on-bronchial-aspirates-samples-a-validation-study
#12
Salah Gallah, Yahia Benzarara, Jacques Tankovic, Paul-Louis Woerther, Hayat Bensekri, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Guillaume Arlet, Sophie Vimont, Marc Garnier
OBJECTIVES: Incidence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-producing Gram Negative Bacilli (ESBL-P-GNB)-related infections is worryingly increasing worldwide. ESBL-P-GNB detection directly on bronchial aspirate samples (BAS) performed for suspected pneumonia may help save empirical carbapenems. Our objectives were to optimize β-LACTA(®) test (BLT) realization and evaluate BLT performance for ESBL-P-GNB detection directly on BAS. METHODS: 1) BLT technical optimization using BAS of different matrix types spiked with increasing concentrations of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2) in vitro validation of BLT diagnostic performance on 17 ESBL enzymes, belonging to CTX-M, SHV, TEM, OXA, GES, VEB, and PER groups; 3) clinical validation of BLT performance on 126 BAS prospectively collected from 7 Intensive Care Units...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768269/a-potential-role-for-the-nod1-variant-rs6958571-in-gram-positive-blood-stream-infection-in-elbw-infants
#13
Venkatesh Sampath, Neil Mulrooney, Aloka L Patel, Jonathan Cohen, Liyun Zhang, Jeffery Garland, Pascal M Lavoie, John Dagle, Pippa Simpson
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of sepsis susceptibility in preterm infants remains understudied. Herein, we investigated the nucleotide binding-oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family of immune receptors as putative loci for preterm sepsis susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NLR genes are associated with blood stream infections (BSI) in premature infants. METHODS: An international cohort of infants with gestational age (GA) <35 weeks were genotyped for SNPs in the ATG16L1, CARD8, NLRP3, NOD2, and NOD1 genes...
August 3, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744687/lin28a-a-sensitive-immunohistochemical-marker-for-embryonal-tumor-with-multilayered-rosettes-etmr-is-also-positive-in-a-subset-of-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-at-rt
#14
Shilpa Rao, R T Rajeswarie, T Chickabasaviah Yasha, Bevinahalli N Nandeesh, Arimappamagan Arivazhagan, Vani Santosh
INTRODUCTION: CNS embryonal tumors comprise a group of highly malignant neoplasms with a wide spectrum of histomorphological entities that includes Medulloblastoma (MB), Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT), Neuroblastoma (NB), Ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB), Embryonal Tumor with Multilayered Rosettes (ETMR), and the embryonal tumor-Not Otherwise Specified (NOS). The entity ETMR includes previously described histopathologic patterns-Embryonal Tumor with Abundant Neuropil and True Rosettes (ETANTR), Ependymoblastoma (EBL), and Medulloepithelioma (MEPL)...
July 25, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733718/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-next-30%C3%A2-years-humankind-bugs-and-drugs-a-visionary-approach
#15
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Garyphallia Poulakou, Etienne Ruppe, Emilio Bouza, Sebastian J Van Hal, Adrian Brink
PURPOSE: To describe the current standards of care and major recent advances with regard to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to give a prospective overview for the next 30 years in this field. METHODS: Review of medical literature and expert opinion were used in the development of this review. RESULTS: There is undoubtedly a large clinical and public health burden associated with AMR in ICU, but it is challenging to quantify the associated excess morbidity and mortality...
July 21, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732563/risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-the-acquisition-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacillus-bacteremia-a-retrospective-propensity-matched-case-control-study
#16
Shih-Wen Ting, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Jien-Wei Liu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A substantial number of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) have been identified among the etiologic multidrug-resistant GNB in healthcare-associated infections. For achieving a better therapeutic outcome by minimizing inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment before blood culture and susceptibility testing results are available, it is very important to identify patients who are at risk for the development of CR GNB bacteremia. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of propensity-score matched (PSM) adult patients with CR GNB bacteremia (PSM-group 1 [n = 95]) and those with non-CR GNB bacteremia (PSM-group 2 [n = 190])...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729206/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-an-iranian-referral-paediatric-hospital-a-5-5-year-study
#17
Shima Mahmoudi, Masoumeh Mahzari, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Mohsen Mohammadi, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
OBJECTIVES: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from BSIs in children admitted to an Iranian paediatric hospital. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data of patients with positive blood cultures were collected from March 2011 to September 2016. Standard laboratory methods were used for blood culture and bacterial identification...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721477/imipenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-isolates-carried-by-persons-upon-medical-examination-in-korea
#18
So Yeon Kim, Sang Yop Shin, Ji-Young Rhee, Kwan Soo Ko
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) have emerged and disseminated worldwide, become a great concern worldwide including Korea. The prevalence of fecal carriage of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (IR-GNB) in persons in Korea was investigated. Stool samples were collected from 300 persons upon medical examination. Samples were screened for IR-GNB by using MacConkey agar with 2 μl/ml imipenem. Species were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the broth microdilution method...
August 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710229/pirate-project-point-of-care-informatics-based-randomised-controlled-trial-for-decreasing-overuse-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-gram-negative-bacteraemia
#19
Angela Huttner, Werner C Albrich, Pierre-Yves Bochud, Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Anne Rossel, Elodie von Dach, Stephan Harbarth, Laurent Kaiser
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic overuse drives antibiotic resistance. The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB), a common community and hospital-associated infection, remains unknown and unstudied via randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This investigator-initiated, multicentre, non-inferiority, informatics-based point-of-care RCT will randomly assign adult hospitalised patients receiving microbiologically efficacious antibiotic(s) for GNB to (1) 14 days of antibiotic therapy, (2) 7 days of therapy or (3) an individualised duration determined by clinical response and 75% reduction in peak C reactive protein (CRP) values...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694609/role-of-biofilm-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-shunt-infections-a-study-at-tertiary-neurocare-center-from-south-india
#20
Kirtilaxmi K Benachinmardi, R Ravikumar, B Indiradevi
INTRODUCTION: Biofilms are the source of persistent infections of many pathogenic microbes. They are responsible for nosocomial infection and also associated with many surgical conditions including indwelling medical devices such as ventriculoperitoneal shunt. A significant problem encountered in shunt procedures is obstruction followed by infection, with infection rate ranging from 2% to 27%, often with poor outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Neuromicrobiology at a tertiary neuroinstitute for 6 months from July 1 to December 31, 2014...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
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