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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164118/infections-caused-by-antimicrobial-drug-resistant-saprophytic-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-environment
#1
Eva Raphael, Lee W Riley
Background: Drug-resistance genes found in human bacterial pathogens are increasingly recognized in saprophytic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from environmental sources. The clinical implication of such environmental GNBs is unknown. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review to determine how often such saprophytic GNBs cause human infections. Methods: We queried PubMed for articles published in English, Spanish, and French between January 2006 and July 2014 for 20 common environmental saprophytic GNB species, using search terms "infections," "human infections," "hospital infection...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138886/clinical-predictors-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy
#2
Si-Ho Kim, Sun Young Cho, Cheol-In Kang, Hyeri Seok, Kyungmin Huh, Young Eun Ha, Doo Ryeon Chung, Nam Yong Lee, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen with high morbidity and mortality. Because of its unique antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, appropriate antimicrobial therapy for SM bacteremia is still challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients. The present study was performed to assess clinical predictors of SM bacteremia in adult patients with hematologic malignancy. From 2006 through 2016, a case-control study was performed at a tertiary-care hospital. Case patients were defined as SM bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancy...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126186/the-importance-of-hiv-research-for-transgender-and-gender-non-binary-individuals
#3
S Gianella, J S Haw, J Blumenthal, B Sullivan, D M Smith
Transgender and gender non-binary (trans/GNB) individuals are disproportionally affected by HIV, yet they are not adequately represented in HIV research and often underserved in clinical care. By building on community strengths and addressing structural, psychological and biological challenges, we can improve the engagement of trans/GNB people in research and ultimately improve prevention, testing and care for this population. Here, we review the current state of the science related to HIV for trans/GNB people, and we discuss next steps to expand research that aims to improve the lives and well-being of trans/GNB persons...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104124/control-of-endemic-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-after-removal-of-sinks-and-implementing-a-new-water-safe-policy-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#4
Evelyn Shaw, Laura Gavaldà, Jordi Càmara, Rosa Gasull, Santiago Gallego, Fe Tubau, Rosa Maria Granada, Pilar Ciercoles, M Angeles Dominguez, Rafael Mañez, Jordi Carratalà, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Contaminated handwashing sinks have been identified as reservoirs that can facilitate colonisation/infection of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in intensive care units (ICUs). To eliminate endemic MDR-GNB in our ICU, we implemented a water-safe policy that involved the removal of all sinks from patients' rooms. AIM: We aimed to assess the impact of removing patients' sinks and implementing other water-safe strategies on the annual rates of ICU-acquired MDR-GNB...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102393/compound-design-guidelines-for-evading-the-efflux-and-permeation-barriers-of-escherichia-coli-with-the-oxazolidinone-class-of-antibacterials-test-case-for-a-general-approach-to-improving-whole-cell-gram-negative-activity
#5
Andrew Spaulding, Khuloud Takrouri, Pornachandran Mahalingam, Dillon C Cleary, Harold D Cooper, Paola Zucchi, Westley Tear, Bilyana Koleva, Penny J Beuning, Elizabeth B Hirsch, James B Aggen
Previously we reported the results from an effort to improve Gram-negative antibacterial activity in the oxazolidinone class of antibiotics via a systematic medicinal chemistry campaign focused entirely on C-ring modifications. In that series we set about testing if the efflux and permeation barriers intrinsic to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli could be rationally overcome by designing analogs to reside in specific property limits associated with Gram-negative activity: i) low MW (<400), ii) high polarity (clogD7...
October 16, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075293/bacterial-profile-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-patients-with-diabetic-foot-ulcer-in-guangzhou-southern-china-focus-on-the-differences-among-different-wagner-s-grades-idsa-iwgdf-grades-and-ulcer-types
#6
Xiaoying Xie, Yunwen Bao, Lijia Ni, Dan Liu, Shaona Niu, Haixiong Lin, Hongyu Li, Chaohui Duan, Li Yan, Songyin Huang, Zhaofan Luo
OBJECTIVE: To understand the bacterial profile and antibiotic resistance patterns in diabetic foot infection (DFI) in different Wagner's grades, IDSA/IWGDF grades, and different ulcer types in Guangzhou, in order to provide more detailed suggestion to the clinician about the empirical antibiotic choice. METHODS: 207 bacteria were collected from 117 DFIs in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital from Jan.1, 2010, to Dec.31, 2015. The clinical data and microbial information were analyzed...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066020/repeat-gram-negative-hospital-acquired-infections-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Mansi Agarwal, Stephanie Shiau, Elaine L Larson
Repeat HAIs among frequently hospitalized patients may be contributing to the high rates of antibiotic resistance seen in gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in hospital settings. This systematic review examines the state of the literature assessing the association between repeat GNB HAIs and changes in antibiotic susceptibility patterns. A systematic search of English language published literature was conducted to identify studies in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2015. Studies must have assessed drug resistance in repeat GNB infections longitudinally at the patient level...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020307/follow-up-blood-cultures-in-gram-negative-bacteremia-are-they-needed
#8
Christina N Canzoneri, Bobak J Akhavan, Zehra Tosur, Pedro E Alcedo Andrade, Gabriel M Aisenberg
Background: Bloodstream infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteremia is typically transient and usually resolves rapidly after the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy and source control. The optimal duration of treatment and utility of follow-up blood cultures (FUBC) have not been studied in detail. Currently, the management of gram-negative bacteremia is determined by clinical judgment. To investigate the value of repeat blood cultures, we analyzed 500 episodes of bacteremia to determine frequency of FUBC and identify risk factors for persistent bacteremia...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020294/predicting-resistance-to-piperacillin-tazobactam-cefepime-and-meropenem-in-septic-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-due-to-gram-negative-bacteria
#9
M Cristina Vazquez-Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
Background: Predicting antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria (GNB) could balance the need for administering appropriate empiric antibiotics while also minimizing the use of clinically unwarranted broad-spectrum agents. Our objective was to develop a practical prediction rule able to identify patients with GNB infection at low risk for resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam (PT), cefepime (CE), and meropenem (ME). Methods: The study included adult patients with sepsis or septic shock due to bloodstream infections caused by GNB admitted between 2008 and 2015 from Barnes-Jewish Hospital...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020286/incidence-risk-factors-and-outcome-of-pre-engraftment-gram-negative-bacteremia-after-allogeneic-and-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-an-italian-prospective-multicenter-survey
#10
Corrado Girmenia, Alice Bertaina, Alfonso Piciocchi, Alessandra Carotti, Alessandra Algarotti, Alessandro Busca, Chiara Cattaneo, Anna Maria Raiola, Stefano Guidi, Anna Paola Iori, Anna Candoni, Giuseppe Irrera, Giuseppe Milone, Giampaolo Marcacci, Rosanna Scimè, Maurizio Musso, Laura Cudillo, Simona Sica, Luca Castagna, Paolo Corradini, Francesco Marchesi, Domenico Pastore, Emilio Paolo Alessandrino, Claudio Annaloro, Fabio Ciceri, Stella Santarone, Luca Nassi, Claudio Farina, Claudio Viscoli, Gian Maria Rossolini, Francesca Bonifazi, Alessandro Rambaldi, Gruppo Italiano
Background: Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) and updated epidemiological investigation is advisable. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the epidemiology of pre-engraftment GNB in 1,118 allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) and 1,625 autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) among 54 transplant centers during 2014 (SIGNB-GITMO-AMCLI study). Using logistic regression methods we identified risk factors for GNB and evaluated the impact of GNB on the 4-month overall-survival after transplant...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986989/utility-of-phox2b-immunohistochemical-stain-in-neural-crest-tumors-and-non-neural-crest-tumors-in-pediatric-patients
#11
Mikako Warren, Ryosuke Matsuno, Henry Tran, Hiroyuki Shimada
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the utility of Phox2b in pediatric tumors. Previously tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was the most widely utilized sympathoadrenal marker specific for neural crest tumors with neuronal/neuroendocrine differentiation. However, its sensitivity is insufficient. Recently Phox2b has emerged as another specific marker for this entity. METHODS: Phox2b IHC was performed on 159 pediatric tumors including (1) 65 neural crest tumors with neuronal differentiation [peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNT)]: 15 neuroblastoma undifferentiated (NB-UD), 10 NB poorly differentiated (NB-PD), 10 NB differentiating (NB-D), 10 ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed (GNBi), 10 GNB nodular (GNBn), and 10 ganglioneuroma (GN); (2) 23 neural crest tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation [pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PG)]; (3) 27 other neural crest tumors including one composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma; and (4) 44 non-neural crest tumors...
October 7, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981543/bacterial-colonization-patterns-in-daily-chlorhexidine-care-at-the-exit-site-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hsi-Hao Wang, Shih-Yuan Hung, Min-Yu Chang, Yi-Che Lee, Hsiu-Fang Lin, Tsun-Mei Lin, Su-Pen Yang, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Su-Ching Yang, Jiun-Ling Wang
Bacterial colonization patterns in daily chlorhexidine care at the exit site in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were not known. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial enrolling 89 PD patients. After stratification by initial Staphylococcus aureus (SA) carrier status, patients were randomly assigned to receive daily 4% chlorhexidine care (intervention group) or normal saline (control group) at the exit site. Monthly, we cultured bacteria from the exit site and nasal swabs for 1 year. The SA colonization rates at exit site at 6 and 12 months were significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970054/monoclonal-antibody-mediated-detection-of-ctx-m-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-gram-negative-bacteria
#13
Nicole J Tarlton, Tiffany S Satoorian, Anand Panchal, Clarissa A Borges, Mark Geisberg, Lee W Riley
Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) that express CTX-M β-lactamases have become a serious threat to the clinical management of GNB infections. While antibody-based platforms have been successfully used in research settings to study and detect other β-lactamases-including SHV, CMY, and TEM enzymes-there is currently a lack of antibody-based tools to detect the CTX-M enzymes. Here we describe the development of an anti-CTX-M sandwich ELISA based on a pair of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)-mAb 6101-33 and mAb 6101-19-used as the capture and detection antibody, respectively...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966495/simple-rapid-and-cost-effective-modified-carba-np-test-for-carbapenemase-detection-among-gram-negative-bacteria
#14
Shoorashetty Manohara Rudresh, Giriyapur Siddappa Ravi, Lakshminarayanappa Sunitha, Sadiya Noor Hajira, Ellappan Kalaiarasan, Belgode Narasimha Harish
PURPOSE: Detection of carbapenemases among Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is important for both clinicians and infection control practitioners. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommends Carba NP (CNP) as confirmatory test for carbapenemase production. The reagents required for CNP test are costly and hence the test cannot be performed on a routine basis. The present study evaluates modifications of CNP test for rapid detection of carbapenemases among GNB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The GNB were screened for carbapenemase production using CNP, CarbAcineto NP (CANP), and modified CNP (mCNP) test...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951070/optimizing-empiric-therapy-for-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#15
Y Chao, C Reuter, L K Kociolek, R Patel, X Zheng, S J Patel
Antimicrobial stewardship can be challenging in children with bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). This retrospective cohort study explored how data elements in the electronic health record could potentially optimize empiric antibiotic therapy for BSIs caused by GNB, via the construction of customized antibiograms for categorical GNB infections and identification of opportunities to minimize organism-drug mismatch and decrease time to effective therapy. Our results suggest potential strategies that could be implemented at key decision points in prescribing at initiation, modification, and targeting of therapy...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946105/risk-of-drug-resistance-in-repeat-gram-negative-infections-among-patients-with-multiple-hospitalizations
#16
Mansi Agarwal, Elaine L Larson
PURPOSE: Drug resistance in gram-negative bacterial hospital-acquired infections (GNB HAIs) has become ubiquitous in recent years. Patients who experience multiple hospitalizations are at high risk of developing repeat GNB HAIs. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between repeat GNB HAIs and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. METHODS: Using electronic medical records from three hospitals, 4053 patients were identified with at least one HAI caused by K...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943144/the-epidemiology-antibiograms-and-predictors-of-mortality-among-critically-ill-patients-with-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections
#17
Shin-Huei Kuo, Wei-Ru Lin, Jun-You Lin, Chung-Hao Huang, Ya-Ting Jao, Pei-Wen Yang, Jong-Rung Tsai, Wen-Hung Wang, Yen-Hsu Chen, Ching-Tzu Hung, Po-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: For high risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in patients of intensive care units (ICUs) and scarcely epidemiology and therapeutic recommendations in Asia, we aimed to evaluate the annual change in epidemiology, antibiogram, and risk factors for 14-day mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study of ICUs patients with CLABSIs at a medical center in Taiwan (2010-2016), where central line care bundle implemented since 2014, by reviewing clinical data, pathogens, and the antibiogram...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941633/sustained-pediatric-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-with-consultation-to-infectious-diseases-reduced-carbapenem-resistance-and-infection-related-mortality
#18
Yuho Horikoshi, Junichi Suwa, Hiroshi Higuchi, Tetsuji Kaneko, Mihoko Furuichi, Yuta Aizawa, Kahoru Fukuoka, Kaoru Okazaki, Kenta Ito, Takayo Shoji
OBJECTIVE: The impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the AMR for carbapenem of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem use with infectious diseases consultation after the implementation of an ASP. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. The pre- and post-intervention periods were April 2010 to September 2011 and October 2011 to March 2017, respectively...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904017/eliciting-improved-antibacterial-efficacy-of-host-proteins-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#19
Joanna Jammal, Fadia Zaknoon, Amram Mor
We recently reported the aptitude of a membrane-active lipopeptide (C10OOc12O) to sensitize gram-negative bacilli (GNB) to host antibacterial proteins. Here we explored the potential of harnessing such capacity in the presence of antibiotics. For this purpose, we compared Escherichia coli sensitization to antibiotics in broth and plasma; assessed inner and outer membrane damages using scanning electron microscopy, dyes, and mutant strains; and assessed the ability to affect disease course using the mouse peritonitis-sepsis model for mono- and combination therapies...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877514/fast-gaussian-na%C3%A3-ve-bayes-for-searchlight-classification-analysis
#20
Marlis Ontivero-Ortega, Agustin Lage-Castellanos, Giancarlo Valente, Rainer Goebel, Mitchell Valdes-Sosa
The searchlight technique is a variant of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) that examines neural activity across large sets of small regions, exhaustively covering the whole brain. This usually involves application of classifier algorithms across all searchlights, which entails large computational costs especially when testing the statistical significance of the accuracies with permutation methods. In this article, a new implementation of the Gaussian Naive Bayes classifier is presented (henceforth massive-GNB)...
September 3, 2017: NeuroImage
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