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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317852/a-novel-biocontainment-strategy-makes-bacterial-growth-and-survival-dependent-on-phosphite
#1
Ryuichi Hirota, Kenji Abe, Zen-Ichiro Katsuura, Reiji Noguchi, Shigeaki Moribe, Kei Motomura, Takenori Ishida, Maxym Alexandrov, Hisakage Funabashi, Takeshi Ikeda, Akio Kuroda
There is a growing demand to develop biocontainment strategies that prevent unintended proliferation of genetically modified organisms in the open environment. We found that the hypophosphite (H3PO2, HPt) transporter HtxBCDE from Pseudomonas stutzeri WM88 was also capable of transporting phosphite (H3PO3, Pt) but not phosphate (H3PO4, Pi), suggesting the potential for engineering a Pt/HPt-dependent bacterial strain as a biocontainment strategy. We disrupted all Pi and organic Pi transporters in an Escherichia coli strain expressing HtxABCDE and a Pt dehydrogenase, leaving Pt/HPt uptake and oxidation as the only means to obtain Pi...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317091/staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-in-atopic-eczema-and-its-association-with-filaggrin-gene-mutations
#2
M-L Clausen, S M Edslev, P S Andersen, K Clemmensen, K A Krogfelt, T Agner
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent disease with significant impact on physical health and quality of life. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has been directly correlated to disease severity, and may also be a contributing causal factor in the pathogenesis of AD. The primary aim of the present study was to assess differences in S. aureus colonization in AD patients with and without filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations. Secondarily, to assess disease severity in relation to S. aureus colonization...
March 19, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317028/mycobacterial-caseinolytic-protease-gene-regulator-clgr-is-a-substrate-of-caseinolytic-protease
#3
Yoshiyuki Yamada, Thomas Dick
The mycobacterial caseinolytic protease ClpP1P2 is a degradative protease that recently gained interest as a genetically and pharmacologically validated drug target for tuberculosis. The first whole-cell active ClpP1P2 inhibitor, the human proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, is currently undergoing lead optimization to introduce selectivity for the bacterial target. How inhibition of ClpP1P2 translates into whole-cell antimicrobial activity is little understood. Previous work has shown that the caseinolytic protease gene regulator ClgR is an activator of the clpP1P2 genes and also suggested that this transcription factor may be a substrate of the protease...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316324/spatial-organization-of-dna-sequences-directs-the-assembly-of-bacterial-chromatin-by-a-nucleoid-associated-protein
#4
Aleksandre Japarize, Sylvain Renevey, Parick Sobetzko, Liubov Stoliar, William Nasser, Giovanni Dietler, Georgi Muskhelishvili
Structural differentiation of bacterial chromatin depends on cooperative binding of abundant nucleoid-associated proteins at numerous genomic DNA sites and stabilization of distinct long-range nucleoprotein structures. Histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS) is an abundant DNA-bridging, nucleoid-associated protein that binds to an AT rich conserved DNA sequence motif and regulates both the shape and the genetic expression of the bacterial chromosome. Although there is ample evidence that the mode of H-NS binding depends on environmental conditions, the role of the spatial organization of H-NS binding sequences in the assembly of long-range nucleoprotein structures remains unknown...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316093/morphology-heterogeneity-within-a-campylobacter-jejuni-helical-population-the-use-of-calcofluor-white-to-generate-rod-shaped-c-jejuni-81-176-clones-and-the-genetic-determinants-responsible-for-differences-in-morphology-within-11168-strains
#5
Emilisa Frirdich, Jacob Biboy, Steven Huynh, Craig T Parker, Waldemar Vollmer, Erin C Gaynor
Campylobacter jejuni helical shape is important for colonization and host interactions with straight mutants having altered biological properties. Passage on calcofluor white (CFW) resulted in C. jejuni 81-176 isolates with morphology changes: either a straight morphology from frameshift mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in peptidoglycan hydrolase genes pgp1 or pgp2 or a reduction in curvature due a frameshift mutation in cjj81176_1105, a putative peptidoglycan endopeptidase. Shape defects were restored by complementation...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315412/engineering-bacterial-translation-initiation-do-we-have-all-the-tools-we-need
#6
REVIEW
Justin Vigar, Hans-Joachim Wieden
BACKGROUND: Reliable tools that allow precise and predictable control over gene expression are critical for the success of nearly all bioengineering applications. Translation initiation is the most regulated phase during protein biosynthesis, and is therefore a promising target for exerting control over gene expression. At the translational level, the copy number of a protein can be fine-tuned by altering the interaction between the translation initiation region of an mRNA and the ribosome...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315387/functional-role-of-ompf-and-ompc-porins-in-pathogenesis-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Hassan M A Hejair, Yingchu Zhu, Jiale Ma, Yue Zhang, Zihao Pan, Wei Zhang, Huochun Yao
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causes systemic infections in avian species and large economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. The functional role of porins during the infection and their mechanisms of interaction with host tissues for adhesion to and invasion are poorly understood. However, whether porins play a role in infection remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the potential of ompF and ompC outer membrane porins in the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain TW-XM...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314395/response-of-the-bacterial-community-in-oil-contaminated-marine-water-to-the-addition-of-chemical-and-biological-dispersants
#8
Camila Rattes de Almeida Couto, Diogo de Azevedo Jurelevicius, Vanessa Marques Alvarez, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Lucy Seldin
The use of dispersants in different stages of the oil production chain and for the remediation of water and soil is a well established practice. However, the choice for a chemical or biological dispersant is still a controversial subject. Chemical surfactants that persist long in the environment may pose problems of toxicity themselves; therefore, biosurfactants are considered to constitute an environmentally friendly and effective alternative. Nevertheless, the putative effects of such agents on the microbiomes of oil-contaminated and uncontaminated marine environments have not been sufficiently evaluated...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304213/characterization-of-the-genetic-environment-of-the-blaveb-4-gene-associated-with-a-transposable-region-in-a-proteus-mirabilis-clinical-isolate
#9
Paula Espinal, Elisenda Miró, Laia Ramoneda, Manel Flores, Alba Rivera, Pere Coll, Ferran Navarro
Proteus mirabilis is the second most common cause of urinary tract infections and is also an important cause of nosocomial infections. TEM-type and CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the most widely distributed in this bacterial species, but minor ESBLs such as the VEB-type have also been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic environment of the blaVEB-4 gene found in a P. mirabilis clinical isolate recovered in Spain. P. mirabilis N2231 showed resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides, remaining susceptible to imipenem, cefoxitin, β-lactamases inhibitors, and quinolones...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303131/multiplexed-single-intact-cell-droplet-digital-pcr-music-ddpcr-method-for-specific-detection-of-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-ehec-in-food-enrichment-cultures
#10
Tanis C McMahon, Burton W Blais, Alex Wong, Catherine D Carrillo
Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302109/interaction-of-cd14-haplotypes-and-soluble-cd14-on-pulmonary-function-in-agricultural-workers
#11
Tricia D LeVan, Lynette M Smith, Art J Heires, Ted R Mikuls, Jane L Meza, Lisa A Weissenburger-Moser, Debra J Romberger
BACKGROUND: Agricultural environments are contaminated with organic dusts containing bacterial components. Chronic inhalation of organic dusts is implicated in respiratory diseases. CD14 is a critical receptor for gram-negative lipopolysaccharide; however, its association with respiratory disease among agricultural workers is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine if serum soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels are associated with lung function among agricultural workers and if this association is modified by genetic variants in CD14...
March 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301990/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#12
Lene Fogt Lundbo, Thomas Benfield
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is a significant burden of disease and mortality in all age groups worldwide despite the development of effective conjugated vaccines. The pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is based on complex and incompletely understood host-pathogen interactions. Some of these are pathogen-specific, while some are shared between different bacteria. METHODS: We searched the database PubMed to identify host risk factors for bacterial meningitis caused by the pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b, because they are three most common causative bacteria beyond the neonatal period...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301551/development-of-the-full-length-cdna-clones-of-two-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-disease-virus-isolates-with-different-virulence
#13
Jie Li, Zhonghui Jin, Yueyi Gao, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
The recently emerged highly virulent variants of porcine epidemic and diarrhea virus (PEDV) remain a huge threat to the worldwide swine industry. Here, we describe the development of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) reverse genetics system for PEDV based on two recent Chinese field isolates, namely CHM2013 and BJ2011C. Phylogenetically, CHM2013 is closely related to the vaccine strain SM98 whereas the isolate BJ2011C belongs to the GIIb group, a cluster that contains many recent pandemic strains. The full-length cDNA clones of the two isolates were constructed into BAC under the control of CMV promoter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301232/molecular-characterization-of-hemorrhagic-enteritis-viruses-hev-detected-in-hev-vaccinated-commercial-turkey-flocks-in-germany
#14
Tamiru Negash Alkie, Ronald Guenther, Silke Rautenschlein
Despite the application of live hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) vaccines, HEV field outbreaks are suspected to still occur in turkey flocks in Germany. Increasing secondary bacterial infections in HEV-vaccinated flocks suggest that vaccines may be losing efficacy or, possibly, that vaccine strains are causing disease. Thus, the goal of the current study was to investigate the diversity of HEV isolates from fattening turkey flocks between 2008 and 2012 by characterizing the open reading frame (ORF)1 gene at its 5' and 3' ends...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299285/a-genetic-screen-reveals-novel-targets-to-render-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sensitive-to-lysozyme-and-cell-wall-targeting-antibiotics
#15
Kang-Mu Lee, Keehoon Lee, Junhyeok Go, In Ho Park, Jeon-Soo Shin, Jae Young Choi, Hyun Jik Kim, Sang Sun Yoon
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of establishing airway infections. Human airway mucus contains a large amount of lysozyme, which hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls. P. aeruginosa, however, is known to be resistant to lysozyme. Here, we performed a genetic screen using a mutant library of PAO1, a prototype P. aeruginosa strain, and identified two mutants (ΔbamB and ΔfabY) that exhibited decrease in survival after lysozyme treatment. The bamB and fabY genes encode an outer membrane assembly protein and a fatty acid synthesis enzyme, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299197/new-insights-into-bacterial-type-ii-polyketide-biosynthesis
#16
REVIEW
Zhuan Zhang, Hai-Xue Pan, Gong-Li Tang
Bacterial aromatic polyketides, exemplified by anthracyclines, angucyclines, tetracyclines, and pentangular polyphenols, are a large family of natural products with diverse structures and biological activities and are usually biosynthesized by type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). Since the starting point of biosynthesis and combinatorial biosynthesis in 1984-1985, there has been a continuous effort to investigate the biosynthetic logic of aromatic polyketides owing to the urgent need of developing promising therapeutic candidates from these compounds...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298180/bacterial-protein-meta-interactomes-predict-cross-species-interactions-and-protein-function
#17
J Harry Caufield, Christopher Wimble, Semarjit Shary, Stefan Wuchty, Peter Uetz
BACKGROUND: Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) can offer compelling evidence for protein function, especially when viewed in the context of proteome-wide interactomes. Bacteria have been popular subjects of interactome studies: more than six different bacterial species have been the subjects of comprehensive interactome studies while several more have had substantial segments of their proteomes screened for interactions. The protein interactomes of several bacterial species have been completed, including several from prominent human pathogens...
March 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297714/root-microbiota-drive-direct-integration-of-phosphate-stress-and-immunity
#18
Gabriel Castrillo, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Sur Herrera Paredes, Theresa F Law, Laura de Lorenzo, Meghan E Feltcher, Omri M Finkel, Natalie W Breakfield, Piotr Mieczkowski, Corbin D Jones, Javier Paz-Ares, Jeffery L Dangl
Plants live in biogeochemically diverse soils with diverse microbiota. Plant organs associate intimately with a subset of these microbes, and the structure of the microbial community can be altered by soil nutrient content. Plant-associated microbes can compete with the plant and with each other for nutrients, but may also carry traits that increase the productivity of the plant. It is unknown how the plant immune system coordinates microbial recognition with nutritional cues during microbiome assembly. Here we establish that a genetic network controlling the phosphate stress response influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296889/investigation-of-bacterial-communities-within-the-digestive-organs-of-the-hydrothermal-vent-shrimp-rimicaris-exoculata-provide-insights-into-holobiont-geographic-clustering
#19
Dominique A Cowart, Lucile Durand, Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita, Sophie Arnaud-Haond
Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection) of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296576/competition-for-amino-acid-flux-among-translation-growth-and-detoxification-in-bacteria
#20
Iolanda Ferro, Irina Chelysheva, Zoya Ignatova
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are central entities for translation that deliver amino acids to the ribosome to translate genetic information in an mRNA-template dependent manner. Recent discoveries from our laboratory show that in E. coli and B. licheniformis, some tRNAs are poorly charged despite the plentiful intracellular cognate amino acid. Specifically, tRNAs carrying amino acids that exert toxicity and inhibit bacterial growth when added separately to the growth medium are poorly charged. Here, we discuss various evolutionary strategies different bacterial cells have adopted to precisely hone the competition between amino acid utilization for translation and proliferation and combat the inhibitory effect towards maximizing bacterial fitness...
March 15, 2017: RNA Biology
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