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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914159/-molecular-mechanisms-for-adhesion-and-colonization-of-human-gastric-mucosa-by-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Elisabete Coelho, Ana Magalhães, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Celso A Reis
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis cascade, being one of the main risk factors for the development of gastric carcinoma. Several factors are determinant for the infection and for the development of gastric disease, including environmental factors, host genetic factors and virulence factors of the bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the determinants of the infection and on the recently described molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa, as well as its possible future therapeutic application...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913792/genetic-engineering-approach-to-develop-next-generation-reagents-for-endotoxin-quantification
#2
Hikaru Mizumura, Norihiko Ogura, Jun Aketagawa, Maki Aizawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata, Toshio Oda
The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913461/primary-immune-deficiencies-with-defects-in-neutrophil-function
#3
Mary C Dinauer
Immune deficiencies resulting from inherited defects in neutrophil function have revealed important features of the innate immune response. Although sharing an increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, these disorders each have distinctive features in their clinical manifestations and characteristic microbial pathogens. This review provides an update on several genetic disorders with impaired neutrophil function, their pathogenesis, and treatment strategies. These include chronic granulomatous disease, which results from inactivating mutations in the superoxide-generating nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate oxidase...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913448/targeting-inflammation-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Jelena Todoric, Laura Antonucci, Michael Karin
Inflammation is associated with the development and malignant progression of most cancers. As most of the cell types involved in cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913416/mutagenesis-of-nosm-leader-peptide-reveals-important-elements-in-nosiheptide-biosynthesis
#5
Liang Jin, Xuri Wu, Yanjiu Xue, Yue Jin, Shuzhen Wang, Yijun Chen
: Nosiheptide, a typical member of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), exhibits potent activity against multi-drug resistant Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The precursor peptide of nosiheptide (NosM) is comprised of a leader peptide with 37 amino acids and a core peptide containing 13 amino acids. To pinpoint essential elements in the leader peptide for nosithpetide biosynthesis, a collection of mutants with unique sequence features, including N- and C-terminal motifs, peptide length as well as specific sites in the leader peptide, was generated by mutagenesis in vivo The effects of various mutants on nosiheptide biosynthesis were evaluated...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913304/effects-of-nongenetic-factors-on-immune-cell-dynamics-in-early-childhood-the-generation-r-study
#6
Diana van den Heuvel, Michelle A E Jansen, Kazem Nasserinejad, Willem A Dik, Ellen G van Lochem, Liesbeth E Bakker-Jonges, Halima Bouallouch-Charif, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Herbert Hooijkaas, Jacques J M van Dongen, Henriëtte A Moll, Menno C van Zelm
BACKGROUND: . Numbers of blood leukocyte subsets are highly dynamic in childhood and differ greatly between individuals. Inter-individual variation is only partly accounted for by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: Determine which nongenetic factors affect the dynamics of innate leukocytes, and naive and memory lymphocyte subsets. METHODS: . We performed six-color flow cytometry and linear mixed effect modeling to define the dynamics of 62 leukocyte subsets from birth to 6 years of age in 1,182 children with one to five measurements per individual...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913191/the-shedding-derived-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-endproducts-sustains-inflammation-during-acute-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infection
#7
Antonella Antonelli, Stefania Di Maggio, Joanna Rejman, Francesca Sanvito, Alice Rossi, Alessandro Catucci, Andrea Gorzanelli, Alessandra Bragonzi, Marco E Bianchi, Angela Raucci
BACKGROUND: The membrane-bound isoform of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (FL-RAGE) is primarily expressed by alveolar epithelial cells and undergoes shedding by the protease ADAM10, giving rise to soluble cleaved RAGE (cRAGE). RAGE has been associated with the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic lung disorders. Whether the proteolysis of FL-RAGE is altered by a given inflammatory stimulus is unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients and is the major pathogen associated with chronic lung diseases...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912842/the-rapid-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#8
REVIEW
Robert F Potter, Alaric W D'Souza, Gautam Dantas
Carbapenems, our one-time silver bullet for multidrug resistant bacterial infections, are now threatened by widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Successful expansion of Enterobacteriaceae clonal groups and frequent horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase expressing plasmids are causing increasing carbapenem resistance. Recent advances in genetic and phenotypic detection facilitate global surveillance of CRE diversity and prevalence. In particular, whole genome sequencing enabled efficient tracking, annotation, and study of genetic elements colocalized with carbapenemase genes on chromosomes and on plasmids...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912785/transmission-of-viruses-via-our-microbiomes
#9
Melissa Ly, Marcus B Jones, Shira R Abeles, Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Jonathan Gao, Ivan C Chan, Chandrabali Ghose, David T Pride
BACKGROUND: Bacteria inhabiting the human body have important roles in a number of physiological processes and are known to be shared amongst genetically-related individuals. Far less is known about viruses inhabiting the human body, but their ecology suggests they may be shared between close contacts. RESULTS: Here, we report the ecology of viruses in the guts and mouths of a cohort and demonstrate that substantial numbers of gut and oral viruses were shared amongst genetically unrelated, cohabitating individuals...
December 2, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912729/genomic-insights-from-whole-genome-sequencing-of-four-clonal-outbreak-campylobacter-jejuni-assessed-within-the-global-c-jejuni-population
#10
Clifford G Clark, Chrystal Berry, Matthew Walker, Aaron Petkau, Dillon O R Barker, Cai Guan, Aleisha Reimer, Eduardo N Taboada
BACKGROUND: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is useful for determining clusters of human cases, investigating outbreaks, and defining the population genetics of bacteria. It also provides information about other aspects of bacterial biology, including classical typing results, virulence, and adaptive strategies of the organism. Cell culture invasion and protein expression patterns of four related multilocus sequence type 21 (ST21) C. jejuni isolates from a significant Canadian water-borne outbreak were previously associated with the presence of a CJIE1 prophage...
December 3, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912064/modular-assembly-of-the-bacterial-large-ribosomal-subunit
#11
Joseph H Davis, Yong Zi Tan, Bridget Carragher, Clinton S Potter, Dmitry Lyumkis, James R Williamson
The ribosome is a complex macromolecular machine and serves as an ideal system for understanding biological macromolecular assembly. Direct observation of ribosome assembly in vivo is difficult, as few intermediates have been isolated and thoroughly characterized. Herein, we deploy a genetic system to starve cells of an essential ribosomal protein, which results in the accumulation of assembly intermediates that are competent for maturation. Quantitative mass spectrometry and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reveal 13 distinct intermediates, which were each resolved to ∼4-5 Å resolution and could be placed in an assembly pathway...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911803/genomic-sequencing-based-mutational-enrichment-analysis-identifies-motility-genes-in-a-genetically-intractable-gut-microbe
#12
Sena Bae, Olaf Mueller, Sandi Wong, John F Rawls, Raphael H Valdivia
A major roadblock to understanding how microbes in the gastrointestinal tract colonize and influence the physiology of their hosts is our inability to genetically manipulate new bacterial species and experimentally assess the function of their genes. We describe the application of population-based genomic sequencing after chemical mutagenesis to map bacterial genes responsible for motility in Exiguobacterium acetylicum, a representative intestinal Firmicutes bacterium that is intractable to molecular genetic manipulation...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911800/an-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-hydrolase-fold-protein-in-the-biosynthesis-of-thiostrepton-exhibits-a-dual-activity-for-endopeptidyl-hydrolysis-and-epoxide-ring-opening-macrocyclization
#13
Qingfei Zheng, Shoufeng Wang, Panpan Duan, Rijing Liao, Dandan Chen, Wen Liu
Thiostrepton (TSR), an archetypal bimacrocyclic thiopeptide antibiotic that arises from complex posttranslational modifications of a genetically encoded precursor peptide, possesses a quinaldic acid (QA) moiety within the side-ring system of a thiopeptide-characteristic framework. Focusing on selective engineering of the QA moiety, i.e., by fluorination or methylation, we have recently designed and biosynthesized biologically more active TSR analogs. Using these analogs as chemical probes, we uncovered an unusual indirect mechanism of TSR-type thiopeptides, which are able to act against intracellular pathogens through host autophagy induction in addition to direct targeting of bacterial ribosome...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911359/directed-protein-packaging-within-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-escherichia-coli-design-production-and-purification
#14
Nathan J Alves, Kendrick B Turner, Scott A Walper
An increasing interest in applying synthetic biology techniques to program outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are leading to some very interesting and unique applications for OMV where traditional nanoparticles are proving too difficult to synthesize. To date, all Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to produce OMV demonstrating packaging of a variety of cargo that includes small molecules, peptides, proteins and genetic material. Based on their diverse cargo, OMV are implicated in many biological processes ranging from cell-cell communication to gene transfer and delivery of virulence factors depending upon which bacteria are producing the OMV...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910897/genomic-variations-leading-to-alterations-in-cell-morphology-of-campylobacter-spp
#15
Diane Esson, Alison E Mather, Eoin Scanlan, Srishti Gupta, Stefan P W de Vries, David Bailey, Simon R Harris, Trevelyan J McKinley, Guillaume Méric, Sophia K Berry, Pietro Mastroeni, Samuel K Sheppard, Graham Christie, Nicholas R Thomson, Julian Parkhill, Duncan J Maskell, Andrew J Grant
Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease, is normally helical. However, it can also adopt straight rod, elongated helical and coccoid forms. Studying how helical morphology is generated, and how it switches between its different forms, is an important objective for understanding this pathogen. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic factors involved in generating the helical shape of Campylobacter. A C. jejuni transposon (Tn) mutant library was screened for non-helical mutants with inconsistent results...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910884/the-hha-tomb-toxin-antitoxin-system-shows-conditional-toxicity-and-promotes-persister-cell-formation-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-like-death-in-s-typhimurium
#16
Sangeeta Jaiswal, Prajita Paul, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Shilpa Ray, Daniel Ryan, Shantoshini Dash, Mrutyunjay Suar
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two component "addictive" genetic elements found on either plasmid or bacterial chromosome, sometimes on both. TA systems perform a wide range of functions like biofilm formation, persistence, programmed cell death, phage abortive infection etc. Salmonella has been reported to contain several such TA systems. However, the hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) and its adjacent uncharacterized hypothetical protein TomB (previously known as YbaJ), have not been listed as a TA module in Salmonella...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909795/altered-gut-microbiota-in-ra-implications-for-treatment
#17
Y Kang, Y Cai, X Zhang, X Kong, J Su
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with progressive joint disorder. The complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences is important for the development of the disease. A growing body of evidence has shed light on the association of dysbiosis of gut microbiota with RA. Certain gut microbial strains have been shown to inhibit or attenuate immune responses in RA experimental models, suggesting that specific species among intestinal commensal bacteria may play either a pathogenic or a protective role in the development of RA...
December 1, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909431/the-microbiota-of-recreational-freshwaters-and-the-implications-for-environmental-and-public-health
#18
Chang Soo Lee, Minseok Kim, Cheonghoon Lee, Zhongtang Yu, Jiyoung Lee
The microbial communities in recreational freshwaters play important roles in both environmental and public health perspectives. In this study, the bacterial community structure and its associations with freshwater environments were investigated by analyzing the summertime microbiomes of three beach waters in Ohio (East Fork, Delaware, and Madison lakes) together with environmental and microbial water quality parameters. From the swimming season of 2009, 21 water samples were collected from the three freshwater beaches...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907971/-interpretation-of-bacterial-susceptibility-resistance-to-antibiotics
#19
Milan Kolář
Bacterial resistance may be defined from a microbiological, clinical and pharmacological perspective. Microbiological resistance refers to the presence of genetic information coding for the relevant mechanism of resistance of a bacterium to a particular antibiotic. In case of clinical interpretation, breakpoints are of key importance as their role is to distinguish bacterial pathogens in which successful therapy is highly probable from isolates with a high likelihood of failure. However, it is questionable whether this approach is suitable for all patients, particularly those receiving intensive care for life-threatening infections...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906649/a-common-bacterial-metabolite-elicits-prion-based-bypass-of-glucose-repression
#20
David M Garcia, David Dietrich, Jon Clardy, Daniel F Jarosz
Robust preference for fermentative glucose metabolism has motivated domestication of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This program can be circumvented by a protein-based genetic element, the [GAR(+)] prion, permitting simultaneous metabolism of glucose and other carbon sources. Diverse bacteria can elicit yeast cells to acquire [GAR(+)], although the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. Here we identify the common bacterial metabolite lactic acid as a strong [GAR(+)] inducer. Transient exposure to lactic acid caused yeast cells to heritably circumvent glucose repression...
November 29, 2016: ELife
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