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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452355/culture-facilitated-comparative-genomics-of-the-facultative-symbiont-hamiltonella-defensa
#1
Germain Chevignon, Bret M Boyd, Jayce W Brandt, Kerry M Oliver, Michael R Strand
Many insects host facultative, bacterial symbionts that confer conditional fitness benefits to their hosts. Hamiltonella defensa is a common facultative symbiont of aphids that provides protection against parasitoid wasps. Protection levels vary among strains of H. defensa that are also differentially infected by bacteriophages named APSEs. However, little is known about trait variation among strains because only one isolate has been fully sequenced. Generating complete genomes for facultative symbionts is hindered by relatively large genome sizes but low abundances in hosts like aphids that are very small...
February 14, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452293/genetic-diversity-and-functional-analysis-of-oipa-gene-in-association-with-other-virulence-factors-among-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-iranian-patients-with-different-gastric-diseases
#2
Nastaran Farzi, Abbas Yadegar, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Yoshio Yamaoka, Mohammad Reza Zali
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most genetically diverse bacterial pathogens that persistently colonizes the human gastric epithelium. This remarkable genomic plasticity may act as a driving force for successful adaptation and persistence of the bacteria in the harsh gastric environment. Outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) encoded by oipA gene (HP0638/hopH) is a member of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H. pylori involved in induction of IL-8 secretion and is associated with development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer...
February 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451376/-phage-therapy-an-alternative-to-antibiotic-therapy
#3
REVIEW
J Reina, N Reina
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and parasitize bacteria. They can present a lytic cycle that determines the lysis of the infected bacteria. Each phage is specific to a particular bacterial genus or species. The current increase in the incidence of antibiotic resistance in human bacteria has favored the study of phages as a therapeutic alternative (phage therapy). Previous studies have shown the efficacy of these elements in cutaneous and intestinal infections. Different clinical trials are underway to establish the safety, reactogenicity and therapeutic efficacy of multiple phage...
February 16, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450440/injection-molded-lab-on-a-disc-platform-for-screening-of-genetically-modified-e-coli-using-liquid-liquid-extraction-and-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#4
Lidia Morelli, Laura Serioli, Francesca Alessandra Centorbi, Christian Bille Jendresen, Marco Matteucci, Oleksii Ilchenko, Danilo Demarchi, Alex Toftgaard Nielsen, Kinga Zór, Anja Boisen
We present the development of an automated centrifugal microfluidic platform with integrated sample pre-treatment (filtration and liquid-liquid extraction) and detection (SERS-based sensing). The platform consists of eight calibration and four assay modules, fabricated with polypropylene using injection molding and bonded with ultrasonic welding. The platform was used for detection of a secondary bacterial metabolite (p-coumaric acid) from bacterial supernatant. The obtained extraction efficiency was comparable to values obtained in batch experiments and the SERS-based sensing showed a good correlation with HPLC analysis...
February 16, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449837/cyclic-di-gmp-and-oprf-are-involved-in-the-response-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-to-substrate-material-stiffness-during-attachment-on-polydimethylsiloxane-pdms
#5
Fangchao Song, Hao Wang, Karin Sauer, Dacheng Ren
Recently, we reported that the stiffness of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) affects the attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and the morphology and antibiotic susceptibility of attached cells. To further understand how P. aeruginosa responses to material stiffness during attachment, the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 and several isogenic mutants were characterized for their attachment on soft and stiff PDMS. Compared to the wild-type strain, mutation of the oprF gene abolished the differences in attachment, growth, and size of attached cells between soft and stiff PDMS surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449565/amphibian-chytridiomycosis-outbreak-dynamics-are-linked-with-host-skin-bacterial-community-structure
#6
Kieran A Bates, Frances C Clare, Simon O'Hanlon, Jaime Bosch, Lola Brookes, Kevin Hopkins, Emilia J McLaughlin, Olivia Daniel, Trenton W J Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Xavier A Harrison
Host-associated microbes are vital for combatting infections and maintaining health. In amphibians, certain skin-associated bacteria inhibit the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), yet our understanding of host microbial ecology and its role in disease outbreaks is limited. We sampled skin-associated bacteria and Bd from Pyrenean midwife toad populations exhibiting enzootic or epizootic disease dynamics. We demonstrate that bacterial communities differ between life stages with few shared taxa, indicative of restructuring at metamorphosis...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449488/natural-noncanonical-protein-splicing-yields-products-with-diverse-%C3%AE-amino-acid-residues
#7
Brandon I Morinaka, Edgars Lakis, Marjan Verest, Maximilian J Helf, Thibault Scalvenzi, Anna L Vagstad, James Sims, Shinichi Sunagawa, Muriel Gugger, Jörn Piel
Current textbook knowledge holds that the structural scope of ribosomal biosynthesis is based exclusively on α-amino acid backbone topology. Here we report the genome-guided discovery of bacterial pathways that posttranslationally create β-amino acid-containing products. The transformation is widespread in bacteria and is catalyzed by an enzyme belonging to a previously uncharacterized radical S -adenosylmethionine family. We show that the β-amino acids result from an unusual protein splicing process involving backbone carbon-carbon bond cleavage and net excision of tyramine...
February 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449116/chronic-impacts-of-oxytetracycline-on-mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-of-excess-sludge-inhibition-of-hydrolytic-acidification-and-enrichment-of-antibiotic-resistome
#8
Zhe Tian, Yu Zhang, Min Yang
We evaluated the chronic impact of oxytetracycline (OTC) on performance and antibiotic resistance development during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of antibiotic-containing biomass. Mesophilic AD was conducted in a completely stirred tank reactor by constantly feeding municipal excess sludge spiked with increasing concentrations of OTC (0-1000 mg L -1 ) under a solid retention time of 20 days over a period of 265 days. Results showed that methane generation of mesophilic AD was inhibited when the OTC concentration in digested sludge was increased to around 18,000 mg kg -1 (OTC dose, 1000 mg L -1 ), due to the inhibition of fermenting and acidogenic bacteria...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448209/metagenomic-analysis-revealed-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-gut-and-living-environment-of-freshwater-shrimp
#9
Yanting Zhao, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Zhonghua Zhao, Cuilan Duan, Huangen Chen, Miaomiao Wang, Hongqiang Ren, Ying Yin, Lin Ye
Antibiotic resistance disseminating from animals and their environments is a public issue that poses significant threats to human health. In the present study, the diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in 15 samples from the guts and related aquaculture environments (water and sediment) of shrimp were investigated. In total, 60 ARGs, 102 ARGs and 67 ARGs primarily belonging to 13, 15 and 15 different types were detected in the shrimp gut, pond water and sediment samples, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448190/gene-expression-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-exposed-to-hydroxyl-radicals
#10
Noa Aharoni, Hadas Mamane, Dvora Biran, Anat Lakretz, Eliora Z Ron
Recent studies have shown the efficiency of hydroxyl radicals generated via ultraviolet (UV)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) combined with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ) as a treatment process in water. The effects of AOP treatments on bacterial gene expression was examined using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as a model-organism bacterium. Many bacterial genes are not expressed all the time, but their expression is regulated. The regulation is at the beginning of the gene, in a genetic region called "promoter" and affects the level of transcription (synthesis of messenger RNA) and translation (synthesis of protein)...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447690/autophagy-suicide-prevention-hotline-for-the-gut-epithelium
#11
Mayara Grizotte-Lake, Shipra Vaishnava
Autophagy is genetically associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, its role remains unclear in disease pathogenesis. Three recent studies reveal a novel cytoprotective role of autophagy during viral, bacterial, and protozoan-triggered IBD (Burger et al., 2018; Matsuzawa-Ishimoto et al., 2017; Pott et al., 2018).
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447689/botulinum-neurotoxins-still-a-privilege-of-clostridia
#12
Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent bacterial toxins mostly produced by genetically diverse clostridial strains. Recently, BoNT variants have been reported in non-clostridial strains. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Zhang et al. (2018) describe a novel BoNT in Entecoccus faecium.
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446806/divergent-functional-roles-of-d-amino-acids-secreted-by-vibrio-cholerae
#13
REVIEW
Felipe Cava
The L-forms of amino acids are used in all kingdoms of life to synthesize proteins. However, the bacterium Vibriocholerae, the causative agent of cholera, produces D-amino acids which are released to the environment at millimolar concentrations. We baptized these D-amino acids as non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAAs) since they are different from those (i.e. D-alanine and D-glutamate) normally present in the bacterial cell wall. In V. cholerae, production of NCDAAs relies on the BsrV enzyme, a periplasmic broad spectrum racemase...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446803/coordination-between-replication-segregation-and-cell-division-in-multi-chromosomal-bacteria-lessons-from-vibrio-cholerae
#14
REVIEW
Elena Espinosa, François-Xavier Barre, Elisa Galli
Bacteria display a highly flexible cell cycle in which cell division can be temporally disconnected from the replication/segregation cycle of their genome. The accuracy of genetic transmission is enforced by restricting the assembly of the cell division apparatus to the low DNA-density zones that develop between the regularly spaced nucleoids originating from the concurrent replication and segregation of genomic DNA. In most bacteria, the process is simplified because the genome is encoded on a single chromosome...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#15
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446008/enhanced-resistance-to-citrus-canker-in-transgenic-mandarin-expressing-xa21-from-rice
#16
Ahmad A Omar, Mayara M Murata, Hesham A El-Shamy, James H Graham, Jude W Grosser
Genetic engineering approaches offer an alternative method to the conventional breeding of Citrus sp. 'W. Murcott' mandarin (a hybrid of 'Murcott' and an unknown pollen parent) is one of the most commercially important cultivars grown in many regions around the world. Transformation of 'W. Murcott' mandarin was achieved by direct DNA uptake using a protoplast transformation system. DNA construct (pAO3), encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and the cDNA of Xa21, a Xanthomonas resistance gene from rice, was used to transform protoplasts of 'W...
February 14, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445215/origin-evolution-and-distribution-of-the-molecular-machinery-for-biosynthesis-of-sialylated-lipooligosaccharide-structures-in-campylobacter-coli
#17
Alejandra Culebro, Miguel P Machado, João André Carriço, Mirko Rossi
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Additionally, C. jejuni is the most common bacterial etiological agent in the autoimmune Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ganglioside mimicry by C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is the triggering factor of the disease. LOS-associated genes involved in the synthesis and transfer of sialic acid (glycosyltranferases belonging to family GT-42) are essential in C. jejuni to synthesize ganglioside-like LOS...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444955/common-and-divergent-features-of-galactose-1-phosphate-and-fructose-1-phosphate-toxicity-in-yeast
#18
Patrick A Gibney, Ariel Schieler, Jonathan C Chen, Jessie M Bacha-Hummel, Maxim Botstein, Matthew Volpe, Sanford J Silverman, Yifan Xu, Bryson D Bennett, Joshua D Rabinowitz, David Botstein
Toxicity resulting from accumulation of sugar-phosphate molecules is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, observed in multiple bacterial and eukaryotic systems, including a number of human diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in sugar-phosphate toxicity remain unclear. Using the model eukaryote S. cerevisiae , we developed two systems to accumulate human disease-associated sugar-phosphate species. One system utilizes constitutive expression of galactose permease and galactose kinase to accumulate galactose-1-phosphate, while the other system utilizes constitutive expression of a mammalian ketohexokinase gene to accumulate fructose-1-phosphate...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444418/circuitry-rewiring-directly-couples-competence-to-predation-in-the-gut-dweller-streptococcus-salivarius
#19
Johann Mignolet, Laetitia Fontaine, Andrea Sass, Catherine Nannan, Jacques Mahillon, Tom Coenye, Pascal Hols
Small distortions in transcriptional networks might lead to drastic phenotypical changes, especially in cellular developmental programs such as competence for natural transformation. Here, we report a pervasive circuitry rewiring for competence and predation interplay in commensal streptococci. Canonically, in streptococci paradigms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans, the pheromone-based two-component system BlpRH is a central node that orchestrates the production of antimicrobial compounds (bacteriocins) and incorporates signal from the competence activation cascade...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440686/aragwab-network-based-boosting-of-genome-wide-association-studies-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Tak Lee, Insuk Lee
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been applied for the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could not explain all the phenotypic variations. A major reason for missing true phenotype-associated loci is the strict P-value threshold after adjustment for multiple hypothesis tests to reduce false positives. This statistical limitation can be partly overcome by increasing the sample size, but at a much higher cost...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
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