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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054825/integrative-mrna-mirna-interaction-analysis-associate-with-immune-response-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-based-on-transcriptome-database
#1
Xiaoxu Zhou, Yaqing Chang, Yaoyao Zhan, Xiuli Wang, Kai Lin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a family of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have been demonstrated to be the key effectors in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Additionally, high-throughput sequencing provides unexampled opportunities to identify the pathogenic mechanism underlying miRNAs. In the present study, the target genes of immune-related miRNAs (miR-31, miR-2008, miR-92a, miR-210 and miR-7) and specific miRNAs (miR-2004) in Echinodermata were predicted in silico and validated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the target genes of these six miRNAs were conducted to further understand the regulatory function in thehost immunity of Apostichopus japonicus (A...
October 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054300/why-might-bacterial-pathogens-have-small-genomes
#2
REVIEW
Lucy A Weinert, John J Welch
Bacteria that cause serious disease often have smaller genomes, and fewer genes, than their nonpathogenic, or less pathogenic relatives. Here, we review evidence for the generality of this association, and summarise the various reasons why the association might hold. We focus on the population genetic processes that might lead to reductive genome evolution, and show how several of these could be connected to pathogenicity. We find some evidence for most of the processes having acted in bacterial pathogens, including several different modes of genome reduction acting in the same lineage...
October 17, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053146/the-plant-circadian-clock-influences-rhizosphere-community-structure-and-function
#3
Charley J Hubbard, Marcus T Brock, Linda Ta van Diepen, Loïs Maignien, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
Plants alter chemical and physical properties of soil, and thereby influence rhizosphere microbial community structure. The structure of microbial communities may in turn affect plant performance. Yet, outside of simple systems with pairwise interacting partners, the plant genetic pathways that influence microbial community structure remain largely unknown, as are the performance feedbacks of microbial communities selected by the host plant genotype. We investigated the role of the plant circadian clock in shaping rhizosphere community structure and function...
October 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052452/what-is-the-role-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-herpes-virus-infections-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Simone Saintive, Eliane Abad, Dennis de C Ferreira, Mayra Stambovsky, Fernanda S Cavalcante, Lucio S Gonçalves, Fabio Vidal, Katia Rn Dos Santos
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing disease. Genetic, environmental and immunological factors are involved in its pathophysiology. Individuals with AD have an increased predisposition to colonization and/or infection of the skin by various pathogens, especially Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. The composition of their skin microbiome is also different, and changes during flares. The disease severity can be related to the degree of colonization by S. aureus. In addition, the presence of this bacterial species can predispose the host to more severe and disseminated viral infections...
October 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051595/a-virus-carries-a-gene-encoding-juvenile-hormone-acid-methyltransferase-a-key-regulatory-enzyme-in-insect-metamorphosis
#5
Jun Takatsuka, Madoka Nakai, Tetsuro Shinoda
Microbial parasitism, infection, and symbiosis in animals often modulate host endocrine systems, resulting in alterations of phenotypic traits of the host that can have profound effects on the ecology and evolution of both the microorganisms and their hosts. Information about the mechanisms and genetic bases of such modulations by animal parasites is available from studies of steroid hormones. However, reports involving other hormones are scarce. We found that an insect virus, a betaentomopoxvirus, encodes a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase that can synthesize an important insect hormone, the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051490/computational-design-of-small-transcription-activating-rnas-for-versatile-and-dynamic-gene-regulation
#6
James Chappell, Alexandra Westbrook, Matthew Verosloff, Julius B Lucks
A longstanding goal of synthetic biology has been the programmable control of cellular functions. Central to this is the creation of versatile regulatory toolsets that allow for programmable control of gene expression. Of the many regulatory molecules available, RNA regulators offer the intriguing possibility of de novo design-allowing for the bottom-up molecular-level design of genetic control systems. Here we present a computational design approach for the creation of a bacterial regulator called Small Transcription Activating RNAs (STARs) and create a library of high-performing and orthogonal STARs that achieve up to ~ 9000-fold gene activation...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050770/genomic-plasticity-between-human-and-mycobacterial-dna-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Lawal Danjuma, Mok Pooi Ling, Rukman Awang Hamat, Akon Higuchi, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Marlina, Giovanni Benelli, Palanisamy Arulselvan, Mariappan Rajan, Suresh Kumar Subbiah
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a remarkable ability of long-term persistence despite vigorous host immunity and prolonged therapy. The bacteria persist in secure niches such as the mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow and reactivate the disease, leading to therapeutic failure. Many bacterial cells can remain latent within a diseased tissue so that their genetic material can be incorporated into the genetic material of the host tissue. This incorporated genetic material reproduces in a manner similar to that of cellular DNA...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050666/the-contribution-of-bacteriophages-to-the-biology-and-virulence-of-pathogenic-clostridia
#8
Louis-Charles Fortier
Bacteriophages are key players in the evolution of most bacteria. Temperate phages have been associated with virulence of some of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria. Among the most notorious cases, the genes encoding the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and the α-toxin (TcnA) produced by Clostridium novyi are both encoded within prophage genomes. Clostridium difficile is another important human pathogen and the recent identification of a complete binary toxin locus (CdtLoc) carried on a C...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049366/transgenic-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptide-d2a21-confers-resistance-to-diseases-incited-by-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tabaci-and-xanthomonas-citri-but-not-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus
#9
Guixia Hao, Shujian Zhang, Ed Stover
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) and citrus canker disease incited by Xanthomonas citri are the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide. To control citrus HLB and canker disease, we previously screened over forty antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in vitro for their potential application in genetic engineering. D2A21 was one of the most active AMPs against X. citri, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti with low hemolysis activity. Therefore, we conducted this work to assess transgenic expression of D2A21 peptide to achieve citrus resistant to canker and HLB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049360/the-bacterial-virulence-factor-caga-induces-microbial-dysbiosis-that-contributes-to-excessive-epithelial-cell-proliferation-in-the-drosophila-gut
#10
Tiffani Alvey Jones, Diane Z Hernandez, Zoë C Wong, Anica M Wandler, Karen Guillemin
Gut microbiota facilitate many aspects of human health and development, but dysbiotic microbiota can promote hyperplasia and inflammation and contribute to human diseases such as cancer. Human patients infected with the gastric cancer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori have altered microbiota; however, whether dysbiosis contributes to disease in this case is unknown. Many H. pylori human disease phenotypes are associated with a potent virulence protein, CagA, which is translocated into host epithelial cells where it alters cell polarity and manipulates host-signaling pathways to promote disease...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049206/the-molecular-epidemiology-of-respiratory-viruses-associated-with-asthma-attacks-a-single-center-observational-study-in-japan
#11
Takeshi Saraya, Hirokazu Kimura, Daisuke Kurai, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Takizawa
Few reports have described the significance of viral respiratory infections (VRIs) in exacerbation of asthma in adult patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the profiles of VRIs in adult patients with asthma along with their molecular epidemiology.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Kyorin University Hospital from August 2012 to May 2015. To identify respiratory pathogens in inpatients and outpatients suffering from asthma attacks, RT-PCR/sequencing/phylogenetic analysis methods were applied alongside conventional microbiological methods...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045737/comparative-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-of-culex-restuans-diptera-culicidae-females-from-different-parents
#12
Ephantus J Muturi, Jose L Ramirez, Alejandro P Rooney, Chang-Hyun Kim, Brenda Beerntsen
The potential for gut microbiota to impede or enhance pathogen transmission is well-documented but the factors that shape this microbiota in mosquito vectors are poorly understood. We characterized and compared the gut microbiota of adult females of Culex restuans (Theobald; Diptera: Culicidae) from different parents. Cx. restuans larvae from nine field-collected egg rafts were reared on a common diet and gut microbiota of newly emerged adult females characterized by MiSeq sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045691/genetic-dissection-of-arabidopsis-map-kinase-phosphatase-1-dependent-pamp-induced-transcriptional-responses
#13
Lingyan Jiang, Ying Wan, Jeffrey C Anderson, Jie Hou, Soliman M Islam, Jianlin Cheng, Scott C Peck, Katherine Denby
Plant immunity is initiated by extracellular detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRR activation induces many responses including the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that ultimately limit bacterial growth. Previous work identified Arabidopsis MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP1) as a negative regulator of signaling pathways required for some, but not all, of PAMP-initiated responses. Specifically, loss of MAPK MPK6 in an mkp1 background suppressed a subset of the mkp1-dependent biological phenotypes, indicating the requirement for MPK6 in MKP1-dependent signaling...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045151/dynamic-blue-light-inducible-t7-rna-polymerases-opto-t7rnaps-for-precise-spatiotemporal-gene-expression-control
#14
Armin Baumschlager, Stephanie K Aoki, Mustafa Khammash
Light has emerged as a control input for biological systems due to its precise spatiotemporal resolution. The limited toolset for light control in bacteria motivated us to develop a light-inducible transcription system that is independent from cellular regulation through the use of an orthogonal RNA polymerase. Here, we present our engineered blue light-responsive T7 RNA polymerases (Opto-T7RNAPs) that show properties such as low leakiness of gene expression in the dark state, high expression strength when induced with blue light, and an inducible range of more than 300-fold...
October 18, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044211/identification-of-novel-mazef-pemik-family-toxin-antitoxin-loci-and-their-distribution-in-the-staphylococcus-genus
#15
Michal Bukowski, Karolina Hyz, Monika Janczak, Marcin Hydzik, Grzegorz Dubin, Benedykt Wladyka
The versatile roles of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis have been investigated for more than three decades. Diverse TA loci in Bacteria and Archaea have been identified in genome-wide studies. The advent of massive parallel sequencing has substantially expanded the number of known bacterial genomic sequences over the last 5 years. In staphylococci, this has translated into an impressive increase from a few tens to a several thousands of available genomes, which has allowed us for the re-evalution of prior conclusions...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044096/a-homologue-of-the-parkinson-s-disease-associated-protein-lrrk2-undergoes-a-monomer-dimer-transition-during-gtp-turnover
#16
Egon Deyaert, Lina Wauters, Giambattista Guaitoli, Albert Konijnenberg, Margaux Leemans, Susanne Terheyden, Arsen Petrovic, Rodrigo Gallardo, Laura M Nederveen-Schippers, Panagiotis S Athanasopoulos, Henderikus Pots, Peter J M Van Haastert, Frank Sobott, Christian Johannes Gloeckner, Rouslan Efremov, Arjan Kortholt, Wim Versées
Mutations in LRRK2 are a common cause of genetic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a multi-domain Roco protein, harbouring kinase and GTPase activity. In analogy with a bacterial homologue, LRRK2 was proposed to act as a GTPase activated by dimerization (GAD), while recent reports suggest LRRK2 to exist under a monomeric and dimeric form in vivo. It is however unknown how LRRK2 oligomerization is regulated. Here, we show that oligomerization of a homologous bacterial Roco protein depends on the nucleotide load...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042439/a-genome-wide-screen-in-escherichia-coli-reveals-that-ubiquinone-is-a-key-antioxidant-for-metabolism-of-long-chain-fatty-acids
#17
Shashank Agrawal, Kanchan Jaswal, Anthony L Shiver, Himanshi Balecha, Tapas Patra, Rachna Chaba
Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are used as a rich source of metabolic energy by several bacteria including important pathogens. Since LCFAs also induce oxidative stress, which may be detrimental to bacterial growth, it is imperative to understand the strategies employed by bacteria to counteract such stresses. Here, we performed a genetic screen in Escherichia coli on the LCFA, oleate, and compared our results with published genome-wide screens of multiple non-fermentable carbon sources. This large-scale analysis revealed that amongst components of the aerobic electron transport chain (ETC), only genes involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone, an electron carrier in the ETC, are highly required for growth in LCFAs when compared to other carbon sources...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040419/high-rates-of-human-fecal-carriage-of-mcr-1-positive-multi-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-emerge-in-china-in-association-with-successful-plasmid-families
#18
Lan-Lan Zhong, Hang T T Phan, Cong Shen, Karina Doris-Vihta, Anna E Sheppard, Xi Huang, Kun-Jiao Zeng, Hong-Yu Li, Xue-Fei Zhang, Sandip Patil, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Yong Xing, Jia-Lin Lin, Lian-Qiang Feng, Yohei Doi, Yong Xia, Nicole Stoesser, Guo-Bao Tian
Objectives: mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is concerning, as colistin is used in treating multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. Rates of human mcr-1 gastrointestinal carriage have historically been low. We identified trends in human fecal mcr-1-positivity rates and colonization with mcr-1-positive+third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R) Enterobacteriaceae in Guangzhou, China, and investigated the genetic contexts of mcr-1 in a subset of mcr-1-positive+3GC-R strains...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040278/pg-metrics-a-chemometric-based-approach-for-classifying-bacterial-peptidoglycan-data-sets-and-uncovering-their-subjacent-chemical-variability
#19
Keshav Kumar, Akbar Espaillat, Felipe Cava
Bacteria cells are protected from osmotic and environmental stresses by an exoskeleton-like polymeric structure called peptidoglycan (PG) or murein sacculus. This structure is fundamental for bacteria's viability and thus, the mechanisms underlying cell wall assembly and how it is modulated serve as targets for many of our most successful antibiotics. Therefore, it is now more important than ever to understand the genetics and structural chemistry of the bacterial cell walls in order to find new and effective methods of blocking it for the treatment of disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038467/self-sensing-in-bacillus-subtilis-quorum-sensing-systems
#20
Tasneem Bareia, Shaul Pollak, Avigdor Eldar
Bacterial cell-cell signalling, or quorum sensing, is characterized by the secretion and groupwide detection of small diffusible signal molecules called autoinducers. This mechanism allows cells to coordinate their behaviour in a density-dependent manner. A quorum-sensing cell may directly respond to the autoinducers it produces in a cell-autonomous and quorum-independent manner, but the strength of this self-sensing effect and its impact on bacterial physiology are unclear. Here, we explore the existence and impact of self-sensing in the Bacillus subtilis ComQXP and Rap-Phr quorum-sensing systems...
October 16, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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