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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668046/black-cohosh-extracts-and-powders-induce-micronuclei-a-biomarker-of-genetic-damage-in-human-cells
#1
Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Carol D Swartz, Kim G Shepard, Steven M Bryce, Stephen D Dertinger, Suramya Waidyanatha, Grace E Kissling, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt
Black cohosh extract (BCE) is a widely used dietary supplement marketed to women to alleviate symptoms of gynecological ailments, yet its toxicity has not been well characterized. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) previously reported significant increases in micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of female Wistar Han rats and B6C3F1/N mice administered 15-1,000 mg BCE/kg/day by gavage for 90 days. These animals also developed a dose-dependent nonregenerative macrocytic anemia characterized by clinical changes consistent with megaloblastic anemia...
April 18, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666226/discovery-of-recombinases-enables-genome-mining-of-cryptic-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-burkholderiales-species
#2
Xue Wang, Haibo Zhou, Hanna Chen, Xiaoshu Jing, Wentao Zheng, Ruijuan Li, Tao Sun, Jiaqi Liu, Jun Fu, Liujie Huo, Yue-Zhong Li, Yuemao Shen, Xiaoming Ding, Rolf Müller, Xiaoying Bian, Youming Zhang
Bacterial genomes encode numerous cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that represent a largely untapped source of drugs or pesticides. Mining of the cryptic products is limited by the unavailability of streamlined genetic tools in native producers. Precise genome engineering using bacteriophage recombinases is particularly useful for genome mining. However, recombinases are usually host-specific. The genome-guided discovery of novel recombinases and their transient expression could boost cryptic BGC mining...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664950/body-lice-of-homeless-people-reveal-the-presence-of-several-emerging-bacterial-pathogens-in-northern-algeria
#3
Meriem Louni, Nassima Mana, Idir Bitam, Mustapha Dahmani, Philippe Parola, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov
BACKGROUND: Human lice, Pediculus humanus, are obligate blood-sucking parasites. Body lice, Pediculus h. humanus, occur in two divergent mitochondrial clades (A and D) each exhibiting a particular geographic distribution. Currently, the body louse is recognized as the only vector for louse-borne diseases. In this study, we aimed to study the genetic diversity of body lice collected from homeless populations in three localities of northern Algeria, and to investigate louse-borne pathogens in these lice...
April 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662492/rnase-h2-loss-in-murine-astrocytes-results-in-cellular-defects-reminiscent-of-nucleic-acid-mediated-autoinflammation
#4
Kareen Bartsch, Markus Damme, Tommy Regen, Lore Becker, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Katharina Knittler, Christopher Borowski, Ari Waisman, Markus Glatzel, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Björn Rabe
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare early onset childhood encephalopathy caused by persistent neuroinflammation of autoimmune origin. AGS is a genetic disorder and >50% of affected individuals bear hypomorphic mutations in ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2). All available RNase H2 mouse models so far fail to mimic the prominent CNS involvement seen in AGS. To establish a mouse model recapitulating the human disease, we deleted RNase H2 specifically in the brain, the most severely affected organ in AGS. Although RNase H2ΔGFAP mice lacked the nuclease in astrocytes and a majority of neurons, no disease signs were apparent in these animals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662477/new-genes-involved-in-mild-stress-response-identified-by-transposon-mutagenesis-in-lactobacillus-paracasei
#5
Aurore Palud, Hélène Scornec, Jean-François Cavin, Hélène Licandro
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are associated with various plant, animal, and human niches and are also present in many fermented foods and beverages. Thus, they are subjected to several stress conditions and have developed advanced response mechanisms to resist, adapt, and grow. This work aimed to identify the genes involved in some stress adaptation mechanisms in LAB. For this purpose, global reverse genetics was applied by screening a library of 1287 Lactobacillus paracasei transposon mutants for mild monofactorial stresses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662471/maize-endophytic-bacterial-diversity-as-affected-by-soil-cultivation-history
#6
David Correa-Galeote, Eulogio J Bedmar, Gregorio J Arone
The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662055/in-silico-optimization-of-a-guava-antimicrobial-peptide-enables-combinatorial-exploration-for-peptide-design
#7
William F Porto, Luz Irazazabal, Eliane S F Alves, Suzana M Ribeiro, Carolina O Matos, Állan S Pires, Isabel C M Fensterseifer, Vivian J Miranda, Evan F Haney, Vincent Humblot, Marcelo D T Torres, Robert E W Hancock, Luciano M Liao, Ali Ladram, Timothy K Lu, Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Octavio L Franco
Plants are extensively used in traditional medicine, and several plant antimicrobial peptides have been described as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics. However, after more than four decades of research no plant antimicrobial peptide is currently used for treating bacterial infections, due to their length, post-translational modifications or  high dose requirement for a therapeutic effect . Here we report the design of antimicrobial peptides derived from a guava glycine-rich peptide using a genetic algorithm...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661152/genetic-variability-in-the-sdrd-gene-in-staphylococcus-aureus-from-healthy-nasal-carriers
#8
Clement Ajayi, Espen Åberg, Fatemeh Askarian, Johanna U E Sollid, Mona Johannessen, Anne-Merethe Hanssen
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus cell wall anchored Serine Aspartate repeat containing protein D (SdrD) is a member of the microbial surface component recognising adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). It is involved in the bacterial adhesion and virulence. However the extent of genetic variation in S. aureus sdrD gene within isolates from healthy carriers are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate allelic variation of the sdrD gene among S. aureus from healthy nasal carriers...
April 16, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660558/multilocus-sequence-analysis-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-isolates-from-western-siberia-russia-and-northern-mongolia
#9
Yuliya Sabitova, Nataliya Fomenko, Artem Tikunov, Oleg Stronin, Maxim Khasnatinov, Davaajav Abmed, Galina Danchinova, Irina Golovljova, Nina Tikunova
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequently recorded tick-transmitted disease in Eurasia. Tomsk Province, Western Siberia in Russia and Selenge Aimag in Northern Mongolia are leading regions in the LB incidence rate in these countries. Spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex isolated from Ixodes ticks from Tomsk Province (n = 56) and Ixodes persulcatus ticks from Selenge Aimag (n = 5) were genetically characterized using Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), analysis of the 5S23S rRNA intergenic spacer (IGS) amplicons, and p83/100 gene sequencing...
April 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660239/the-population-genetic-test-tajima-s-d-identifies-genes-encoding-pathogen-associated-molecular-patterns-and-other-virulence-related-genes-in-ralstonia-solanacearum
#10
Noam Eckshtain-Levi, Alexandra J Weisberg, Boris A Vinatzer
Detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by plant pattern receptors (PRRs) is an essential part of plant immunity. Until recently, elf18, an epitope of elongation factor tu (EF-Tu), was the sole confirmed PAMP of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease, limiting our understanding of R. solanacearum - plant interactions. Therefore, we set out to identify additional R. solanacearum PAMPs based on the hypothesis that genes encoding PAMPs are under selection to avoid recognition by plant PRRs...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659361/-one-hundred-years-after-the-spanish-flu
#11
Isabel A Lüthy, Viviana Ritacco, Isabel N Kantor
The "Spanish" flu pandemic, which occurred a century ago, is considered the most devastating in human history. An estimated one third of world population fell ill with flu and more than 2.5% of them died. The course of the epidemic had two main waves (1918 and 1919) and showed an unusual W-shaped morbidity/mortality distribution. Death was not a direct outcome of flu itself but rather a consequence of secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia, for which antibiotics had not yet been discovered. Pre-existing pulmonary tuberculosis was also accountable for increased flu death rates during the pandemic...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658858/carboxylicivirga-sediminis-sp-nov-isolated-from-coastal-sediment
#12
Feng-Qing Wang, Li-Hua Ren, Rong-Jie Zou, Yu-Zeng Sun, Xiao-Jing Liu, Fang Jiang, Li-Juan Liu
A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain (JR1T ) isolated from a sediment sample was subjected to a taxonomic study, based on phenotypic, genetic and physiological characterization. Here, we describe the cultivation and characteristics of strain JR1T , a novel member of the genus Carboxylicivirga in the family Marinilabiliaceae. Cells of strain JR1T were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic. The temperature range for growth was 15-42 °C (optimum, 33 °C) and the pH range for growth was pH 6...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658477/-pmn-dtr-mice-a-new-model-to-study-neutrophils-in-vivo
#13
Caitlin M Gillis, Laurent L Reber
Neutrophils play a key role in host defense against pathogens. They can contribute to pathological inflammation, and are thought to exacerbate tissue injury upon exposure to bacterial products, such as endotoxin (LPS). Recent findings suggest that neutrophils can also participate in adaptive immune responses and contribute to inflammation resolution. Many discoveries regarding the in vivo role of neutrophils were made possible by the use of genetically modified neutrophil-deficient mice, or by the use of neutrophil-depleting antibodies...
April 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658073/comparative-characteristics-of-discrimination-of-s-enterica-isolates-by-phagotyping-test-and-dienes-test
#14
V N Afonyushkin, Yu N Kozlova, I N Tromenshleger, M L Filipenko, O B Novikova
We propose an original methodological approach to discrimination of newly isolated Salmonella enterica strains with the use of Dienes test. Dienes test is used for identification of P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis strains. It consists in growth suppression by mobile bacterial strain cultures and the formation of a demarcation line (Dienes line) between the strains growing towards each other. Similarities and differences between salmonella phagotyping method and Dienes test-based discrimination of the strains are detected...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657985/the-chlamydia-muridarum-plasmid-revisited-new-insights-into-growth-kinetics
#15
Rachel J Skilton, Yibing Wang, Colette O'Neill, Simone Filardo, Peter Marsh, Angèle Bénard, Nicholas R Thomson, Kyle H Ramsey, Ian N Clarke
Background: Research in chlamydial genetics is challenging because of its obligate intracellular developmental cycle. In vivo systems exist that allow studies of different aspects of basic biology of chlamydiae, the murine Chlamydia muridarum model is one of great importance and thus an essential research tool. C. muridarum carries a plasmid that has a role in virulence.  Our aim was to compare and contrast the C. muridarum plasmid-free phenotype with that of a chromosomally isogenic plasmid-bearing strain, through the inclusion phase of the developmental cycle...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656850/bradyrhizobium-algeriense-sp-nov-a-novel-species-isolated-from-effective-nodules-of-retama-sphaerocarpa-from-northeastern-algeria
#16
Hadjira Ahnia, Yasmina Bourebaba, David Durán, Farida Boulila, José M Palacios, Luis Rey, Tomás Ruiz-Argüeso, Abdelghani Boulila, Juan Imperial
We have characterized genetic, phenotypic and symbiotic properties of bacterial strains previously isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules of Retama sphaerocarpa from Northern Algeria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes and three concatenated housekeeping genes, recA, atpD and glnII, placed them in a new divergent group that is proposed to form a new Bradyrhizobium species, Bradyrhizobium algeriense sp. nov. (type strain RST89T , LMG 27618 and CECT 8363). Based on these phylogenetic markers and on genomic identity data derived from draft genomic sequences, Bradyrhizobium valentinum LmjM3T , Bradyrhizobium lablabi CCBAU 23086T , Bradyrhizobium retamae Ro19T , and Bradyrhizobium jicamae PAC68T are the closest relatives of B...
April 4, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652934/the-quest-for-a-non-vector-psyllid-natural-variation-in-acquisition-and-transmission-of-the-huanglongbing-pathogen-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-by-asian-citrus-psyllid-isofemale-lines
#17
El-Desouky Ammar, David G Hall, Saeed Hosseinzadeh, Michelle Heck
Genetic variability in insect vectors is valuable to study vector competence determinants and to select non-vector populations that may help reduce the spread of vector-borne pathogens. We collected and tested vector competency of 15 isofemale lines of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). CLas is associated with huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri adults were collected from orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) hedges in Florida, and individual pairs (females and males) were caged on healthy Murraya plants for egg laying...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651674/intestinal-microbiota-and-kidney-diseases
#18
Ao Xie, Jie Sheng, Feng Zheng
Kidney diseases are common and the incidence rate is increasing. Gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune regulation of the host. Genetic, alimentary and environmental disease factors may change gut flora and increase opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria, contributing to immune or non-immune mediated kidney diseases including IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy. Additionally, bacterial metabolites may be a source of uremic toxins. Thus, identififi cation of diversity, composition, and metabolic and immunologic features of gut bacteria in chronic kidney diseases may help understand pathogenetic mechanism and develop therapy for diseases...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651175/adaptive-strategies-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-isolated-from-acid-mine-drainage-site-in-sabah-malaysia
#19
Low Yi Yik, Grace Joy Wei Lie Chin, Cahyo Budiman, Collin Glenn Joseph, Baba Musta, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues
The adaptive process in bacteria is driven by specific genetic elements which regulate phenotypic characteristics such as tolerance to high metal ion concentrations and the secretion of protective biofilms. Extreme environments such as those associated with heavy metal pollution and extremes of acidity offer opportunities to study the adaptive mechanisms of microorganisms. This study focused on the genome analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt MCMY1), a gram positive rod shaped bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage site in Sabah, Malaysia by using a combination of Single Molecule Real Time DNA Sequencing, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650391/convergent-evolution-in-intracellular-elements-plasmids-as-model-endosymbionts
#20
REVIEW
Anne-Kathrin Dietel, Martin Kaltenpoth, Christian Kost
Endosymbionts are organisms that live inside the cells of other species. This lifestyle is ubiquitous across the tree of life and is featured by unicellular eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and by extrachromosomal genetic elements such as plasmids. Given that all of these elements dwell in the cytoplasm of their host cell, they should be subject to similar selection pressures. Here we show that strikingly similar features have evolved in both bacterial endosymbionts and plasmids. Since host and endosymbiont are often metabolically tightly intertwined, they are difficult to disentangle experimentally...
April 10, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
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