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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527384/embracing-the-enemy-the-diversification-of-microbial-gene-repertoires-by-phage-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer
#1
REVIEW
Marie Touchon, Jorge A Moura de Sousa, Eduardo Pc Rocha
Bacteriophages and archaeal viruses contribute, through lysogenic conversion or transduction, to the horizontal transfer of genetic material between microbial genomes. Recent genomics, metagenomics, and single cell studies have shown that lysogenic conversion is widespread and provides hosts with adaptive traits often associated with biotic interactions. The quantification of the evolutionary impact of transduction has lagged behind and requires further theoretical and experimental work. Nevertheless, recent studies suggested that generalized transduction plays a role in the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and in the acquisition of novel genes during intra-specific bacterial competition...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527035/comparison-of-rhizosphere-properties-as-affected-by-different-bt-and-non-bt-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-genotypes-and-fertilization
#2
Maqshoof Ahamd, Waleed Mumtaz Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, Muhammad Iqbal, Azhar Hussain, Muhammad Fakhar-U-Zaman Akhtar, Farheen Nazli
Incorporation of genetically modified crops in the cropping system raises the need for studying the effect of these crops on the soil ecosystem. The current study aimed to compare the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and non-Bt-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes on rhizosphere properties under fertilized and unfertilized soil conditions. One non-Bt-cotton (IUB 75) and four Bt-cotton varieties (IUB-222, MM-58, IUB-13, FH-142) were sown in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial fashion with three replications under unfertilized (T1) and fertilized (T2 at NPK 310-170-110 kg ha(-1)) soil conditions...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526988/identification-of-candidate-genes-for-paratuberculosis-resistance-in-the-native-italian-garfagnina-goat-breed
#3
Francesca Cecchi, Claudia Russo, Daniela Iamartino, Alessia Galiero, Barbara Turchi, Filippo Fratini, Sara Degl'Innocenti, Raffaele Mazza, Stefano Biffani, Giovanna Preziuso, Carlo Cantile
Paratuberculosis disease is a chronic bacterial disease infection of ruminants of global relevance, caused by MAP (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis). The present study was conducted on the Garfagnina goat breed that is an Italian native goat population registered on the Tuscan regional repertory of genetic resources at risk of extinction. Forty-eight adult goats (27 serologically positive to MAP-positive and 21 serologically negative to MAP-negative) belonging to a single flock that had experienced annual mortalities due to MAP infection were identified and genotyped with the Illumina GoatSNP60 BeadChip...
May 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526796/sulfide-induced-dissimilatory-nitrate-reduction-to-ammonium-supports-anammox-in-an-open-water-unit-process-wetland
#4
Zackary L Jones, Justin T Jasper, David L Sedlak, Jonathan O Sharp
Open-water unit process wetlands host a benthic diatomaceous and bacterial assemblage capable of nitrate removal from treated municipal wastewater with unexpected contributions from anammox processes. In exploring mechanistic drivers of anammox, 16S rRNA gene sequencing profiles of the biomat revealed significant microbial community shifts along the flow path and with depth. Notably there was an increasing abundance of sulfate reducers (Desulfococcus and other Deltaproteobacteria) and anammox microorganisms (Brocadiaceae) with depth...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525986/the-lspc3-41i-restriction-modification-system-is-the-major-determinant-for-genetic-manipulations-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-c3-41
#5
Pan Fu, Yong Ge, Yiming Wu, Ni Zhao, Zhiming Yuan, Xiaomin Hu
BACKGROUND: Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been widely used in integrated mosquito control program and it is one of the minority bacterial species unable to metabolize carbohydrates. In consideration of the high genetic conservation at genomic level and difficulty of genetic horizontal transfer, it is hypothesized that effective restriction-modification (R-M) systems existed in mosquitocidal L. sphaericus. RESULTS: In this study, six type II R-M systems including LspC3-41I were predicted in L...
May 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525572/crosstalk-between-vertical-and-horizontal-gene-transfer-plasmid-replication-control-by-a-conjugative-relaxase
#6
Fabián Lorenzo-Díaz, Cris Fernández-López, Rudi Lurz, Alicia Bravo, Manuel Espinosa
Horizontal gene transfer is a key process in the evolution of bacteria and also represents a source of genetic variation in eukaryotes. Among elements participating in gene transfer, thousands of small (<10 kb) mobile bacterial plasmids that replicate by the rolling circle mechanism represent a driving force in the spread of antibiotic resistances. In general, these plasmids are built as genetic modules that encode a replicase, an antibiotic-resistance determinant, and a relaxase that participates in their conjugative mobilization...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525340/detection-of-bordetella-avium-by-taqman-real-time-pcr-in-tracheal-swabs-from-wildlife-birds
#7
T Stenzel, D Pestka, B Tykałowski, M Śmiałek, A Koncicki, A Bancerz-Kisiel
Bordetella avium, the causing agent of bordetellosis, a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract in young poultry, causes significant losses in poultry farming throughout the world. Wildlife birds can be a reservoir of various pathogens that infect farm animals. For this reason the studies were conducted to estimate the prevalence of Bordetella avium in wildlife birds in Poland. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 650 birds representing 27 species. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from the swabs and screened for Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523008/genetic-interaction-between-arabidopsis-qpm3-1-locus-and-bacterial-effector-gene-hopw1-1-underlies-natural-variation-in-quantitative-disease-resistance-to-pseudomonas-infection
#8
Qi Luo, Wei-Wei Liu, Ke-Di Pan, You-Liang Peng, Jun Fan
Wide quantitative variation in plant disease resistance across Arabidopsis wild populations has been documented and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. To investigate the genetic and molecular basis of this variation, Arabidopsis recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Aa-0 × Col-0 and Gie-0 × Col-0 crosses were constructed and used for inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pathovars maculicola ES4326 (ES4326) and tomato DC3000 (DC3000). Bacterial growth assays revealed continuous distribution across the large differences between the most and the least susceptible lines in the RILs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522905/strategies-used-by-helicobacter-pylori-to-establish-persistent-infection
#9
REVIEW
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative and motile bacterium that colonizes the hostile microniche of the human stomach, then persists for the host's entire life, if not effectively treated. Clinically, H. pylori plays a causative role in the development of a wide spectrum of diseases including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Due to the global distribution of H. pylori, it is no exaggeration to conclude that smart strategies are contributing to adaptation of the bacterium to its permanent host...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522420/in-vitro-effects-of-italian-lavandula-multifida-l-leaf-extracts-on-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-leucocytes-and-saf-1-cells
#10
Angela Fazio, Rebeca Cerezuela, Maria Rosaria Panuccio, Alberto Cuesta, Maria Ángeles Esteban
Lavandula multifida is very appreciated by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In Italy is only found in Calabria and Sicily and, at present, urge its valorization due to its high extinction and genetic erosion risks. Possible applications of L. multifida extracts as immunostimulant in fish aquaculture were assayed by using gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) as a marine fish model, due to its importance in fish aquaculture. The in vitro effects of both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts obtained from two Italian populations of L...
May 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522322/imaging-macropinosomes-during-shigella-infections
#11
REVIEW
Noelia Lopez-Montero, Yuen-Yan Chang, Anna Sartori-Rupp, Sonja Kühn, Jost Enninga
Macropinocytosis is the uptake of extracellular fluid within vesicles of varying size that takes place during numerous cellular processes in a large variety of cells. A growing number of pathogens, including viruses, parasites, and bacteria are known to induce macropinocytosis during their entry into targeted host cells. We have recently discovered that the human enteroinvasive, bacterial pathogen Shigella causes in situ macropinosome formation during its entry into epithelial cells. These infection-associated macropinosomes are not generated to ingest the bacteria, but are instead involved in Shigella's intracellular niche formation...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515902/sites-of-colonization-in-hospitalized-patients-with-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-organisms-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Zeina A Kanafani, Sukayna M Fadlallah, Sarah Assaf, Khalil Anouti, Kohar Annie B Kissoyan, Jad Sfeir, Tamara Nawar, Mohamad Yasmin, Ghassan M Matar
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether patients infected with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms are colonized at multiple body sites. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study at a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. Hospitalized patients with infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms were included. Cultures were obtained from the primary site of infection as well as from other sites (skin, nasopharynx, urine, rectum)...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515336/the-effects-of-micronutrient-deficiencies-on-bacterial-species-from-the-human-gut-microbiota
#13
Matthew C Hibberd, Meng Wu, Dmitry A Rodionov, Xiaoqing Li, Jiye Cheng, Nicholas W Griffin, Michael J Barratt, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Andrei L Osterman, Jeffrey I Gordon
Vitamin and mineral (micronutrient) deficiencies afflict 2 billion people. Although the impact of these imbalances on host biology has been studied extensively, much less is known about their effects on the gut microbiota of developing or adult humans. Therefore, we established a community of cultured, sequenced human gut-derived bacterial species in gnotobiotic mice and fed the animals a defined micronutrient-sufficient diet, followed by a derivative diet devoid of vitamin A, folate, iron, or zinc, followed by return to the sufficient diet...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515022/sos-response-in-bacteria-inhibitory-activity-of-lichen-secondary-metabolites-against-escherichia-coli-reca-protein
#14
Pierangelo Bellio, Letizia Di Pietro, Alisia Mancini, Marisa Piovano, Marcello Nicoletti, Fabrizia Brisdelli, Donatella Tondi, Laura Cendron, Nicola Franceschini, Gianfranco Amicosante, Mariagrazia Perilli, Giuseppe Celenza
BACKGROUND: RecA is a bacterial multifunctional protein essential to genetic recombination, error-prone replicative bypass of DNA damages and regulation of SOS response. The activation of bacterial SOS response is directly related to the development of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to antimicrobials. Although recent studies directed towards RecA inactivation via ATP binding inhibition described a variety of micromolar affinity ligands, inhibitors of the DNA binding site are still unknown...
June 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513881/base-modified-nucleic-acids-as-a-powerful-tool-for-synthetic-biology-and-biotechnology
#15
Elena Eremeeva, Michail Abramov, Lia Margamuljana, Piet Herdewijn
The ability of various nucleoside triphosphate analogs of deoxyguanosine and deoxycytidine with 7-deazadeoxyadenosine (A1) and 5-chlorodeoxyuridine (T1) to serve as substrates for Taq DNA polymerase was evaluated. The triphosphate set constituted of A1, T1, and 7-deazadeoxyguanosine with either 5-methyldeoxy-cytidine or 5-fluorodeoxycytidine was successfully employed in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 1.5 kb fragments as well as random oligonucleotide libraries. Another effective combination of triphosphates for the synthesis of 1 kb PCR product was A1, T1, deoxyinosine, and 5-bromodeoxycytidine...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513735/highly-efficient-genome-editing-of-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells-via-a-nano-silicon-blade-delivery-approach
#16
Yuan Ma, Xin Han, Oscar Quintana Bustamante, Ricardo Bessa de Castro, Kai Zhang, Pengchao Zhang, Ying Li, Zongbin Liu, Xuewu Liu, Mauro Ferrari, Zhongbo Hu, José Carlos Segovia, Lidong Qin
Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 bacterial immunity system has opened a promising avenue to treat genetic diseases that affect the human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Therefore, finding a highly efficient delivery method capable of modifying the genome in the hard-to-transfect HSCs, combined with the advanced CRISPR-Cas9 system, may meet the challenges for dissecting the hematologic disease mechanisms and facilitate future clinical applications. Here, we developed an effective HSC-specified delivery microfluidic chip to disrupt the cell membrane transiently by inducing rapid mechanical deformation that allowed the delivery of biomaterials into the cytoplasm from the surrounding matrix...
May 17, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513421/clinical-and-bacteriological-characteristics-associated-with-clustering-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#17
J-Y J-Y Feng, L G Jarlsberg, K Salcedo, J Rose, M Janes, S-Y G Lin, D H Osmond, K C Jost, M K Soehnlen, J Flood, E A Graviss, E Desmond, P K Moonan, P Nahid, P C Hopewell, M Kato-Maeda
<h2>SETTING:</h2><p>The impact of the genetic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the clustering of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has not been analyzed together with clinical and demographic characteristics.</p><h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2><p>To determine factors associated with genotypic clustering of MDR-TB in a community-basedstudy.</p><h2>DESIGN:</h2><p>We measured the proportion of clustered cases among MDR-TB patients and determined the impact of clinical and demographic characteristics and that of three M...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510293/a-test-for-y-linked-additive-and-epistatic-effects-on-surviving-bacterial-infections-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Ian C Kutch, Kenneth M Fedorka
Y and W chromosomes offer a theoretically powerful way for sexual dimorphism to evolve. Consistent with this possibility, Drosophila melanogaster Y-chromosomes can influence gene regulation throughout the genome; particularly immune-related genes. In order for Y-linked regulatory variation (YRV) to contribute to adaptive evolution it must be comprised of additive genetic variance, such that variable Ys induce consistent phenotypic effects within the local gene pool. We assessed the potential for Y-chromosomes to adaptively shape gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial defense by introgressing Ys across multiple genetic haplotypes from the same population...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510224/dna-supercoiling-is-a-fundamental-regulatory-principle-in-the-control-of-bacterial-gene-expression
#19
REVIEW
Charles J Dorman, Matthew J Dorman
Although it has become routine to consider DNA in terms of its role as a carrier of genetic information, it is also an important contributor to the control of gene expression. This regulatory principle arises from its structural properties. DNA is maintained in an underwound state in most bacterial cells and this has important implications both for DNA storage in the nucleoid and for the expression of genetic information. Underwinding of the DNA through reduction in its linking number potentially imparts energy to the duplex that is available to drive DNA transactions, such as transcription, replication and recombination...
September 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510216/dna-supercoiling-is-a-fundamental-regulatory-principle-in-the-control-of-bacterial-gene-expression
#20
REVIEW
Charles J Dorman, Matthew J Dorman
Although it has become routine to consider DNA in terms of its role as a carrier of genetic information, it is also an important contributor to the control of gene expression. This regulatory principle arises from its structural properties. DNA is maintained in an underwound state in most bacterial cells and this has important implications both for DNA storage in the nucleoid and for the expression of genetic information. Underwinding of the DNA through reduction in its linking number potentially imparts energy to the duplex that is available to drive DNA transactions, such as transcription, replication and recombination...
November 2016: Biophysical Reviews
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