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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930999/measuring-and-mapping-patterns-of-soil-erosion-and-deposition-related-to-soil-carbonate-concentrations-under-agricultural-management
#1
Robert H Erskine, Lucretia A Sherrod, Timothy R Green
Spatial patterns of soil erosion and deposition can be inferred from differences in ground elevation mapped at appropriate time increments. Such changes in elevation are related to changes in near-surface soil carbonate (CaCO3) profiles. The objective is to describe a simple conceptual model and detailed protocol for repeatable field and laboratory measurements of these quantities. Here, accurate elevation is measured using a ground-based differential global positioning system (GPS); other data acquisition methods could be applied to the same basic method...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930545/classification-of-retinal-diseases-based-on-oct-images
#2
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed M Elmogy, Mohammed Ghazal, Omar Helmy, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
Optical Coherence Topography (OCT) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology that offers non-invasive real-time, high-resolution imaging of highly scattering tissues. It is widely used in ophthalmology to perform diagnostic imaging on the structure of the anterior eye and the retina. Clinical studies are carried out to assess the application of OCT for some retinal diseases. OCT can provide means for early detection for various types of diseases because morphological changes often occur before the physical symptoms of these diseases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930156/giant-strain-and-induced-ferroelectricity-in-amorphous-batio%C3%A2-films-under-poling
#3
Pegah Mirzadeh Vaghefi, Ali Baghizadeh, Armando A C S Lourenço, Vitor S Amaral, Andre L Kholkin
We report an effect of giant surface modification of a 5.6 nm thick BaTiO₃ film grown on Si (100) substrate under poling by conductive tip of a scanning probe microscope (SPM). The surface can be locally elevated by about 9 nm under -20 V applied during scanning, resulting in the maximum strain of 160%. The threshold voltage for the surface modification is about 12 V. The modified topography is stable enough with time and slowly decays after poling with the rate ~0.02 nm/min. Strong vertical piezoresponse after poling is observed, too...
September 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929459/revisiting-ovarian-cancer-microenvironment-a-friend-or-a-foe
#4
REVIEW
Boyi Zhang, Fei Chen, Qixia Xu, Liu Han, Jiaqian Xu, Libin Gao, Xiaochen Sun, Yiwen Li, Yan Li, Min Qian, Yu Sun
Development of ovarian cancer involves the co-evolution of neoplastic cells together with the adjacent microenvironment. Steps of malignant progression including primary tumor outgrowth, therapeutic resistance, and distant metastasis are not determined solely by genetic alterations in ovarian cancer cells, but considerably shaped by the fitness advantage conferred by benign components in the ovarian stroma. As the dynamic cancer topography varies drastically during disease progression, heterologous cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) can actively determine the pathological track of ovarian cancer...
September 19, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928983/influences-of-27-gauge-vitrectomy-on-corneal-topographic-conditions
#5
Takafumi Hirashima, Takao Utsumi, Miou Hirose, Hideyasu Oh
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influences of 27-gauge vitrectomy on corneal topographic conditions. METHOD: Fifty-six eyes of 56 patients undergoing 27-gauge vitrectomy were retrospectively studied. Twenty-three eyes with epiretinal membrane (ERM), 23 eyes with macular hole (MH), and 10 eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) were included. Forty-five of the 56 eyes underwent 27-gauge phacovitrectomy (group 1), and the remaining 11 eyes underwent 27-gauge vitrectomy alone (group 2)...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928647/individual-differences-in-frequency-and-topography-of-slow-and-fast-sleep-spindles
#6
Roy Cox, Anna C Schapiro, Dara S Manoach, Robert Stickgold
Sleep spindles are transient oscillatory waveforms that occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep across widespread cortical areas. In humans, spindles can be classified as either slow or fast, but large individual differences in spindle frequency as well as methodological difficulties have hindered progress towards understanding their function. Using two nights of high-density electroencephalography recordings from 28 healthy individuals, we first characterize the individual variability of NREM spectra and demonstrate the difficulty of determining subject-specific spindle frequencies...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928067/silk-fibres-grafted-with-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-hema-and-4-hydroxybutyl-acrylate-hba-for-biomedical-applications
#7
Paola Taddei, Michele Di Foggia, Simona Martinotti, Elia Ranzato, Irene Carmagnola, Valeria Chiono, Masuhiro Tsukada
Silk fibroin may be chemically modified by grafting, with the purpose of improving its properties according to the desired function. In this study, silk fabrics from Bombyx mori silk fibres were grafted with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), as well as a binary mixture of HEMA and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (HBA). The samples were then electrospun from trifluoroacetic acid and treated with aqueous methanol. The % weight gains ascribable to HEMA and HBA were successfully determined through Raman spectroscopy...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927933/azopolymer-photopatterning-for-directional-control-of-angiogenesis
#8
Chiara Fedele, Maria De Gregorio, Paolo A Netti, Silvia Cavalli, Chiara Attanasio
Understanding cellular behavior in response to microenvironmental stimuli is central to tissue engineering. An increasing number of reports emphasize the high sensitivity of cells to the physical characteristics of the surrounding milieu and in particular, topographical cues. In this work, we investigated the influence of dynamic topographic signal presentation on sprout formation and the possibility to obtain a space-time control over sprouting directionality without growth factors, in order to investigate the contribution of just topography in the angiogenic process...
September 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927342/expert-opinion-biomimetic-functionalized-surfaces-and-the-induction-of-bone-formation
#9
Ugo Ripamonti
Tissue engineering still needs to assign the molecular basis of pattern formation, tissue induction and morphogenesis: What next to morphogens and stem cells? Macroporous biomimetic matrices per se, without the addition of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family, initiate the induction of bone formation. Carving geometries within different calcium phosphate-based macroporous bioreactors we show that geometric cues imprinted within the macroporous spaces initiate the spontaneous induction of bone...
September 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926888/-accelerated-transepithelial-corneal-collagen-cross-linking-for-progressive-keratoconus-with-a-thin-cornea-one-year-results
#10
Z R Lin, H P Wu, S R Luo, Z S Liu, N Dong, X M Shang, Z W Xie, L Yan, X Fang
Objective: To evaluate the clinical results of keratoconic eyes with a thin cornea treated with accelerated transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (A-TE-CXL) within 1 year. Methods: Nineteen eyes of 19 patients with progressive keratoconus with a minimum corneal thickness from 380 μm to 420 μm (including the epithelium) were included in this prospective, nonrandomized clinical study and treated with A-TE-CXL. Scoring of pain and foreign body sensation, slit lamp examination, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected distance visual acuity, corneal topography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, in vivo corneal confocal microscopy and endothelial cell count were assessed before surgery and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively...
September 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926202/retinal-dysfunction-characterizes-subtypes-of-dominant-optic-atrophy
#11
Maria Lucia Cascavilla, Vincenzo Parisi, Giacinto Triolo, Lucia Ziccardi, Enrico Borrelli, Antonio Di Renzo, Nicole Balducci, Costanza Lamperti, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Fatima Darvizeh, Alfredo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli, Francesco Bandello, Piero Barboni
PURPOSE: To assess preganglionic retinal function using multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in patients affected by dominant optic atrophy (DOA) stratified by OPA1 gene mutation. METHODS: Multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) was recorded in 18 DOA patients (DOA group, 35 eyes) and 25 age-matched healthy subjects (control group, 25 eyes). Patients were stratified in two groups based on gene mutation: missense mutation (DOA-M group, 11 eyes) and mutation causing haploinsufficiency (DOA-H group, 24 eyes)...
September 19, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924672/in-situ-super-resolution-imaging-of-genomic-dna-with-oligostorm-and-oligodna-paint
#12
Brian J Beliveau, Alistair N Boettiger, Guy Nir, Bogdan Bintu, Peng Yin, Xiaowei Zhuang, C-Ting Wu
OligoSTORM and OligoDNA-PAINT meld the Oligopaint technology for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with, respectively, Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) and DNA-based Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (DNA-PAINT) to enable in situ single-molecule super-resolution imaging of nucleic acids. Both strategies enable ≤20 nm resolution and are appropriate for imaging nanoscale features of the genomes of a wide range of species, including human, mouse, and fruit fly (Drosophila)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924662/correlative-super-resolution-fluorescence-imaging-and-atomic-force-microscopy-for-the-characterization-of-biological-samples
#13
Patricia Bondia, Santiago Casado, Cristina Flors
Recent advances in imaging tools have greatly improved our ability to analyze the structure and molecular components of a wide range of biological systems at the nanoscale. High resolution imaging can be performed with a handful of techniques, each of them revealing particular features of the sample. A more comprehensive picture of a biological system can be achieved by combining the information provided by complementary imaging methods. Specifically, the correlation between super-resolution fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides high resolution topography as well as specific chemical information, the latter with a spatial resolution that approaches that of AFM...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924301/epitaxial-graphene-homogeneity-and-quantum-hall-effect-in-millimeter-scale-devices
#14
Yanfei Yang, Guangjun Cheng, Patrick Mende, Irene G Calizo, Randall M Feenstra, Chiashain Chuang, Chieh-Wen Liu, Chieh-I Liu, George R Jones, Angela R Hight Walker, Randolph E Elmquist
Quantized magnetotransport is observed in 5.6 × 5.6 mm(2) epitaxial graphene devices, grown using highly constrained sublimation on the Si-face of SiC(0001) at high temperature (1900 °C). The precise quantized Hall resistance of [Formula: see text] is maintained up to record level of critical current Ixx = 0.72 mA at T = 3.1 K and 9 T in a device where Raman microscopy reveals low and homogeneous strain. Adsorption-induced molecular doping in a second device reduced the carrier concentration close to the Dirac point (n ≈ 10(10) cm(-2)), where mobility of 18760 cm(2)/V is measured over an area of 10 mm(2)...
May 2017: Carbon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924144/south-atlantic-paleobathymetry-since-early-cretaceous
#15
Lucía Pérez-Díaz, Graeme Eagles
We present early Cretaceous to present paleobathymetric reconstructions and quantitative uncertainty estimates for the South Atlantic, offering a strong basis for studies of paleocirculation, paleoclimate and paleobiogeography. Circulation in an initially salty and anoxic ocean, restricted by the topography of the Falkland Plateau, Rio Grande Ridge and Walvis Rise, favoured deposition of thick evaporites in shallow water of the Brazilian-Angolan margins. This ceased as seafloor spreading propagated northwards, opening an equatorial gateway to shallow and intermediate circulation...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923923/hydrologic-regulation-of-plant-rooting-depth
#16
Ying Fan, Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Esteban G Jobbágy, Robert B Jackson, Carlos Otero-Casal
Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage)...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922975/bioengineered-submucosal-organoids-for-in-vitro-modeling-of-colorectal-cancer
#17
Mahesh Devarasetty, Aleksander Skardal, Kyle Cowdrick, Frank Marini, Shay Soker
The physical nature of the tumor microenvironment significantly impacts tumor growth, invasion and response to drugs. Most in vitro tumor models are designed to study the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness on tumor cells, while not addressing the effects of ECM's specific topography. In this study we bioengineered submucosal organoids, using primary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) embedded in collagen I (Col I) hydrogel, which produce aligned and parallel fiber topography similar to those found in vivo...
September 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922832/fast-spiking-parvalbumin-interneurons-are-frequently-myelinated-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-mice-and-humans
#18
J Stedehouder, J J Couey, D Brizee, B Hosseini, J A Slotman, C M F Dirven, G Shpak, A B Houtsmuller, S A Kushner
Myelination, the insulating ensheathment of axons by oligodendrocytes, is thought to both optimize signal propagation and provide metabolic support. Despite the well-established physiological importance of myelination to neuronal function, relatively little is known about the myelination of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that a large fraction of myelin in mouse cerebral cortex ensheaths GABAergic interneurons, reaching up to 80% in hippocampal subregions. Moreover, we find that a very high proportion of neocortical and hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exhibit axonal myelination...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922615/the-impact-of-incorporating-antimicrobials-into-implant-surfaces
#19
N J Hickok, I M Shapiro, A F Chen
With the increase in numbers of joint replacements, spinal surgeries, and dental implantations, there is an urgent need to combat implant-associated infection. In addition to stringent sterile techniques, an efficacious way to prevent this destructive complication is to create new implants with antimicrobial properties. Specifically, these implants must be active in the dental implant environment where the implant is bathed in the glycoprotein-rich salivary fluids that enhance bacterial adhesion, and propagation, and biofilm formation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922194/benign-neonatal-sleep-myoclonus-evokes-somatosensory-responses
#20
Emma Losito, Monika Eisermann, Patricia Vignolo, Shushanik Hovhannisyan, Jean François Magny, Anna Kaminska
PURPOSE: Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus is a common nonepileptic condition occurring in neurologically normal full-term newborns. During jerks, EEG has always been described as normal. The aim of this study was to describe EEG changes associated with the myoclonic jerks. METHODS: Polygraphic video-EEG recordings of four full-term neonates presenting benign neonatal sleep myoclonus were studied. Myoclonic jerks were analyzed regarding their topography, frequency, propagation pattern, and reflex component...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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