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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813592/3d-printed-phema-materials-for-topographical-and-biochemical-modulation-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-cell-response
#1
Adina Badea, Joselle M McCracken, Emily G Tillmaand, Mikhail Eugene Kandel, Aaron W Oraham, Molly B Mevis, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Gabriel Popescu, Jonathan V Sweedler, Ralph G Nuzzo
Understanding and controlling the interactions occurring between cells and engineered materials are central challenges towards progress in the development of biomedical devices. In this work, we describe materials for direct ink writing (DIW), an extrusion-based type of 3D printing, that embed a custom synthetic protein (RGD-PDL) within the microfilaments of 3D-hydrogel scaffolds to modify these interactions and differentially direct tissue-level organization of complex cell populations in vitro. The RGD-PDL is synthesized by modifying poly-ᴅ-lysine (PDL) to varying extents with peptides containing the integrin-binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811538/fine-structure-of-posterior-alpha-rhythm-in-human-eeg-frequency-components-their-cortical-sources-and-temporal-behavior
#2
Elham Barzegaran, Vladimir Y Vildavski, Maria G Knyazeva
Heterogeneity of the posterior alpha rhythm (AR) is a widely assumed but rarely tested phenomenon. We decomposed the posterior AR in the cortical source space with a 3-way PARAFAC technique, taking into account the spatial, frequency, and temporal aspects of mid-density EEG. We found a multicomponent AR structure in 90% of a group of 29 healthy adults. The typical resting-state structure consisted of a high-frequency occipito-parietal component of the AR (ARC1) and a low-frequency occipito-temporal component (ARC2), characterized by individual dynamics in time...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811519/high-resolution-mapping-based-on-an-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-uav-to-capture-paleoseismic-offsets-along-the-altyn-tagh-fault-china
#3
Mingxing Gao, Xiwei Xu, Yann Klinger, Jerome van der Woerd, Paul Tapponnier
The recent dramatic increase in millimeter- to centimeter- resolution topographic datasets obtained via multi-view photogrammetry raises the possibility of mapping detailed offset geomorphology and constraining the spatial characteristics of active faults. Here, for the first time, we applied this new method to acquire high-resolution imagery and generate topographic data along the Altyn Tagh fault, which is located in a remote high elevation area and shows preserved ancient earthquake surface ruptures. A digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 0...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811513/altered-cerebellar-biochemical-profiles-in-infants-born-prematurely
#4
Marie Brossard-Racine, Jonathan Murnick, Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Janie Coulombe, Taeun Chang, Catherine Limperopoulos
This study aims to compare the cerebellar biochemical profiles in preterm (PT) infants evaluated at term equivalent age (TEA) and healthy full-term newborns using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). We explore the associations between altered cerebellar metabolite profiles and brain injury topography, severity of injury, and prematurity-related clinical complications. We prospectively collected high quality (1)H-MRS in 59 premature infants born ≤32 weeks and 61 healthy full term controls. (1)H-MRS data were processed using LCModel software to calculate absolute metabolite concentration for N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810507/landscape-determinants-of-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-aerosol-optical-depth-in-the-two-most-polluted-metropolitans-in-the-united-states
#5
Chenghao Wang, Chuyuan Wang, Soe W Myint, Zhi-Hua Wang
Elevated concentration of atmospheric aerosols during severe urban air pollution episodes necessitates a deep understanding of the underlying determinants for a sustainable urban environment. The 15-year (2001-2015) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data for the Phoenix and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas were applied to examine the spatio-temporal patterns and dynamics of urban aerosols. The strongly correlated temporal trends of AOD were observed due to the similar seasonal pattern of aerosol emissions and potential synoptic connections between two areas...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810196/tobacco-demand-delay-discounting-and-smoking-topography-among-smokers-with-and-without-psychopathology
#6
Samantha G Farris, Elizabeth R Aston, Ana M Abrantes, Michael J Zvolensky
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology...
August 3, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809634/-wear-and-roughness-of-bearing-surface-in-retrieved-polyethylene-bicon-plus-cups
#7
M Ranuša, J Gallo, M Hobza, M Vrbka, D Nečas, M Hartl
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY By 7th December 2016, 4,755 Bicon-Plus cups in total were implanted in the Czech Republic. Some of them have been continuously re-operated, while the most frequent reason of failure is polyethylene wear and aseptic loosening. The present study is focused on surface analysis of retrieved polyethylene Bicon-Plus cups and the determination of the roughness of their bearing surfaces. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, we had 13 high molecular weight polyethylene cups with the average time in situ of 8...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808741/stable-isotope-raman-microspectroscopy-for-the-analysis-of-soil-organic-matter
#8
Alexandra C Wiesheu, Ramona Brejcha, Carsten W Mueller, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Martin Elsner, Reinhard Niessner, Natalia P Ivleva
We examined the potential of stable-isotope Raman microspectroscopy (SIRM) for the evaluation of differently enriched (13)C-labeled humic acids as model substances for soil organic matter (SOM). The SOM itself can be linked to the soil water holding capacity. Therefore, artificial humic acids (HA) with known isotopic compositions were synthesized and analyzed by means of SIRM. By performing a pregraphitization, a suitable analysis method was developed to cope with the high fluorescence background. Results were verified against isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)...
August 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807883/simultaneous-afm-topography-and-recognition-imaging-at-the-plasma-membrane-of-mammalian-cells
#9
REVIEW
Lilia A Chtcheglova, Peter Hinterdorfer
Elucidation the nano-organization of membrane proteins at/within the plasma membrane is probably the most demanding and still challenging task in cell biology since requires experimental approaches with nanoscale resolution. During last decade, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) has become a powerful tool to quickly obtain local receptor nano-maps on complex heterogeneous biosurfaces such as cells and membranes. Here we emphasize the TREC technique and explain how to unravel the nano-landscape of mammalian cells...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806091/sparsity-based-super-resolution-for-sem-images
#10
Shahar Tsiper, Or Dicker, Idan Kaizerman, Zeev Zohar, Mordechai Segev, Yonina C Eldar
The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is an electron microscope that produces an image of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the atoms in the sample, which emit secondary electrons that contain information about the surface topography and composition. The sample is scanned by the electron beam point by point, until an image of the surface is formed. Since its invention in 1942, the capabilities of SEMs have become paramount in the discovery and understanding of the nanometer world, and today it is extensively used for both research and in industry...
August 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805664/correlation-and-comparison-of-cortical-and-hippocampal-neural-progenitor-morphology-and-differentiation-through-the-use-of-micro-and-nano-topographies
#11
Sharvari Sathe, Xiang Quan Chan, Jing Jin, Erik Bernitt, Hans-Günther Döbereiner, Evelyn K F Yim
Neuronal morphology and differentiation have been extensively studied on topography. The differentiation potential of neural progenitors has been shown to be influenced by brain region, developmental stage, and time in culture. However, the neurogenecity and morphology of different neural progenitors in response to topography have not been quantitatively compared. In this study, the correlation between the morphology and differentiation of hippocampal and cortical neural progenitor cells was explored. The morphology of differentiated neural progenitors was quantified on an array of topographies...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805275/participation-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinases-1-2-in-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-grown-on-titanium-surfaces
#12
Heitor F Silva, Rodrigo P F Abuna, Helena B Lopes, Marcelo S Francischini, Paulo T de Oliveira, Adalberto L Rosa, Marcio M Beloti
Osteoblasts and adipocytes coexist in the implantation site and affect the process of titanium (Ti) osseointegration. As extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) are involved in osteogenesis and adipogenesis, the aim of our study was to investigate if the effects of Ti surface topography on osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation are modulated by ERK1/2. The experiments were conducted based on the effect of the ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown under osteogenic and adipogenic conditions on Ti with nanotopography (Ti-Nano) or on machined Ti (Ti-Machined)...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804783/functional-corticostriatal-connection-topographies-predict-goal-directed-behaviour-in-humans
#13
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804719/effect-of-2-bleaching-agents-with-a-content-of-high-concentrated-hydrogen-peroxide-on-stained-2-cad-cam-blocks-and-a-nanohybrid-composite-resin-an-afm-evaluation
#14
İzgen Karakaya, Esra Cengiz
The aim of this study was to evaluate color stability of 3 restorative materials, discoloration ability of different solutions, efficacy of 2 office bleaching agents, and surface roughness and topography. Sixty specimens for Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (CME), Lava Ultimate (LU), and Vita Enamic (VE) were prepared. They were immersed into 3 staining solutions for 2 weeks and then they were bleached. According to the measured L(⁎), a(⁎), and b(⁎) parameters described by CIELAB system, color changes (ΔE00), translucency parameters (TP), whiteness index values (W(⁎)), and changes in closeness to pure white (ΔW(⁎)) were calculated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801641/polymertropism-of-rod-shaped-bacteria-movement-along-aligned-polysaccharide-fibers
#15
David J Lemon, Xingbo Yang, Pragya Srivastava, Yan-Yeung Luk, Anthony G Garza
In nature, bacteria often live in surface-associated communities known as biofilms. Biofilm-forming bacteria typically deposit a layer of polysaccharide on the surfaces they inhabit; hence, polysaccharide is their immediate environment on many surfaces. In this study, we examined how the physical characteristics of polysaccharide substrates influence the behavior of the biofilm-forming bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. M. xanthus responds to the compression-induced deformation of polysaccharide substrates by preferentially spreading across the surface perpendicular to the axis of compression...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801269/elastin-plga-hybrid-electrospun-nanofiber-scaffolds-for-salivary-epithelial-cell-self-organization-and-polarization
#16
Zahraa I Foraida, Tim Kamaldinov, Deirdre A Nelson, Melinda Larsen, James Castracane
Development of electrospun nanofibers that mimic the structural, mechanical and biochemical properties of natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) is a promising approach for tissue regeneration. Electrospun fibers of synthetic polymers partially mimic the topography of the ECM, however, their high stiffness, poor hydrophilicity and lack of in vivo-like biochemical cues is not optimal for epithelial cell self-organization and function. In search of a biomimetic scaffold for salivary gland tissue regeneration, we investigated the potential of elastin, an ECM protein, to generate elastin hybrid nanofibers that have favorable physical and biochemical properties for regeneration of the salivary glands...
August 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800343/microsaccade-dysfunction-and-adaptation-in-hemianopia-after-stroke
#17
Ying Gao, Bernhard A Sabel
BACKGROUND: Besides the reduction of visual field size, hemianopic patients may also experience other poorly understood symptoms such as blurred vision, diplopia, or reduced visual acuity, which may be related to microsaccade function. OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) if microsaccades are altered in hemianopia; (ii) how altered microsaccade features correlate with visual performances; and (iii) how their direction relates to visual field defect topography. METHODS: In this case-control study, microsaccades of hemianopic stroke patients (n = 14) were assessed with high-resolution eye-tracking technique, compared with those of healthy controls (n = 14), and correlated with visual performances, visual field defect parameters and lesion age...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799675/biomimetic-implants-for-pelvic-floor-repair
#18
REVIEW
Mahshid Vashaghian, Sebastianus J Zaat, Theodoor H Smit, Jan-Paul Roovers
BACKGROUND: Polypropylene implants are used for the reconstructive surgery of urogynaecological disorders like pelvic organ prolapse, but severe complications associated with their use have been reported. There is evidence that surface properties and a difference in mechanical stiffness between the implant and the host tissue contribute to these adverse events. Electrospinning is an innovative engineering alternative that provides a biomimetic microstructure for implants, resulting in a different mechano-biological performance...
August 11, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798903/anti-quorum-sensing-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-delftia-tsuruhatensis-extract-by-attenuating-the-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-factor-production-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Vijay K Singh, Avinash Mishra, Bhavanath Jha
Multidrug-resistance bacteria commonly use cell-to-cell communication that leads to biofilm formation as one of the mechanisms for developing resistance. Quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) is an effective approach for the prevention of biofilm formation. A Gram-negative bacterium, Delftia tsuruhatensis SJ01, was isolated from the rhizosphere of a species of sedge (Cyperus laevigatus) grown along the coastal-saline area. The isolate SJ01 culture and bacterial crude extract showed QSI activity in the biosensor plate containing the reference strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794520/iran-s-land-suitability-for-agriculture
#20
Mohsen B Mesgaran, Kaveh Madani, Hossein Hashemi, Pooya Azadi
Increasing population has posed insurmountable challenges to agriculture in the provision of future food security, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region where biophysical conditions are not well-suited for agriculture. Iran, as a major agricultural country in the MENA region, has long been in the quest for food self-sufficiency, however, the capability of its land and water resources to realize this goal is largely unknown. Using very high-resolution spatial data sets, we evaluated the capacity of Iran's land for sustainable crop production based on the soil properties, topography, and climate conditions...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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