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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352978/use-of-multimodality-imaging-and-artificial-intelligence-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Xiaonan Liu, Kewei Chen, Teresa Wu, David Weidman, Fleming Lure, Jing Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Currently, no treatment exists to slow down or stop the progression of AD. There is converging belief that disease-modifying treatments should focus on early stages of the disease, that is, the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and preclinical stages. Making a diagnosis of AD and offering a prognosis (likelihood of converting to AD) at these early stages are challenging tasks but possible with the help of multimodality imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission topography (PET), amyloid-PET, and recently introduced tau-PET, which provides different but complementary information...
January 10, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352892/synergistic-effect-of-carbon-nanotubes-and-graphene-for-high-performance-cellulose-acetate-membranes-in-biomedical-applications
#2
Mariana Ioniță, Livia Elena Crică, Stefan Ioan Voicu, Sorina Dinescu, Florin Miculescu, Marieta Costache, Horia Iovu
Comparative evaluation of innovative combinations of three types of carbon nanomaterial (CNM) highlighted membranes with important potential for biomedical applications. Non-solvent induced phase separation coupled with ultrasound technique was used to generate membranes comprised of (i) cellulose acetate/ammonia functionalized carbon nanotubes (CA/CNT), (ii) cellulose acetate/ammonia functionalized graphene oxide (CA/GO), and (iii) cellulose acetate/CNT-GO. Structural, topographical and thermal features as well as water and ethanol permeation, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and haemoglobin (Hb) rejection were evaluated...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352255/offline-stimulation-of-human-parietal-cortex-differently-affects-resting-eeg-microstates
#3
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Paolo Capotosto
The interference effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on several electroencephalographic (EEG) measures in both temporal and frequency domains have been reported. We tested the hypothesis whether the offline external inhibitory interference, although focal, could result in a global reorganization of the functional brain state, as assessed by EEG microstates. In 16 healthy subjects, we inhibited five parietal areas and used a pseudo stimulation (Sham) at rest. The EEG microstates were extracted before and after each stimulation...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350941/immotile-active-matter-activity-from-death-and-reproduction
#4
Arben Kalziqi, David Yanni, Jacob Thomas, Siu Lung Ng, Skanda Vivek, Brian K Hammer, Peter J Yunker
Unlike equilibrium atomic solids, biofilms-soft solids composed of bacterial cells-do not experience significant thermal fluctuations at the constituent level. However, living cells stochastically reproduce and die, provoking a mechanical response. We investigate the mechanical consequences of cellular death and reproduction by measuring surface-height fluctuations of biofilms containing two mutually antagonistic strains of Vibrio cholerae that kill one another on contact via the type VI secretion system. While studies of active matter typically focus on activity via constituent mobility, here, activity is mediated by reproduction and death events in otherwise immobilized cells...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350201/moth-eye-mimetic-cytocompatible-bactericidal-nanotopography-a-convergent-design
#5
Felipe Viela, Iván Navarro-Baena, Jaime J Hernández, Manuel R Osorio, Isabel Rodriguez
The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has prompted the need for radically different approaches to combat bacterial infections. Among these, bioinspired surface topographies have emerged as an effective sustainable strategy to deter bacterial infection. This study demonstrates the bactericidal activity and cytocompatibility of the moth eye mimetic topography produced by thermal polymer nanoimprinting. The moth eye topography was found to have bactericidal capabilities against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria...
January 19, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349038/abnormal-neural-hierarchy-in-processing-of-verbal-information-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Yulia Lerner, Maya Bleich-Cohen, Shimrit Solnik-Knirsh, Galit Yogev-Seligmann, Tamir Eisenstein, Waheed Madah, Alon Shamir, Talma Hendler, Ilana Kremer
Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347502/topography-and-topology-driven-spreading-of-non-newtonian-power-law-liquids-on-a-flat-and-a-spherical-substrate
#7
Masao Iwamatsu
The spreading of a cap-shaped spherical droplet of non-Newtonian power-law liquids on a flat and a spherical rough and textured substrate is theoretically studied in the capillary-controlled spreading regime. A droplet whose scale is much larger than that of the roughness of substrate is considered. The equilibrium contact angle on a rough substrate is modeled by the Wenzel and the Cassie-Baxter model. Only the viscous energy dissipation within the droplet volume is considered, and that within the texture of substrate by imbibition is neglected...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346880/emergence-and-detailed-structure-of-terraced-surfaces-produced-by-oblique-incidence-ion-sputtering
#8
Matt P Harrison, Daniel A Pearson, R Mark Bradley
We study the nanoscale terraced topographies that arise when a solid surface is bombarded with a broad ion beam that has a relatively high angle of incidence θ. We find that the surface is not completely flat between the regions in which the surface slope changes rapidly with position: Instead, small-amplitude ripples propagate along the surface. Our analytical work on these ripples yields their propagation velocity as well as the scaling behavior of their amplitude. Our simulations establish that the surfaces exhibit interrupted coarsening, i...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346608/on-demand-intraoperative-3-dimensional-printing-of-custom-cranioplastic-prostheses
#9
Alexander I Evins, John Dutton, Sayem S Imam, Amal O Dadi, Tao Xu, Du Cheng, Philip E Stieg, Antonio Bernardo
BACKGROUND: Currently, implantation of patient-specific cranial prostheses requires reoperation after a period for design and formulation by a third-party manufacturer. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing via fused deposition modeling has demonstrated increased ease of use, rapid production time, and significantly reduced costs, enabling expanded potential for surgical application. Three-dimensional printing may allow neurosurgeons to remove bone, perform a rapid intraoperative scan of the opening, and 3D print custom cranioplastic prostheses during the remainder of the procedure...
January 13, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346077/three-dimensional-graphene-biointerface-with-extremely-high-sensitivity-to-single-cancer-cell-monitoring
#10
Xiahua Wang, Aiping Liu, Yun Xing, Hongwei Duan, Weizhong Xu, Qi Zhou, Huaping Wu, Cen Chen, Benyong Chen
We developed a three-dimensional biointerface of graphene-based electrical impedance sensor for metastatic cancer diagnosis at single-cell resolution. Compared with traditional impedance sensor with two-dimensional interface, the graphene biointerface mimiced the topography and somatotype features of cancer cells, achieving more comprehensive and thorough single cell signals in the three-dimensional space. At the nodes of physiological behavior change of single cell, namely cell capture, adhesion, migration and proliferation, the collected electrical signals from graphene biointerface were about two times stronger than those from the two-dimensional gold interface due to the substantial increase in contact area and significant improvement of topographical interaction between cells and graphene electrode...
January 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345134/nanoscale-imaging-of-primary-cilia-with-scanning-ion-conductance-microscopy
#11
Yuanshu Zhou, Masaki Saito, Takafumi Miyamoto, Pavel Novak, Andrew I Shevchuk, Yuri E Korchev, Takeshi Fukuma, Yasufumi Takahashi
Primary cilia are hair-like sensory organelles whose dimensions and location vary with cell type and culture condition. Herein, we employed scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) to visualize the topography of primary cilia from different cell types. By combining SICM with fluorescence imaging, we successfully distinguished between surface cilia that project outward from the cell surface and subsurface cilia that are trapped below it. The nanoscale structure of the ciliary pocket, which cannot be easily identified using a confocal fluorescence microscope, was observed in SICM images...
January 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343808/stereotactic-topography-of-the-greater-and-third-occipital-nerves-and-its-clinical-implication
#12
Hong-San Kim, Kang-Jae Shin, Jehoon O, Hyun-Jin Kwon, Minho Lee, Hun-Mu Yang
This study aimed to provide topographic information of the greater occipital (GON) and third occipital (3ON) nerves, with the three-dimensional locations of their emerging points on the back muscles (60 sides, 30 cadavers) and their spatial relationship with muscle layers, using a 3D digitizer (Microscribe G2X, Immersion Corp, San Jose CA, USA). With reference to the external occipital protuberance (EOP), GON pierced the trapezius at a point 22.6 ± 7.4 mm lateral and 16.3 ± 5.9 mm inferior and the semispinalis capitis (SSC) at a point 13...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343750/multi-wavelength-growth-of-nanosecond-laser-induced-surface-damage-on-fused-silica-gratings
#13
Maxime Chambonneau, Laurent Lamaignère
The nanosecond laser-induced damage growth phenomenon on the exit surface of fused silica grating is investigated at 1064 nm and 355 nm separately and also simultaneously. Experiments are first carried out on damage sites on a plane fused silica sample showing two different morphologies, and a damage type is selected for ensuring the repeatability of the subsequent tests. Comparing the mono-wavelength growth results on a grating and a plane fused silica sample, the periodic surface structure is found to be an aggravating factor for damage growth...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340852/a-geochemical-view-into-continental-palaeotemperatures-of-the-end-permian-using-oxygen-and-hydrogen-isotope-composition-of-secondary-silica-in-chert-rubble-breccia-kaibab-formation-grand-canyon-usa
#14
Ray Kenny
The upper carbonate member of the Kaibab Formation in northern Arizona (USA) was subaerially exposed during the end Permian and contains fractured and zoned chert rubble lag deposits typical of karst topography. The karst chert rubble has secondary (authigenic) silica precipitates suitable for estimating continental weathering temperatures during the end Permian karst event. New oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of secondary silica precipitates in the residual rubble breccia: (1) yield continental palaeotemperature estimates between 17 and 22 °C; and, (2) indicate that meteoric water played a role in the crystallization history of the secondary silica...
January 16, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340362/synergetic-topography-and-chemistry-cues-guiding-osteogenic-differentiation-in-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-through-erk1-2-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#15
Xinran Zhang, Haotian Li, Chucheng Lin, Congqin Ning, Kaili Lin
Both the topographic surface and chemical composition modification can enhance rapid osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. Till now, the synergetic effects of topography and chemistry cues guiding biological responses have been rarely reported. Herein, the ordered micro-patterned topography and classically essential trace element of strontium (Sr) ion doping were selected to imitate topography and chemistry cues, respectively. The ordered micro-patterned topography on Sr ion-doped bioceramics was successfully duplicated using the nylon sieve as the template...
January 17, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340255/habitat-use-in-south-west-european-skinks-genus-chalcides
#16
Daniel Escoriza, Guillem Pascual, Alberto Sánchez-Vialas
Background: Congeneric species of reptiles frequently exhibit partitioning in terms of their use of habitats or trophic resources in order to reduce competition. In this study, we investigated habitat use by two species of European skinks: Chalcides bedriagai and Chalcides striatus, based on 49 records from southern France, Spain, and Portugal. Methods: We measured three levels of niche descriptors: macroscale (climate, topography, and substrate), mesoscale (plant associations), and microscale (vegetation cover and shelters)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339637/corneal-collagen-crosslinking-combined-with-phototherapeutic-keratectomy-and-photorefractive-keratectomy-for-corneal-ectasia-after-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis
#17
Wei Zhu, Yunfei Han, Changxia Cui, Wenwen Xu, Xuan Wang, Xiaoxiao Dou, Linlin Xu, Yanyun Xu, Guoying Mu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of corneal crosslinking (CXL) combined with phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in halting the progression and improving the visual function of corneal ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS: PTK-PRK-CXL was performed on 14 eyes of 14 patients who developed corneal ectasia after LASIK. The visual acuity, spherical refraction and cylinder, corneal topography indices, thinnest corneal thickness (TCT), and endothelial cell count were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively...
January 17, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339525/pulsating-dissolution-of-crystalline-matter
#18
Cornelius Fischer, Andreas Luttge
Fluid-solid reactions result in material flux from or to the solid surface. The prediction of the flux, its variations, and changes with time are of interest to a wide array of disciplines, ranging from the material and earth sciences to pharmaceutical sciences. Reaction rate maps that are derived from sequences of topography maps illustrate the spatial distribution of reaction rates across the crystal surface. Here, we present highly spatially resolved rate maps that reveal the existence of rhythmic pulses of the material flux from the crystal surface...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338202/nanoscale-domain-imaging-of-all-polymer-organic-solar-cells-by-photo-induced-force-microscopy
#19
Kevin L Gu, Yan Zhou, William A Morrison, Katherine Park, Sung Park, Zhenan Bao
Rapid nanoscale imaging of the bulk heterojunction layer in organic solar cells is essential to the continued development of high-performance devices. Unfortunately, commonly used imaging techniques such as tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) suffer from significant drawbacks. For instance, assuming domain identity from phase contrast or topographical features can lead to inaccurate morphological conclusions. Here we demonstrate a technique known as Photo-induced Force Microscopy (PiFM) for imaging organic solar cell bulk heterojunctions with nanoscale chemical specificity...
January 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336083/how-sea-level-change-mediates-genetic-divergence-in-coastal-species-across-regions-with-varying-tectonic-and-sediment-processes
#20
Greer A Dolby, Ryan A Ellingson, Lloyd T Findley, David K Jacobs
Plate tectonics and sediment processes control regional continental shelf topography. We examine the genetic consequences of how glacial-associated sea-level change interacted with variable near-shore topography since the last glaciation. We reconstructed the size and distribution of areas suitable for tidal estuary formation from the Last Glacial Maximum, ~20 thousand years ago, to present from San Francisco, California, USA (~38 °N) to Reforma, Sinaloa, Mexico (~25 °N). We assessed range-wide genetic structure and diversity of three co-distributed tidal estuarine fishes (California Killifish, Shadow Goby, Longjaw Mudsucker) along ~4,600 km using mitochondrial control region and cytB sequence, and 16-20 microsatellite loci from a total of 524 individuals...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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