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cytokine antipsychotic

Toby Pillinger, Emanuele F Osimo, Stefan Brugger, Valeria Mondelli, Robert A McCutcheon, Oliver D Howes
Immune parameters are elevated in psychosis, but it is unclear whether alterations are homogenous across patients or heterogeneity exists, consistent with the hypothesis that immune alterations are specific to a subgroup of patients. To address this, we examine whether antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis patients exhibit greater variability in blood cytokines, C-reactive protein, and white cell counts compared with controls, and if group mean differences persist after adjusting for skewed data and potential confounds...
November 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Chia-Hui Chen, Song-Kun Shyue, Chiao-Po Hsu, Tzong-Shyuan Lee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, has therapeutic effects for schizophrenia. However, clinical reports indicate that patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs are at high risk of metabolic syndrome with unclear mechanisms. We investigated the effect of olanzapine on atherosclerosis and the mechanisms in apolipoprotein E-null (apoE-/-) mice. METHODS: ApoE-/- mice were used as in vivo models. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate protein expression...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaohua Chen, Zhenzhen Xiong, Zhixiong Li, Yali Yang, Zhanying Zheng, Yonghong Li, Yan Xie, Zhe Li
The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve increased production of inflammatory cytokines by activated microglia. Minocycline can inhibit activated microglia and may improve secondary negative symptoms and/or cognitive functions when used as adjuvant to antipsychotics. Effects on minocycline on primary and enduring negative symptoms in deficit schizophrenia (DS) are unknown. We present a male patient with a 3-year history of DS. He was treated for 12 weeks with risperidone at a maximal dose of 6 mg per day, then for 10 weeks with olanzapine at 20 mg per day...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Andreza B Sonego, Douglas S Prado, Gabriel T Vale, Julia E Sepulveda-Diaz, Thiago M Cunha, Carlos R Tirapelli, Elaine A Del Bel, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Francisco S Guimarães
The chronic use of drugs that reduce the dopaminergic neurotransmission can cause a hyperkinetic movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia (TD). The pathophysiology of this disorder is not entirely understood but could involve oxidative and neuroinflammatory mechanisms. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in Cannabis sativa plant, could be a possible therapeutic alternative for TD. This phytocannabinoid shows antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic properties and decreases the acute motor effects of classical antipsychotics...
September 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Britta Stapel, Irina Sieve, Christine S Falk, Stefan Bleich, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Kai G Kahl
Schizophrenia and major depression are associated with alterations in peripheral inflammatory markers, and anti-inflammatory therapy has been proposed as a promising add-on approach in the pharmacologic treatment of both disorders. Second-generation atypical antipsychotics are currently first-line drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia and are also used as augmentation strategies in treatment-resistant major depression. Furthermore, these drugs have been reported to exhibit distinct metabolic side effects and to influence inflammatory processes...
October 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Apiwan Rosena, Thongchai Koobkokkruad, Waleewan Eaknai, Phichaporn Bunwatcharaphansakun, Rawiwan Maniratanachote, Sasitorn Aueviriyavit
Bombyx mori silk extracts, derived from the cocoon degumming process of draw and dye silk in the textile industry, are mainly composed of sericin protein. To add value to the Thai silk extracts, and hence the silk industry, a simple enrichment process was recently developed and the enriched silk extracts were then applied in nano-cosmeceutical products and nano-delivery systems. In this study, the protective effect of Thai silk extracts from three different strains of Bombyx mori on the drug-induced phototoxicity was evaluated in vitro using chlorpromazine (CPZ), a commonly used antipsychotic drug, as a representative phototoxic drug...
November 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Mirza S Baig, Anjali Roy, Uzma Saqib, Sajjan Rajpoot, Mansi Srivastava, Adnan Naim, Dongfang Liu, Rohit Saluja, Syed M Faisal, Qiuwei Pan, Kati Turkowski, Gajanan N Darwhekar, Rajkumar Savai
Nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) is a crucial transcription factor in the signal transduction cascade of the inflammatory signaling. Activation of NF-κB depends on the phosphorylation of IκBα by IκB kinase (IKKβ) followed by subsequent ubiquitination and degradation. This leads to the nuclear translocation of the p50- p65 subunits of NF-κB, and further triggers pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Thus, in the need of a more effective therapy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, specific inhibition of IKKβ represents a rational alternative strategy to the current therapies...
August 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Mir Davood Omrani, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Schizophrenia is a chronic severe mental disorder in which immunologic imbalances have been reported. Some researchers have demonstrated dysregulation of cytokine levels in this mental disorder. Considering the possible role of cytokines in the pathogenesis or clinical course of schizophrenia, we assessed serum levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A and IFN-γ in a homogenous sample of Iranian patients who were in remission under treatment with Clozapine compared with sex and age matched controls. There was a statistically significant difference in IL-4 levels between patients and healthy subjects (P= 0...
July 14, 2018: Human Antibodies
Hebatalla I Ahmed, Somaia A Abdel-Sattar, Heba S Zaky
There are increasing evidences supporting the involvement of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in schizophrenia. Vinpocetine, a nootropic phosphodiesterase-1 inhibitor, was proven to possess anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials. This research aimed to reveal the likely protective features of vinpocetine against ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like deficits in rats. Additionally, the probable mechanisms contributing to this neuroprotection were also elucidated. Vinpocetine was given (20 mg/kg, i...
December 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
David W Volk, Annie E Moroco, Kaitlyn M Roman, Jessica R Edelson, David A Lewis
BACKGROUND: Transcript levels for cytokines and the viral restriction factor interferon-induced transmembrane protein are markedly higher in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. These gene products are regulated by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptional complex. NF-κB activity, which requires the formation of NF-κB family member heterodimers, is regulated by activation receptors, kinases, and inhibitors. Whether any of these factors are altered in schizophrenia is not known...
June 28, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Bruno Romeo, Marine Brunet-Lecomte, Catherine Martelli, Amine Benyamina
Background: Immune system dysfunction is a hypothesis in the psychopathology of schizophrenia, but the impact of antipsychotic treatment within this system is not clear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of antipsychotic treatment on cytokine levels in in vivo studies on schizophrenia. Methods: After a systematic database search, original data were extracted with the help of certain authors. Means and SDs were extracted to calculate standardized mean differences...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Rigil K Yeung, Zheng-Hua Xiang, Shui-Ying Tsang, Rui Li, Timothy Y C Ho, Qi Li, Chok-King Hui, Pak-Chung Sham, Ming-Qi Qiao, Hong Xue
Intronic polymorphisms of the GABAA receptor β2 subunit gene (GABRB2) under adaptive evolution were associated with schizophrenia and reduced expression, especially of the long isoform which differs in electrophysiological properties from the short isoform. The present study was directed to examining the gene dosage effects of Gabrb2 in knockout mice of both heterozygous (HT) and homozygous (KO) genotypes with respect to possible schizophrenia-like and comorbid phenotypes. The KO mice, and HT mice to a lesser extent, were found to display prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficit, locomotor hyperactivity, stereotypy, sociability impairments, spatial-working and spatial-reference memory deficits, reduced depression and anxiety, and accelerated pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure...
July 17, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
María Juncal-Ruiz, Laura Riesco-Dávila, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Obdulia Martínez-Garcia, Mariluz Ramírez-Bonilla, Javier Gonzalo Ocejo-Viñals, Juan Carlos Leza, Marcos López-Hoyos, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
INTRODUCTION: Evidence about the anti-inflammatory properties of antipsychotics has grown. However, no previous studies have compared the immunomodulatory effect of risperidone and aripiprazole. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of the present work is to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of risperidone and aripiprazole on a large array of serum cytokines at 3 months following the onset of treatment. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, open-label study...
June 22, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Hong Shen, Danyang Wu, Shanshan Wang, Mengjie Zhao, Wenbo Sun, Xiaozhou Zhu, Ning Zhang, Hui Yao, Qing Cui, Hong Xiao
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is higher in patients with schizophrenia than in the general population. We aimed to investigate whether atypical antipsychotics (AAP) increase the levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), thereby increasing the risk of CVD. The data were from inpatients aged 18-60 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 at the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University who underwent physical examination between 1 October 2014 and 30 September 2016...
June 25, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Sina Hafizi, Elisa Guma, Alex Koppel, Tania Da Silva, Michael Kiang, Sylvain Houle, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, M Mallar Chakravarty, Romina Mizrahi
Psychosis is associated with abnormal structural changes in the brain including decreased regional brain volumes and abnormal brain morphology. However, the underlying causes of these structural abnormalities are less understood. The immune system, including microglial activation, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Although previous studies have suggested a connection between peripheral proinflammatory cytokines and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, no in-vivo studies have investigated whether microglial activation is also linked to brain structure alterations previously observed in schizophrenia and its putative prodrome...
June 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Amanda da Silva, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Astrocytes are glial cells that are essential for the maintenance of central nervous system functions, modulating neurotransmitters, providing metabolic, trophic and antioxidant support, and producing a wide range of cytokines to modulate the inflammatory response. These cells can be targets for antipsychotics, medications used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this regard, several studies have shown that antipsychotics are able to modulate peripheral cytokine release, but their effects on astroglial inflammatory response need to be further investigated...
October 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Che-Sheng Chu, Dian-Jeng Li, Chin-Liang Chu, Chih-Ching Wu, Ti Lu
Objective: Schizophrenia (SZ) has been associated with the inflammatory-related and immunological pathogenesis. This study investigates the aberration of cytokines in patients with SZ. Methods: Thirty patients with SZ without antipsychotic treatment for at least two weeks participated. We measured the serum levels of fourteen cytokines at hospital admission and after 8-week antipsychotic treatment. Severity was measured by expanded version of 24-items brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS-E)...
July 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Charilaos Gerasimou, James N Tsoporis, Nikolaos Siafakas, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Maria Kallergi, Sofia N Chatziioannou, Thomas G Parker, John Parissis, Vasileios Salpeas, Charalabos Papageorgiou, Emmanouil Rizos
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a major mechanism in schizophrenic disorder. Specifically, an increase in the inflammatory response in the central nervous system is capable of activating microglial cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus activating apoptotic signaling. An increase in apoptosis may underlie a potential role of immune neuropathology in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia and specifically, the onset of the disorder...
2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Gordana Rubesa, Lea Gudelj, Dolores Makovac
There are many theories about the etiology of schizophrenia. This paper presents the assumptions and latest findings about many immunological characteristics of schizophrenia. According to the neuroimunological theory, this disorder is due to neuroimunological disbalance, increased microglial activity and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Studies have found that intrauterine infections in pregnant women have an effect on the fetal brain development, and that infections with rubella, measles, herpes virus, and toxoplasma are associeted with schizophrenia onset in adult life...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Maria Tavakoli-Ardakani, Hamide Abbaspour, Abdollah Farhadi Nasab, Azadeh Mazaheri Meibodi, Ali Kheradmand
Memantine, an uncompetitive antagonist of glutamate receptor of the N-methyl-D-aspartate type is approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer disease (1). A growing body of evidence supports a link between the glutamatergic neurotransmission and schizophrenia (2). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of memantine as an adjunctive treatment for antipsychotics in patient with psychopathology of schizophrenia and schizoaffective. In this study, we assessed the effect of memantine on the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL6, TNFα and CRP...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
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