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Holger Keil, Sara Aytac, Paul Alfred Grützner, Jochen Franke
Pelvic fractures may range from highly severe, life-threatening injuries to less acute clinical entities. There are several sub-entities that are summed up as pelvic injuries. Anatomically, there are fractures of the anterior or posterior pelvic ring. Apart from these, there are fractures of the acetabulum that make up about one fifth of all pelvic injuries. The indication for surgical treatment of pelvic ring injuries depends on the type of injury, involvement of anterior and/or posterior elements of the pelvic ring, demands and the general condition of the patient...
November 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Mark Hamer, Gary O'Donovan, Emmanuel Stamatakis
Physical activity is thought to be cardioprotective, but associations with different subtypes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are poorly understood. We examined associations between physical activity and seven major CVD death causes. The sample comprised 65,093 adults (aged 58 ± 12 years, 45.4% men) followed up over mean [SD] 9.4 ± 4.5 years, recruited from The Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys. A CVD diagnosis was reported in 9.2% of the sample at baseline. Physical activity was self-reported...
November 11, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Fei Huang
Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) catalyze lysine acetylation, a reversible protein modification implicated in a wide variety of disease states. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) comprise a KAT sub-class that acetylate specific lysines in histones, hence playing an important role in the regulation of chromatin organization and function. HATs are critical regulators of signaling in many diseases, including cancer. KAT6A (also known as monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein, MOZ) and KAT6B (also known as MORF and QKF) belong to the MYST family of HATs, that comprise KAT5-KAT8...
December 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
D Sureshkumar, Shamshad Begum, N M Johannah, Balu Maliakel, I M Krishnakumar
The present study investigated the safety of a saponin-rich standardized extract of fenugreek seeds (FenuSMART® ; FHE), that has been clinically shown to be effective in ameliorating the postmenopausal discomforts and establishing hormonal balance. The safety was assessed by oral acute (2500 mg/kg b. wt. for 14 days) and subchronic (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b. wt. for 90 days) toxicity studies on Wistar rats and mutagenicity studies employing Salmonella typhimurium strains. Administration of FHE did not produce any toxicologically significant changes in clinical/behavioral observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weight, organ weight, feed consumption, urinalysis, hematology and clinical biochemistry parameters when compared to the untreated control group of animals...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Miguel Oliveira Santos, Pedro Ninitas, Isabel Conceição
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (LGMD2A) or calpainopathy is the most common type of LGMD worldwide, representing about 30-40% of all described cases. Nevertheless, its prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries is unknown. We report two young siblings from Guinea-Bissau with recessive calpainopathy due to novel null homozygous c.1702Gdup mutation in CAPN3 gene. Their phenotype was quite aggressive concerning limb-girdle atrophy and muscle weakness as well as respiratory involvement. The proband needed nocturnal non-invasive ventilation at the age of 32, and his 33-year-old affected sister succumbed to an acute respiratory arrest after an intercurrent infection...
October 9, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Martin J Thomas, Stephanie Butler-Walley, Trishna Rathod-Mistry, Zoe Mayson, Emma L Parry, Christopher Pope, Tuhina Neogi, George Peat
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of persistent pain and disability. Traditionally viewed as a slowly progressive disease, the impact of symptom variability on prognosis remains unclear. 'Acute-on-chronic' episodes are a well-recognised feature of many long-term conditions but only recently formally described in OA. This study aimed to develop a web-based data collection platform and establish key methodological design parameters, to develop a larger community-based study investigating acute flares of knee OA in England...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Tomo Ando, Oluwole Adegbala, Pedro A Villablanca, Alexandros Briasoulis, Hisato Takagi, Cindy L Grines, Theodore Schreiber, Tamim Nazif, Susheel Kodali, Luis Afonso
OBJECTIVES: To assess the in-hospital outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) vs. surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in non-teaching hospitals. BACKGROUND: TAVR has become widely available in the United States. However, the comparative outcomes of TAVR vs. SAVR in non-teaching hospitals are largely under explored. METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2011 to September 2015 to identify those who were 50 years or above and underwent either trans-arterial TAVR or SAVR at non-teaching hospital...
November 8, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Sharon Tzelnick, Uri Alkan, Moshe Leshno, Peter Hwang, Ethan Soudry
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is often recommended for symptomatic patients with recurrent acute or chronic rhinosinusitis who have failed conservative treatment. Postoperative care has been felt to be critical for both maintaining the surgical patency of the operated sinuses and improving patient symptoms. Debridement of the sinonasal cavities is one such postoperative care measure that has frequently been studied in the literature, often with conflicting conclusions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of postoperative sinonasal debridement versus no debridement following endoscopic sinus surgery...
November 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Serena Benedetti, Simona Catalani, Francesco Palma, Barbara Canonico, Francesca Luchetti, Rossella Galati, Stefano Papa, Serafina Battistelli
AIMS AND METHODS: Many antiviral agents have been reported to present direct cytotoxic activity in cancer, showing antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects through different mechanisms. In the present study, we took into account the cytotoxic action of the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) on leukemia cells, by investigating cell cycle perturbations and apoptosis induction upon drug administration to three still unexplored cell lines, namely Jurkat, U937, and K562. At the same time, the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (CDDP) and 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU) in combination with ACV was assessed, thus to evaluate if the antiviral agent could enhance cancer cell sensitivity to these chemotherapeutic drugs...
November 4, 2018: Life Sciences
Leslie Vargas-Saturno, Carlos Ayala-Grosso
Understanding endogenous neurogenesis and neuronal replacement to mature circuits is a topic of discussion as a therapeutic alternative under acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Adaptive neurogenic response may result as a result of ischemia which could support long term recovery of behavioral functions. Endogenous sources of neural progenitors may be stimulated by changes in blood flow or neuromodulation. Using a mouse model of unilateral cortical devascularisation we have observed reactive neurogenesis in the perilesional cortex and subventricular zone neurogenic niche...
November 6, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira, Miguel Carnero Gregorio, Roberto Arenas Guzman
Dear Editor, A 29-year-old woman presented with abscesses on her buttock and leg attributed to flea bites inflicted 5 days earlier on return to Spain after 2 months in Guinea-Bissau. Ciprofloxacin was ineffective after 7 days, and she was referred for dermatologic evaluation. Examination revealed 4 round, indurated, erythematous-violet furunculoid lesions with a 1.5-2 mm central orifice draining serous material. She reported seeing larvae exiting a lesion, and we extracted several more (Figure 1). Parasitology identified Dermatobia (D...
October 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Ndiaga Matar Gaye, Maouly Fall, Alassane Mamadou Diop, Samy Mohamed Lemine Dadah, Mamadou Ka, Ousmane Cissé, Ngor Side Diagne, Marième Soda Diop-Sène, Adjaratou Dieynabou Sow, Anna Modji Basse-Faye, Mamadou Moustapha Sarr, Kamadore Touré, Lala Bouna Seck, Moustapha Ndiaye, Amadou Gallo Diop
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. In Sub-Saharan Africa, publications are rare and deal with isolated cases. Our goal was to analyze the characteristics of NMO spectrum disorders in a Senegalese cohort compiled in Dakar. PATIENTS AND METHOD: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at the Neurology Department of Fann Teaching Hospital. We included all patients with NMO-SD according to the 2014 diagnostic criteria...
October 26, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Hannah Rafferty, Oscar Chirro, Clifford Oduor, Elizabeth Wahome, Caroline Ngoi, Elise van der Elst, René Berger, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Susan M Graham, Eduard J Sanders
Background: Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the phase of HIV infection immediately after acquisition, during which many patients develop symptoms and often seek healthcare. However, clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa are not currently taught about AHI. Methods: This study pilot-tested a self-directed AHI training module among clinical officers (COs) in coastal Kenya and assessed knowledge gained and challenges to instituting screening. The training module included four domains: AHI definition and importance of AHI recognition; symptoms and screening algorithms; diagnostic strategies; and management...
November 2, 2018: International Health
Bo Ram Cho, Myung Ji Kwak, Wha Young Kim, Jeong-Hoon Kim
Impulsivity is considered an important feature associated with the development of numerous psychiatric disorders, including addictions. In the behavioral approach, impulsivity can be broadly divided into two distinct subtypes: impulsive action and choice. In the present study, we used a rodent version of the gambling task (rGT) to examine how impulsive action and impulsive choice are differentially influenced by difference in age at exposure (i.e., late adolescents/young adults vs. mature adults) to rGT. Rats were trained in a touch-screen chamber to learn the relationships between 4 light signals on the window of the screen and accompanying reward outcomes or punishments associated with different magnitudes and probabilities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Eamon Fitzgerald, James P Boardman, Amanda J Drake
Preterm Birth (PTB) accounts for approximately 11% of all births worldwide each year and is a profound physiological stressor in early life. The burden of neuropsychiatric and developmental impairment is high, with severity and prevalence correlated with gestational age at delivery. PTB is a major risk factor for the development of cerebral palsy, lower educational attainment and deficits in cognitive functioning, and individuals born preterm have higher rates of schizophrenia, autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
November 2018: Current Genomics
Shoukat Hussain Khan, Aditya Mahajan, Bashir Ahmad Laway, Roohi Rasool, Tanveer Ahmad Rather
Introduction: Sub-acute thyroiditis possibly caused by a viral infection of thyroid gland is associated with a surge in thyroxine levels of the patient. Women in the younger age group are affected more than men. Markedly decreased radioactive iodine thyroid uptakes in a setting of thyrotoxicosis associated with elevated thyroxine levels and reduced thyroid stimulating hormone levels usually clinches the diagnosis. Patients mostly require symptomatic treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Sara Rodrigues, Sara C Antunes, Alberto T Correia, Oksana Golovko, Vladimír Žlábek, Bruno Nunes
Erythromycin (ERY) is one of the most common antibiotics used in human and veterinary practices, leading to ubiquitous environmental distribution and possible toxicity to non-target organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine sub-lethal effects of ERY towards the marine fish Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream). S. aurata were acutely (0.3-323 μg/L, 96 h) and chronically (0.7-8.8 μg/L, 28 d) exposed to ERY. Detoxification [7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)], oxidative stress [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed)], lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - (TBARS)], genotoxicity [genetic damage index (GDI) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs)], neurotransmission [acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] and energy metabolism [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] biomarkers were evaluated...
October 18, 2018: Chemosphere
John J Leddy, Charles G Wilber, Barry S Willer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies are challenging the utility of prolonged rest as treatment for concussion and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence for active recovery from concussion and PCS. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data identify the central role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in concussion pathophysiology. The exercise intolerance demonstrated by athletes after sport-related concussion may be related to abnormal ANS regulation of cerebral blood flow...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Mudra Saurabh Kapoor, Anisha D'Souza, Noorjahan Aibani, Swathi Sivasankaran Nair, Puja Sandbhor, Durga Kumari, Rinti Banerjee
Oral folate fortification has been successful in many developed nations, however, developing countries still face low compliance and high incidence of folate deficiency associated with low birth weight infants and preterm deliveries. We report safe and efficient approach for transdermal systemic folate delivery using fluidising liposomes (120 ± 4 nm) stabilised within 3D matrix of naturally occurring cosmetic bases: Fuller's earth and henna with room temperature stability. The proof of stratum corneum fluidisation was established ex-vivo by Langmuir-Blodgett film, FTIR and confocal imaging in rat skin...
October 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fellippe Ramos Wolff, Milena Fronza Broering, Jocilene Demétrio Jurcevic, Taylin Zermiani, Adriana Bramorski, Josiane de Carvalho Vitorino, Angela Malheiros, José Roberto Santin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piper cernuum Vell (Piperaceae) is a native species from Atlantic rain forest, popularly known as pariparoba. Its leaves have been commonly used by rural and urban communities from State of São Paulo, Brazil, to treat pain (orally and topically), and hepatic and renal complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study we evaluated the acute and sub-acute toxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from P...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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