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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665350/pxr-structure-specific-activation-by-hepatotoxic-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids
#1
Claudia Luckert, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen, Stefanie Hessel-Pras
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) comprise a large group of more than 660 secondary metabolites found in more than 6000 plant species worldwide. Acute PA intoxication induces severe liver damage. Chronic exposure to sub-lethal doses may cause cumulative damage or cancer. Nuclear receptor activation often constitutes a molecular event for xenobiotic-induced toxicity. However, so far nothing is known about potential interactions of PAs with nuclear receptors as a toxicological mode of action. Thus, in the present study PA-dependent activation of a comprehensive panel of nuclear receptors (PPARs, LXRα, RARα, RXRα, FXR, CAR, PXR, ERα/β) was investigated using GAL4/UAS-based transactivation reporter gene assays...
April 14, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664874/traumatic-brain-injury-and-infectious-encephalopathy-in-children-from-four-resource-limited-settings-in-africa
#2
Ericka L Fink, Amelie von Saint Andre-von Arnim, Rashmi Kumar, Patrick T Wilson, Tigist Bacha, Abenezer Tirsit Aklilu, Tsegazeab Laeke Teklemariam, Shubhada Hooli, Lisine Tuyisenge, Easmon Otupiri, Anthony Fabio, John Gianakas, Patrick M Kochanek, Derek C Angus, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency, interventions, and outcomes of children presenting with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. PATIENTS: Children age 1 day to 17 years old evaluated at the hospital with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We evaluated the frequency and outcomes of children presenting consecutively over 4 weeks to any hospital department with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664738/pharmacological-induction-of-hypoxia-inducible-transcription-factor-arnt-attenuates-chronic-kidney-failure
#3
Björn Tampe, Désirée Tampe, Gunsmaa Nyamsuren, Friederike Klöpper, Gregor Rapp, Anne Kauffels, Thomas Lorf, Elisabeth M Zeisberg, Gerhard A Müller, Raghu Kalluri, Samy Hakroush, Michael Zeisberg
Progression of chronic kidney disease associated with progressive fibrosis and impaired tubular epithelial regeneration is still an unmet biomedical challenge, because once chronic lesions have manifested, no effective therapies are available as of yet for clinical use. Prompted by various studies across multiple organs demonstrating that preconditioning regimens to induce endogenous regenerative mechanisms protect various organs from later incurring acute injuries, we here aimed to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying successful protection and to explore whether such pathways could be utilized to inhibit progression of chronic organ injury...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660948/the-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-response-to-different-daily-demands-among-patients-at-the-sub-acute-phase-post-ischemic-stroke-and-healthy-controls
#4
Noa Raphaely Beer, Nachum Soroker, Nathan M Bornstein, Michal Katz Leurer
BACKGROUND: Autonomic disturbances are a common phenomenon in patients' post-stroke, characterized by hypo function of the para-sympathetic and/or overactive sympathetic system. The impact of autonomic disturbances on physical therapy tasks during the rehabilitation period has not yet been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the response of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during different tasks, among patients and age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: 19 patients in the subacute phase post first-ever ischemic stroke, and 16 controls...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659316/longitudinal-changes-in-gray-matter-regions-after-cranial-radiation-and-comparative-analysis-with-whole-body-radiation-a-dti-study
#5
Apurva Watve, Mamta Gupta, Subash Khushu, Poonam Rana
PURPOSE: Radiation induced white matter changes are well known and vastly studied. However, radiation induced gray matter alterations are still a research question. In the present study, these changes were assessed in a longitudinal manner using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and further compared for cranial and whole body radiation exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male mice (C57BL/6) were irradiated with cranial or whole body radiation followed by DTI study at 7T animal MRI system during pre-dose, sub-acute and early delayed phases of radiation sickness...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659311/a-knowledge-translation-intervention-designed-using-audit-and-feedback-and-the-theoretical-domains-framework-for-physical-therapists-working-in-inpatient-rehabilitation-a-case-report
#6
Wendy Romney, Nancy Salbach, James Scott Parrott, Judith E Deutsch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about the process of engaging key stakeholders to select and design a knowledge translation (KT) intervention to increase the use of an outcome measure using audit and feedback. The purpose of this case report was to describe the development of a KT intervention designed with organizational support to increase physical therapists' (PTs) use of a selected outcome measure in an inpatient sub-acute rehabilitation hospital. CASE DESCRIPTION: Eleven PTs who worked at a sub-acute rehabilitation hospital participated...
April 16, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658714/activation-of-trpv3-by-wood-smoke-particles-and-roles-in-pneumotoxicity
#7
Cassandra Deering-Rice, Nam Nguyen, Zhenyu Lu, James Cox, Darien Shapiro, Erin G Romero, Virginia K Mitchell, Katherine L Burrell, John M Veranth, Christopher A Reilly
Wood/biomass smoke particulate materials (WBSPM) are pneumotoxic, but mechanisms by which these materials affect lung cells are not fully understood. We previously identified transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin-1 as a sensor for electrophiles in WBSPM and hypothesized that other TRP channels expressed by lung cells might also be activated by WBSPM, contributing to pneumotoxicity. Screening TRP channel activation by WBSPM using calcium flux assays revealed TRPV3 activation by materials obtained from burning multiple types of wood under fixed conditions...
April 16, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657459/stress-radiographs-for-evaluating-acromioclavicular-joint-separations-in-an-active-duty-patient-population-what-have-we-learned
#8
K Aaron Shaw, John Synovec, Josef Eichinger, Christopher J Tucker, Jason A Grassbaugh, Stephen A Parada
Introduction: Acromioclavicular (AC) joint separation is a common entity in athletic patient populations. The surgical treatment of these injuries varies based upon extent of injury, with numerous imaging modalities recommended to differentiate injury severity and treatment options. The use of weighted stress radiographs is controversial in the diagnostic evaluation of AC separation with previous consensus recommending against their use. No study to date has investigated the clinical utilization of diagnostic studies in the evaluation of AC joint separations in a military surgeon population...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656501/radiotherapy-complications-another-sub-specialty-area-of-urology
#9
Rod Studd
Radiotherapy (primary, adjunctive or salvage) is a powerful tool in the treatment of pelvic malignancy. Dose escalation has improved cancer outcomes. However it requires accurate targeting in order to limit toxicity. Acute toxicity manifests during and in the first few months after treatment. Late toxicity may occur many years after treatment has been completed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 15, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656154/acute-recanalization-of-a-partially-thrombosed-large-intracranial-aneurysm
#10
E Atallah, E Valle-Giler, T Elarjani, N Chalouhi, S Tjoumakaris, R H Rosenwasser, N Herial, M R Gooch, H Zarzour, P Jabbour
BACKGROUND: Thrombosed large intracranial aneurysms(TLIAs) are not continuously contemplated as stable lesions. Completely occluded large IAs' spontaneous recanalization has been previously described. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a middle-aged patient presenting with agitation, acute headache, visual field defects and left hemiparesis. A large thrombosed Posterior Communicating (PCom) artery aneurysm was identified with an infarct at the same arterial territory on neuroimaging studies...
April 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651965/antitumor-effect-of-pomolic-acid-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-involves-cell-death-decreased-cell-growth-and-topoisomerases-inhibition
#11
Raquel Ciuvalschi Maia, Michelle X G Pereira, Amanda S O Hammes, Flavia C Vasconcelos, Aline R Pozzo, Thais Hancio Pereira, Ernesto R Caffarena, Cerli R Gattass
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represent the largest number of annual deaths from hematologic malignancy. In the United-States, it is estimated that 21.380 individuals will be diagnosed with AML and 49.5% of patients will die in 2017. Therefore, the searching for novel compounds capable of increasing the overall survival rate to the treatment of AML cells is urgent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cytotoxicity effect of the natural compound PA and to explore the mechanism of action of PA in AML cell lines with different phenotypes...
April 12, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648983/enhancement-of-brain-d-serine-mediates-recovery-of-cognitive-function-after-tbi
#12
Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Barbara Slusher, Dana Atrakchi-Baranes, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Yael Friedman Levi, Efrat Leah Kesner, Alcino J Silva, Anat Biegon, Esther Shohami
Cognitive deficits, especially memory loss, are common and devastating neuropsychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The deficits may persist for a long time and may be accompanied by increased risk of developing early onset dementia. Past attempts to reverse the neuropsychological effects of brain injury with glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists failed to show any benefits or worsened the outcome, suggesting activation, rather than blockage, of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) may be useful in the sub-acute period after TBI and stroke...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629678/hereditary-angio-oedema-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa
#13
K M Coovadia, M-Y Chothia, S G Baker, J G Peter, P C Potter
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a deficiency in the C1-esterase inhibitor protein, resulting in increased bradykinin release. It presents clinically with recurrent attacks of angio-oedema, commonly affecting the limbs, face, upper airway and gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about this condition in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To analyse and report on the clinical presentation and treatment of patients with HAE in the Western Cape Province, South Africa...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627377/fgf21-a-liver-hormone-that-inhibits-alcohol-intake-in-mice-increases-in-human-circulation-after-acute-alcohol-ingestion-and-sustained-binge-drinking-at-oktoberfest
#14
Susanna Søberg, Emilie S Andersen, Niels B Dalgaard, Ida Jarlhelt, Nina L Hansen, Nina Hoffmann, Tina Vilsbøll, Anne Chenchar, Michal Jensen, Trisha J Grevengoed, Sam A J Trammell, Filip K Knop, Matthew P Gillum
OBJECTIVE: Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. However, knowledge of the biological factors that influence ad libitum alcohol intake may be incomplete. Two large studies recently linked variants in the KLB locus with levels of alcohol intake in humans. KLB encodes β-klotho, co-receptor for the liver-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In mice, FGF21 reduces alcohol intake, and human Fgf21 variants are enriched among heavy drinkers...
March 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626808/oxidative-stress-responses-of-two-different-ecophysiological-species-of-earthworms-eutyphoeus-waltoni-and-eisenia-fetida-exposed-to-cd-contaminated-soil
#15
Sulata Maity, Ritesh Banerjee, Priya Goswami, Manoswini Chakrabarti, Anita Mukherjee
The aim of this study was to assess the biomarkers of oxidative stress [reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)] in earthworms of different ecological categories [epigeic Eisenia fetida (E. fetida) and anecic Eutyphoeus waltoni (E. waltoni)] exposed to cadmium (Cd)-polluted soil (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1 ) for 28 days. Cd accumulation in earthworms increased significantly with increasing exposure dose and duration...
March 29, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626668/influences-of-chlorella-vulgaris-dietary-supplementation-on-growth-performance-hematology-immune-response-and-disease-resistance-in-oreochromis-niloticus-exposed-to-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-penoxsulam-herbicide
#16
Azza A A Galal, Rasha M Reda, Amany Abdel-Rahman Mohamed
Little is known regarding the impact of penoxsulam, a fluorinated benzenesulfonamid rice herbicide, on Oreochromis niloticus. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to highlight the effects of penoxsulam exposure on O. niloticus and to evaluate the advantages of Chlorella vulgaris (CV) dietary supplementation against the induced effects. The 96-h lethal concentration 50 (LC50 ) penoxsulam value for O. niloticus was estimated at 8.948 mg/L by probit analysis in a static bioassay experiment. Next, 360 healthy fish were randomly allocated into 6 treatment groups...
April 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626015/the-prediction-of-in-hospital-mortality-by-mid-upper-arm-circumference-a-prospective-observational-study-of-the-association-between-mid-upper-arm-circumference-and-the-outcome-of-acutely-ill-medical-patients-admitted-to-a-resource-poor-hospital-in-sub-saharan
#17
Martin Otyek Opio, Teopista Namujwiga, Imaculate Nakitende, John Kellett, Mikkel Brabrand
There are few reports of the association of nutritional status with in-hospital mortality of acutely ill medical patients in sub-Saharan Africa. This is a prospective observational study comparing the predictive value of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of 899 acutely ill medical patients admitted to a resource-poor sub-Saharan hospital with mental alertness, mobility and vital signs. Mid-upper arm circumference ranged from 15 cm to 42 cm, and 12 (24%) of the 50 patients with a MUAC less than 20 cm died (OR 4...
March 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624136/how-hospital-survey-teams-function
#18
Alan Boyd, Shilpa Ross, Ruth Robertson, Kieran Walshe, Rachael Smithson
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand how inspection team members work together to conduct surveys of hospitals, the challenges teams may face and how these might be addressed. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered through an evaluation of a new regulatory model for acute hospitals in England, implemented by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) during 2013-2014. The authors interviewed key stakeholders, observed inspections and surveyed and interviewed inspection team members and hospital staff...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623853/repositioning-of-difluorinated-propanediones-as-inhibitors-of-histone-methyltransferases-and-their-biological-evaluation-in-human-leukemic-cell-lines
#19
Tanushree Pal, Asmita Sharda, Bharat Khade, C S Ramaa, Sanjay Gupta
Cancer chemotherapy is associated with limitations like dose dependent host-tissue toxicity, multiple drug resistance and tumor heterogeneity. Hence, it is imperative to unearth novel targets to cure cancer. At present, 'pharmaco-epigenomics' constitutes the hope in cancer treatment owing to epigenetic deregulation- a reversible process, suspected of playing a role in malignancy. In this research work, we have used the fundamentals of drug repurposing for a set of our previously synthesized difluorinated propanediones and evaluated them for their histone methyltransferase inhibitory potential in leukemic cell lines...
April 4, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623644/intranasal-instillation-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-induces-inflammation-and-perturbation-of-trace-elements-and-neurotransmitters-but-not-behavioral-impairment-in-rats
#20
Dalel Askri, Souhir Ouni, Said Galai, Josiane Arnaud, Benoit Chovelon, Sylvia G Lehmann, Nathalie Sturm, Mohsen Sakly, Michel Sève, Salem Amara
Over the last decades, engineered nanomaterials have been widely used in various applications due to their interesting properties. Among them, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used as theranostic agents for cancer, and also as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. With the increasing production and use of these IONPs, there is an evident raise of IONP exposure and subsequently a higher risk of adverse outcome for humans and the environment. In this work, we aimed to investigate the effects of sub-acute IONP exposure on Wistar rat, particularly (i) on the emotional and learning/memory behavior, (ii) on the hematological and biochemical parameters, (iii) on the neurotransmitter content, and (vi) on the trace element homeostasis...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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