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diarrhea emergency

Stuart M Sprague, Markus Ketteler, Adrian C Covic, Jürgen Floege, Viatcheslav Rakov, Sebastian Walpen, Anjay Rastogi
INTRODUCTION: Sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SFOH) is a non-calcium, iron-based phosphate binder that demonstrated sustained serum phosphorus (sP) control, good tolerability, and lower pill burden, vs. sevelamer carbonate ("sevelamer"), in a Phase 3 study conducted in dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia. This analysis evaluates the efficacy and safety of SFOH and sevelamer among African American (AA) patients participating in the trial. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a 24-week, Phase 3, open-label trial (NCT01324128) and its 28-week extension study (NCT01464190)...
April 15, 2018: Hemodialysis International
Yuxiang Ma, Xin Zheng, Hongyun Zhao, Wenfeng Fang, Yang Zhang, Jieying Ge, Lu Wang, Weicong Wang, Ji Jiang, Shaokun Chuai, Zhou Zhang, Wanhong Xu, Xiao Xu, Pei Hu, Li Zhang
INTRODUCTION: AC0010 is a mutation-selective, third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). This first-in-human phase I trial determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase II dose (RP2D), schedule, safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of AC0010 in patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC and acquired resistance to the first-generation EGFR-TKI. METHODS: Patients received escalating daily doses of AC0010 (50 to 600 mg) throughout 28-day cycles...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Sarah H Alfaraj, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Talal A Altuwaijri, Ziad A Memish
Infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 as an important respiratory disease with high fatality rates of 40%-60%. Despite the increased number of cases over subsequent years, the number of pediatric cases remained low. A review of studies conducted from June 2012 to April 19, 2016 reported 31 pediatric MERS-CoV cases. In this paper, we present the clinical and laboratory features of seven patients with pediatric MERS. Five patients had no underlying medical illnesses, and three patients were asymptomatic...
April 6, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Bin Wang, Yan Liu, Chun-Miao Ji, Yong-Le Yang, Qi-Zhang Liang, Pengwei Zhao, Ling-Dong Xu, Xi-Mei Lei, Wen-Ting Luo, Pan Qin, Jiyong Zhou, Yao-Wei Huang
Identification of cellular receptors used by coronavirus (CoV) entry into the host cells is critical to understand pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies. The fourth CoV genus, Deltacoronavirus , evolutionally related to the Gammacoronavirus , has just been defined recently. In the current study, we demonstrate that porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) acts as a cross-genus CoV functional receptor for both enteropathogenic porcine DeltaCoV (PDCoV) and AlphaCoV (transmissible gastroenteritis virus, TGEV) based upon three lines of evidences...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ajai Chari, Sarah Larson, Beata Holkova, Robert F Cornell, Cristina Gasparetto, Chatchada Karanes, Jeffrey V Matous, Ruben Niesvizky, Jason Valent, Matthew Lunning, Saad Z Usmani, Larry D Anderson, Lipo Chang, Yihua Lee, Yvonne Pak, Zeena Salman, Thorsten Graef, Elizabeth Bilotti, Saurabh Chhabra
This phase 1, dose-finding study investigated ibrutinib and carfilzomib ± dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (≥2 lines of therapy including bortezomib and an immunomodulatory agent). Of 43 patients enrolled, 74% were refractory to bortezomib and 23% had high-risk cytogenetics. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The recommended phase 2 dose was ibrutinib 840 mg and carfilzomib 36 mg/m2 with dexamethasone. The most common ≥ grade 3 (>10%) treatment-emergent adverse events were hypertension, anemia, pneumonia, fatigue, diarrhea, and thrombocytopenia...
April 4, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Maricarmen Rojas-Lopez, Ricardo Monterio, Mariagrazia Pizza, Mickaël Desvaux, Roberto Rosini
Diarrheal diseases are one of the major causes of mortality among children under five years old and intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (InPEC) plays a role as one of the large causative groups of these infections worldwide. InPECs contribute significantly to the burden of intestinal diseases, which are a critical issue in low- and middle-income countries (Asia, Africa and Latin America). Intestinal pathotypes such as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are mainly endemic in developing countries, while ETEC strains are the major cause of diarrhea in travelers to these countries...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Johan A Kers, Robert E Sharp, Anthony W Defusco, Jae H Park, Jin Xu, Mark E Pulse, William J Weiss, Martin Handfield
Lantibiotics offer an untapped pipeline for the development of novel antibiotics to treat serious Gram-positive (+) infections including Clostridium difficile . Mutacin 1140 (MU1140) is a lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus mutans and acts via a novel mechanism of action, which may limit the development of resistance. This study sought to identify a lead compound for the treatment of C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD). Compounds were selected from a saturation mutagenesis library of 418 single amino acid variants of MU1140...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
D F Liu, Z J Li, F Liu, X Liu, X L Hu, Z G Li, C G Liu, J Z Ma
Canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) is a newly emerging virus in dogs, which relates to the diarrhea of dogs. To investigate the CaKoV infection in dog population, fecal samples of dogs were collected from three provinces of China in 2015. The results of genetic analysis based on the complete VP1 gene showed that six CaKoVs isolates in this study were closely related with the Chinese canine originated isolate CH1 (90.6%-91.9% nucleotide identities). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Chinese isolates clustered into a unique branch compared with isolates from other countries...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Peter Johan Heiberg Engel, Anne-Marie Kanstrup Fiehn, Lars Kristian Munck, Martin Kristensson
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease, encompassing a triad of chronic diarrhea, normal endoscopy and characteristic histological findings. MC embraces two histological subtypes described as lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). The diagnostic criteria of MC were established several years ago and the histological description of LC and CC was based almost exclusively on heamatoxylin-eosin (HE) stained sections. Since the establishment of the diagnostic criteria, important changes have occurred in the concept and diagnostic methods of MC: the emergence of the entity "microscopic colitis incomplete" (MCi), comprising collagenous colitis incomplete (CCi) and lymphocytic colitis incomplete (LCi) and pathologists' increasing use of special stains in everyday diagnostics...
February 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Elie Cousin, Ianis Cousin, Karim Aziz, Pascal Chailloux, Estelle Breton
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is rare in teenagers and difficult to diagnose. There are no clear and established diagnostic criteria in the pediatric population to distinguish subtype 1 and subtype 2. Here, we report the case of a 16-year-old white French teenager admitted to the pediatric emergency service with more than 1 year's history of pain originating from the epigastric and the right hypochondriac regions, with bloody diarrhea. After exclusion of pancreatic cancer and other common causes of acute pancreatitis, the diagnosis of AIP was suspected...
April 2018: Pediatrics
Thamer Kassim, Lakshmi Chintalacheruvu, Osman Bhatty, Mohammad Selim, Osama Diab, Ali Nayfeh, Jayadev Manikkam Umakanthan, Maryam Gbadamosi-Akindele
A sixty-eight-year-old male with a past medical history of recurrent cocaine use presented to the emergency department with recurrent diarrhea and was found to have a white blood cell (WBC) count of 1.9 × 109 /L with agranulocytosis (absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 95 cell/mm3 ). At admission, the patient disclosed that he used cocaine earlier during the day, and a urine drug screen tested positive for this. On hospital day one, the patient was found to have a fever with a maximum temperature of 313...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
Alessandro Pastorino, Maria Di Bartolomeo, Evaristo Maiello, Vincenzo Iaffaioli, Libero Ciuffreda, Gianpiero Fasola, Francesco Di Costanzo, Giovanni Luca Frassineti, Paolo Marchetti, Carlotta Antoniotti, Francesco Leone, Alberto Zaniboni, Giuseppe Aprile, Chiara Zilocchi, Alberto Sobrero, Roberto Bordonaro
BACKGROUND: Aflibercept combined with FOLFIRI (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan) as second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) significantly improved survival compared with FOLFIRI alone in the pivotal VELOUR (aflibercept vs. placebo in combination with irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer after failure of an oxaliplatin-based regimen) trial. No quality-of-life assessment was performed in VELOUR; therefore, the ASQoP (Aflibercept Safety and Quality-of-Life Program) trial was designed to capture the safety and health-related quality of life (HRQL)...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Thanundorn Thanusuwannasak, Jiratchaya Puenpa, Watchaporn Chuchaona, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
Norovirus is a major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Infection can be sporadic or result in widespread outbreaks. The surveillance of norovirus samples (n = 1591) obtained from patients with diarrhea in Thailand from January 2015 to February 2017 suggested that the predominance of norovirus GII.4 often seen in sporadic infection had been superseded by the emergence of GII.17. More recently, a sharp increase in acute gastroenteritis associated with norovirus GII·P16-GII.2 recombinant strain was observed at the end of 2016...
March 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Elisna Syahruddin, Aida Lufti Huswatun, Ari Prabowo, Jamal Zaini, Fariz Nurwidya, Achmad Hudoyo, Anwar Jusuf
INTRODUCTION: Combinations of gefitinib and radiotherapy have been observed to have synergistic and anti-proliferative effects on lung cancer in vitro. In the clinical setting, patients who presented with respiratory difficulties such as superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS), radiotherapy should be given immediately to address the emergency while waiting for the results of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation test. However, there has been no study that described the role of radiotherapy in Indonesian patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma...
March 1, 2018: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
Nhep Angkeabos, En Rin, Ork Vichit, Choeung Chea, Ngorn Tech, Daniel C Payne, Kimberley Fox, James D Heffelfinger, Varja Grabovac, Batmunkh Nyambat, Sergey Diorditsa, Chham Samnang, Md Shafiqul Hossain
BACKGROUND: Each year, approximately 1,066 Cambodian children under five years old die of diarrhea, and 51% of these deaths are due to rotavirus gastroenteritis. Quantifying childhood hospitalizations caused by severe rotavirus infections is also important in demonstrating disease burden caused by this virus. The objective of this study is to update and confirm the current burden of pediatric hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus gastroenteritis among Cambodian children using seven years of continuous active, prospective surveillance from 2010 to 2016...
March 24, 2018: Vaccine
Giorgio Soragna, Francesca Bermond, Laura Fabbrini, Amelia Rodofili, Aldo Soragna, Maggiorina Bauducco, Aspasia Panunzi, Ada Ramondetti, Cristiana Cerri, Corrado Vitale
The clinical course of outpatients with advanced chronic kidney disease requires a close monitoring by the nephrology team, in order to identify emerging clinical problems promptly and prevent subsequent complications. With the aim of improving the outpatient management in our clinic dedicated to advanced renal failure, we implemented the "Nephrology Clinic Triage" (NCT). This organizational model is coordinated by the nephrologist and supported by nurses. In case the outpatients, or their caregivers, have clinical problems or need advice, they can easily get in touch with a nephrology nurse by a dedicated telephone line...
March 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Sireesha Reddy, Kalbir Singh, Susan Hughes
Streptococcus intermedius is a Gram-positive bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the oral cavity, as well as in the upper respiratory, female urogenital, and gastrointestinal tracts. It may also be found in human feces and is the dominant species found in subgingival plaque. We present a case of a 50-year-old man who came to the emergency room with abdominal pain for weeks associated with nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed numerous cysts throughout the liver...
January 24, 2018: Curēus
S Nazmus Sakib, Geethika Reddi, Salvador Almagro-Moreno
Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems. Some strains of V. cholerae can colonize the human host and cause cholera, a profuse watery diarrhea. The major pathogenicity factors and virulence regulators of V. cholerae are either encoded in mobile genetic elements acquired in the environment (e.g. pathogenicity islands or lysogenic phages) or in the core genome. Several lines of evidence indicate that the emergence of numerous virulence traits of V. cholerae occurred in its natural environment due to biotic and abiotic pressures...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Rajendra Awasthi, Ariane Roseblade, Philip Michael Hansbro, Michael John Rathbone, Kamal Dua, Mary Bebawy
In the United States, the estimated number of new cancer cases in 2018 was approx. 1.7 million. Historically, combination chemotherapy has been the primary choice of treatment. However, chemotherapeutics have pharmaceutical limitations, among which include problems with stability and aqueous solubility. Likewise, dose limiting toxicity is significant with nonspecific toxicity to healthy cells, hair loss, loss of appetite, peripheral neuropathy and diarrhea being typical side effects. The emergence of Multidrug resistance (MDR) also presents s a significant challenge for the successful treatment of cancer whereby cancer cells become cross resistant to many of the chemotherapeutic agents used...
March 26, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Xiao-Xia Ma, Peng Ma, Qiu-Yan Chang, Lin-Jie Li, Xiao-Kai Zhou, De-Rong Zhang, Ming-Sheng Li, Xin Cao, Zhong-Ren Ma
In this study, the systemic analyses of nucleotide, codon and amino acid usages for E2 gene of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were carried out for estimating its genetic features. The nucleotide usage pattern at the first codon position was strongly influenced by the overall nucleotide composition, while the nucleotide usage patterns at the second and third codon positions seemed to have little link to the overall nucleotide composition. The result indicated that the mutation pressure from nucleotide composition constraint was not the single evolutionary force for genetic features of BVDV E2 gene...
March 21, 2018: Gene
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