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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054297/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection
#1
REVIEW
M Bruyand, P Mariani-Kurkdjian, M Gouali, H de Valk, L A King, S Le Hello, S Bonacorsi, C Loirat
The leading cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection, which has a major outbreak potential. Since the early 2010s, STEC epidemiology is characterized by a decline of the historically predominant O157 serogroup and the emergence of non-O157 STEC, especially O26 and O80 in France. STEC contamination occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, person-to-person transmission, or contact with ruminants or their contaminated environment...
October 17, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040243/toxic-shock-syndrome-still-a-timely-diagnosis
#2
Kira L Gossack-Keenan, April J Kam
BACKGROUND: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute, severe, toxin-mediated disease, characterized by fever, hypotension, and multiorgan system involvement. Toxic shock syndrome has made headlines because of its high associated morbidity and mortality rate in previously healthy young females. Incidence peaked in the early 1980s owing to increased usage of ultra-absorbent tampons. After improved patient education and tampon labeling, the incidence of menstrual TSS has declined. CASE: A previously healthy 14-year-old girl presented to an urgent care center with a 2-day history of fever, erythematous maculopapular rash, vomiting, diarrhea, and malaise...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034106/epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-phenotypes-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-responsible-for-infantile-gastroenteritis-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#3
Ali Konaté, René Dembélé, Nathalie K Guessennd, Fernique Konan Kouadio, Innocent Kouamé Kouadio, Mohamed Baguy Ouattara, Wendpoulomdé A D Kaboré, Assèta Kagambèga, Haoua Cissé, Hadiza Bawa Ibrahim, Touwendsida Serge Bagré, Alfred S Traoré, Nicolas Barro
The emergence and persistence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) causing acute diarrhea is a major public health challenge in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance phenotypes of DEC isolated from stool samples collected from children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea living in Ouagadougou/Burkina Faso. From August 2013 to October 2015, this study was carried out on 31 DEC strains of our study conducted in "Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale (CMA)" Paul VI and CMA of Schiphra...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031833/structure-based-drug-design-for-envelope-protein-e2-uncovers-a-new-class-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-inhibitors-that-block-virus-entry
#4
María José Pascual, Fernando Merwaiss, Emilse Leal, María Eugenia Quintana, Alejandra V Capozzo, Claudio N Cavasotto, Mariela Bollini, Diego E Alvarez
Antiviral targeting of virus envelope proteins is an effective strategy for therapeutic intervention of viral infections. Here, we took a computer-guided approach with the aim of identifying new antivirals against the envelope protein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). BVDV is an enveloped virus with an RNA genome responsible for major economic losses of the cattle industry worldwide. Based on the crystal structure of the envelope protein E2, we defined a binding site at the interface of the two most distal domains from the virus membrane and pursued a hierarchical docking-based virtual screening search to identify small-molecule ligands of E2...
October 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029729/schmallenberg-virus-a-novel-virus-of-veterinary-importance
#5
Kerstin Wernike, Martin Beer
In late 2011, unspecific clinical symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, and decreased milk production were observed in dairy cattle in the Dutch/German border region. After exclusion of classical endemic and emerging viruses by targeted diagnostic systems, blood samples from acutely diseased cows were subjected to metagenomics analysis. An insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup was identified as the causative agent and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). It was one of the first detections of the introduction of a novel virus of veterinary importance to Europe using the new technology of next-generation sequencing...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029723/the-expanding-field-of-mammalian-astroviruses-opportunities-and-challenges-in-clinical-virology
#6
Céline L Boujon, Michel C Koch, Torsten Seuberlich
Astroviruses are best known as being one of the leading causes of diarrhea in infants and were first described in this context in 1975. In its first years, astrovirus research was mainly restricted to electron microscopy and serology studies. The ability to culture some of these viruses in vitro allowed a first consequent step forward, especially at the molecular level. Since the emergence of more powerful genetic methods, though, the face of this research field has dramatically changed and evolved. From the exponential number of discoveries of new astrovirus strains in the most varied of animal species to their association with atypical diseases, these viruses revealed a lot of surprises, and many more are probably still waiting to be uncovered...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029033/trial-evaluating-ambulatory-therapy-of-travelers-diarrhea-treat-td-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-3-single-dose-antibiotic-regimens-with-loperamide
#7
Mark S Riddle, Patrick Connor, Jamie Fraser, Chad K Porter, Brett Swierczewski, Emma J Hutley, Brook Danboise, Mark P Simons, Christine Hulseberg, Tahaniyat Lalani, Ramiro L Gutierrez, David R Tribble
Background: Recommended treatment for travelers' diarrhea includes the combination of an antibiotic, usually a fluoroquinolone or azithromycin, and loperamide for rapid resolution of symptoms. However, adverse events, postdose nausea with high-dose azithromycin, effectiveness of single-dose rifaximin, and emerging resistance to front-line agents are evidence gaps underlying current recommendations. Methods: A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 4 countries (Afghanistan, Djibouti, Kenya, and Honduras) between September 2012 and July 2015...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018599/qualitative-study-of-healthcare-providers-current-practice-patterns-and-barriers-to-successful-rehydration-for-pediatric-diarrheal-illnesses-in-kenya
#8
Darlene R House, Philip Cheptinga, Daniel E Rusyniak, Rachel C Vreeman
BACKGROUND: For children worldwide, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death. These deaths are preventable by fluid resuscitation. Nasogastric tubes (NGs) have been shown to be equivalent to intravenous fluids for rehydration and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for use in severe dehydration. Despite this, NGs are rarely used for rehydration in Kenya. Our objective was to evaluate clinicians' adherence to rehydration guidelines and to identify barriers to the use of NGs for resuscitating dehydrated children...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017599/detection-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-spike-genes-in-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-strains-circulating-in-china-in-2016-2017
#9
Qiaoling Zhang, Xinsheng Liu, Yuzhen Fang, Peng Zhou, Yonglu Wang, Yongguang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Large-scale outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have re-emerged in China in recent years. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of field strains of PED virus (PEDV) in China in 2016-2017. To address this issue, in this study, 116 diarrhea samples were collected from pig farms in 6 Chinese provinces in 2016-2017 and were detected using PCR for main porcine enteric pathogens, including PEDV, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine kobuvirus (PKV)...
October 10, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986192/effect-of-antibiotics-for-infectious-diarrhea-on-the-duration-of%C3%A2-hospitalization-a-retrospective-cohort-study-at-a-single-center%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-japan-from-2012-to-2015
#10
Yosuke Sasaki, Yoshitaka Murakami, Hiroaki Zai, Hitoshi Nakajima, Yoshihisa Urita
OBJECTIVE: Routine empirical antimicrobial therapy for patients with infectious diarrhea is not recommended in general practice. Conversely, prescription of empirical antibiotics for hospitalized patients remains controversial due to a lack of studies providing evidence for its benefits. Thus, this study aimed to examine whether empirical antimicrobial therapy would shorten the hospitalization duration for infectious diarrhea patients. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective cohort study was performed at the Department of General Medicine and Emergency Care, Toho University Medical Center Omori Hospital, using medical records...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981976/inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease-an-emerging-problem-over-a-twenty-years-experience
#11
Giulia Angelino, Paola De Angelis, Simona Faraci, Francesca Rea, Erminia Francesca Romeo, Filippo Torroni, Renato Tambucci, Alessia Claps, Paola Francalanci, Maria Chiriaco, Gigliola Di Matteo, Caterina Cancrini, Paolo Palma, Patrizia D'Argenio, Luigi Dall'Oglio, Paolo Rossi, Andrea Finocchi
BACKGROUND: Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency of phagocytes, characterized by life-threatening infections and hyperinflammation. Due to survival improvement, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is becoming increasingly relevant. Here we report our 20-year experience. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, endoscopic and histologic features, as well as the management of CGD-IBD patients referred to the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital in Rome, Italy...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968171/randomized-phase-iii-and-extension-studies-of-naldemedine-in-patients-with-opioid-induced-constipation-and-cancer
#12
Nobuyuki Katakami, Toshiyuki Harada, Toru Murata, Katsunori Shinozaki, Masakazu Tsutsumi, Takaaki Yokota, Masatsugu Arai, Yukio Tada, Masaru Narabayashi, Narikazu Boku
Purpose Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a frequent and debilitating adverse effect (AE) of opioids-common analgesics for cancer pain. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naldemedine (S-297995), for OIC, specifically in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods This phase III trial consisted of a 2-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (COMPOSE-4) and an open-label, 12-week extension study (COMPOSE-5). In COMPOSE-4, eligible adults with OIC and cancer were randomly assigned on a 1:1 basis to receive once-daily oral naldemedine 0...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954786/a-phase-1-dose-escalation-study-of-oral-asp8273-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutations
#13
Helena Yu, Alexander I Spira, Leora Horn, Jared Weiss, Howard West, Giuseppe Giaccone, Tracey L Evans, Ronan J Kelly, Bhardwai B Desai, Andrew Krivoshik, Diarmuid Moran, Srinivasu Poondru, Fei Jie, Kouji Aoyama, Anne Keating, Geoffrey R Oxnard
PURPOSE: Acquired EGFR T790M mutations are the most frequently identified resistance mechanism to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers. ASP8273 is a third-generation EGFR TKI with antitumor activity in preclinical models of EGFR-mutant lung cancer that targets mutant EGFR, including EGFR T790M. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this multi-cohort, phase 1 study (NCT02113813), escalating doses of ASP8273 (25-500mg) were administered once daily to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with disease progression after prior treatment with an EGFR TKI...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953059/time-trends-and-predictors-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-the-united-states-results-from-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2005-2014
#14
Hyun S Kim, Laura Rotundo, Thayer Nasereddin, Adaugo Ike, David Song, Arooj Babar, Mirela Feurdean, Michael F Demyen, Sushil K Ahlawat
GOALS: To investigate the time trends of the prevalence and predictors of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the United States from 2005 to 2014 using nationally representative data. BACKGROUND: AGE results in numerous visits to emergency departments and outpatient clinics annually in the United States with the estimated attributable cost to the US economy up to $145 billion dollars. However, time trends and predictors of AGE are not fully understood. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2005 to 2014, a nationally representative health survey...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946891/development-of-the-pediatric-daily-ulcerative-colitis-signs-and-symptoms-scale-ducs-qualitative-research-findings
#15
Emuella Flood, Debra G Silberg, Beverly Romero, Kathleen Beusterien, M Haim Erder, Carmen Cuffari
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to develop patient-reported (PRO) and observer-reported (ObsRO) outcome measures of ulcerative colitis (UC) signs/symptoms in children aged 5-17 with mild/moderate UC. The daily ulcerative colitis signs and symptoms scale (DUCS) was developed in two phases. Phase I involved concept elicitation interviews with patients and healthcare providers, review of website posts and item generation. Phase II involved cognitive debriefing and assessment of usability and feasibility of the eDiaries...
September 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940498/twice-weekly-pulse-and-daily-continuous-dose-erlotinib-as-initial-treatment-for-patients-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutant-lung-cancers-and-brain-metastases
#16
Kathryn C Arbour, Mark G Kris, Gregory J Riely, Ai Ni, Kathryn Beal, Mariza Daras, Sara A Hayes, Robert J Young, Christopher R Rodriguez, Linda Ahn, William Pao, Helena A Yu
BACKGROUND: In a phase 1 study of pulse/continuous-dose erlotinib, no patient had disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS). This expansion cohort of the phase 1 study tested the same regimen in a cohort of individuals with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers with untreated brain metastases. METHODS: Patients had not received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors or radiation for brain metastases. All received 1200 mg of erlotinib on days 1 and 2 and 50 mg on days 3 to 7 weekly...
September 21, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939442/association-of-cytolethal-distending-toxin-ii-gene-positive-escherichia-coli-with-escherichia-albertii-an-emerging-enteropathogen
#17
Atsushi Hinenoya, Noritomo Yasuda, Natsuko Mukaizawa, Sikander Sheikh, Yuko Niwa, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Masahiro Asakura, Teizo Tsukamoto, Akira Nagita, M John Albert, Shinji Yamasaki
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-producing Escherichia coli have been isolated from patients with diarrhea, sepsis and urinary tract infection. CDT of E. coli is divided into five types (CDT-I through CDT-V) based on differences in amino acid sequences and its genomic location. However, in our recent studies, a few strains of cdt-II gene-positive bacteria, initially identified as atypical E. coli, were re-identified as Escherichia albertii, an emerging enteropathogen, by extensive characterization including multilocus sequence (MLS) analysis and sugar utilization tests...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934984/a-simple-and-rapid-identification-method-for-newly-emerged-porcine-deltacoronavirus-with-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#18
Fanfan Zhang, Yu Ye, Deping Song, Nannan Guo, Qi Peng, Anqi Li, Xingrong Zhou, Yanjun Chen, Min Zhang, Dongyan Huang, Yuxin Tang
BACKGROUND: Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerged enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea and mortality in neonatal piglets. PDCoV has spread to many countries around the world, leading to significant economic losses in the pork industry. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of PDCoV in clinical samples is urgently needed. RESULTS: In this study, we developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay specific for nucleocapsid gene to diagnose and monitor PDCoV infections...
September 21, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934680/a-phase-1-study-of-the-janus-kinase-2-jak2-v617f-inhibitor-gandotinib-ly2784544-in-patients-with-primary-myelofibrosis-polycythemia-vera-and-essential-thrombocythemia
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Srdan Verstovsek, Ruben A Mesa, Mohamed E Salama, Li Li, Celine Pitou, Fabio P Nunes, Gregory L Price, Jennifer L Giles, Deborah N D'Souza, Richard A Walgren, Josef T Prchal
Mutations in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia-chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, including primary myelofibrosis, polycythemia vera, and essential thrombocythemia. Gandotinib (LY2784544), a potent inhibitor of JAK2 activity, shows increased potency for the JAK2(V617F) mutation. The study had a standard 3+3 dose-escalation design to define the maximum-tolerated dose. Primary objectives were to determine safety, tolerability, and recommended oral daily dose of gandotinib for patients with JAK2(V617F)-positive myelofibrosis, essential thrombocythemia, or polycythemia vera...
October 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932966/regorafenib-in-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-considerations-for-treatment
#20
Kyung Kim, Reena Jha, Petra A Prins, Hongkun Wang, Monica Chacha, Marion L Hartley, Aiwu Ruth He
PURPOSE: We report our institutional observations of ten patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (seven and three were Child-Pugh class A and B, respectively) who received compassionate regorafenib therapy between June 2016 and January 2017. These patients did not fit the rigid criteria of a clinical trial and represented the use of regorafenib in an everyday clinic situation. METHODS: Regorafenib (160 mg P.O. daily) was administered to patients on a 4-week cycle (3 weeks on, 1 week off) until disease progression (assessed using mRECIST criteria) or discontinuation secondary to toxicity (assessed using CTCAE criteria)...
September 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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