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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451852/delta-opioids-neuroprotective-roles-in-preclinical-studies
#1
Shahid Husain
Since ancient times, opioids have been used clinically and abused recreationally. In the early stages (about 1,000 AD) of opium history, an Arab physician, Avicenna, administered opioids to control diarrhea and eye diseases. 1 Opioids have very strong pain relieving properties and they also regulate numerous cellular responses. Opioid receptors are expressed throughout the body, including the nervous system, heart, lungs, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and retina. 2-6 Delta opioid receptors (DORs) are a very attractive target from the perspective of both receptor function and their therapeutic potential...
January 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446040/significance-of-continuous-rotavirus-and-norovirus-surveillance-in-indonesia
#2
REVIEW
Mohamad Saifudin Hakim, Hera Nirwati, Abu Tholib Aman, Yati Soenarto, Qiuwei Pan
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea significantly contributes to the global burden of diseases, particularly in developing countries. Rotavirus and norovirus are the most dominant viral agents responsible for diarrheal disease globally. The aim of this review was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of rotavirus and norovirus study in Indonesia. DATA SOURCES: Articles about rotavirus and norovirus surveillance in Indonesia were collected from databases, including PubMed and Google Scholar...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443759/a-traumatic-hepatic-artery-pseudoaneurysm-and-arterioportal-fistula-with-severe-diarrhea-as-the-first-symptom-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Ping Han, Lan Yang, Xiao-Wei Huang, Xiu-Qin Zhu, Li Chen, Nan Wang, Zhen Li, De-An Tian, Hua Qin
RATIONALE: Hepaticarterioportal fistula (APF) is a rare cause of portal hypertension and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and presents as abnormal communication between the hepatic artery and portal vein. Percutaneous liver biopsy is a main iatrogenic cause of AFP. However, non-iatrogenic, abdominal, trauma-related APF is rarely reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 29-year-old man presenting with severe, watery diarrhea was transferred to our hospital, and his condition was suspected to be acute gastroenteritis because he ate expired food and suffered a penetrating abdominal stab wound 5 years ago...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439890/brugada-type-pattern-on-electrocardiogram-associated-with-high-dose-loperamide-abuse
#4
Christie Sun, Jessica A Brice, Richard F Clark
BACKGROUND: Loperamide has been increasing in popularity recently for its effects separate from treatment of diarrhea. In large doses or in combination with other agents, it can lead to desirable effects in the central nervous system. However, cardiotoxicity has been reported with its abuse. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male who had been chronically abusing loperamide was found to have Brugada-like changes on his electrocardiogram (ECG). He had no other clinical symptoms associated with Brugada syndrome and did not have similar findings on previous ECGs...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434707/leuconostoc-pseudomesenteroides-associated-hemophagocytic-syndrome-a-case-report
#5
Xinfeng Lin, Qilong Jiang, Jiduo Liu, Fu Zhao, Weitao Chen
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by fever, pancytopenia and splenomegaly. The underlying hemophagocytosis occurs primarily in the bone marrow, liver and lymph nodes. Multiple microbiological agents, including cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HLH. The present study presents a case of HLH associated with Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides infection treated successfully with clindamycin...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434201/advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infections
#6
Zhong Peng, Lifen Ling, Charles W Stratton, Chunhui Li, Christopher R Polage, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang
Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. The diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) requires both clinical manifestations and a positive laboratory test for C. difficile and/or its toxins. While antibiotic therapy is the treatment of choice for CDI, there are relatively few classes of effective antibiotics currently available. Therefore, the development of novel antibiotics and/or alternative treatment strategies for CDI has received a great deal of attention in recent years...
February 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427670/development-of-a-taqman-based-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-sads-cov-associated-with-severe-diarrhea-disease-in-pigs
#7
Ling Zhou, Yuan Sun, Jiao-Ling Wu, Kai-Jie Mai, Gui-Hua Chen, Zi-Xian Wu, Yang Bai, Di Li, Zhi-Hai Zhou, Jian Cheng, Rui-Ting Wu, Xiang-Bin Zhang, Jing-Yun Ma
Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus which was first reported in southern China in 2017. It can cause severe diarrhea disease in pigs. In order to detect this new emerging virus rapidly and reliably, a TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR assay was established in this study. Specific primers and probe were designed and synthesized based on the conserved region within the N gene of the viral genome. Results showed that the lowest limit of detection was 3.0×101 copies/μL. This approach was specific for SADS-CoV, and there were no cross-reaction observed against other 15 swine viruses...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427160/metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-a-case-report
#8
Takehide Umeda, Taro Minami, Keith Bartolomei, Eleanor Summerhill
A 54-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease developed life-threatening lactic acidosis during treatment with metformin for type 2 diabetes. The woman received metformin at 1000 mg orally twice a day for type 2 diabetes. She presented to our emergency department with a 3-day history of severe watery diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Her grandson whom she cared for had gastroenteritis several days prior to the onset of her symptoms. She was confused and hypotensive with a blood pressure of 70/39 mmHg...
February 9, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426660/ped-subunit-vaccine-based-on-coe-domain-replacement-of-flagellin-domain-d3-improved-specific-humoral-and-mucosal-immunity-in-mice
#9
Qianniu Li, Ouyang Peng, Tingting Wu, Zhichao Xu, Licheng Huang, Yun Zhang, Chunyi Xue, Zhifen Wen, Qingfeng Zhou, Yongchang Cao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an important re-emergent infectious disease and inflicts huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. To meet the pressing need of developing a safe and cost-efficient PED maternal vaccine, we generated three PED subunit vaccine candidates, using recombined Salmonella flagellin (rSF) as a mucosal molecular adjuvant. Domain D3 in rSF was replaced with COE domain of PEDV to generate rSF-COE-3D. COE fused to the flanking C'/N' terminal of rSF yielded rSF-COE-C and rSF-COE-N...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419822/immunotherapy-induced-colitis-an-emerging-problem-for-the-hospitalist
#10
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Dana M Harris, M Caroline Burton
Since their introduction for melanoma treatment, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has rapidly expanded. Though their impact on survival is irrefutable, these medications have been associated with autoimmune-like adverse events related to their ability to induce the immune system. One of the most commonly affected organ systems is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in which manifestations range from mild diarrhea to severe colitis with intestinal perforation. Because of the increased use of ICIs, hospitalists are caring for an increasing number of patients experiencing their adverse events...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419653/long-term-use-of-naldemedine-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-constipation-in-patients-with-chronic-non-cancer-pain-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-study
#11
Lynn R Webster, Srinivas Nalamachu, Bart Morlion, Jyotsna Reddy, Yuko Baba, Tadaaki Yamada, Juan Camilo Arjona Ferreira
The long-term safety of naldemedine, a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist, was evaluated in patients with opioid-induced constipation and chronic non-cancer pain in a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study. Eligible adults who could be on a routine laxative regimen were randomized 1:1 to receive once-daily oral naldemedine 0.2 mg (n = 623) or placebo (n = 623). The primary endpoint was summary measures of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Additional endpoints included opioid withdrawal on the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale and the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale, pain intensity on Numeric Rating Scale, frequency of bowel movements, and constipation-related symptoms and quality of life on the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms and Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life scales, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412766/porcine-response-to-a-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-i-4-5-12-i-outbreak-isolate
#12
Daniel C Shippy, Bradley L Bearson, Devin B Holman, Brian W Brunelle, Heather K Allen, Shawn M D Bearson
Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- has emerged as a common nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar to cause human foodborne illness. An interesting trait of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is that it only expresses the fliC gene for bacterial motility (i.e., monophasic), while most Salmonella strains alternately express two flagellin genes (fliC and fljB). The goal of this study was to characterize the porcine response following inoculation with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- isolate associated with a multistate pork outbreak to determine if the increased prevalence of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- in swine is due to enhanced pathogenicity...
February 7, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408037/characterization-of-brachyspira-communities-from-clinical-cases-of-swine-mucohaemorrhagic-diarrhea-through-deep-sequencing-of-the-nadh-oxidase-nox-gene
#13
Lisa A Johnson, Champika Fernando, John C S Harding, Janet E Hill
Swine dysentery is traditionally associated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, but the re-emergence of Brachyspira-associated disease in North America associated with a novel causative species, B. hampsonii, is now a concern for swine producers. The pathogenesis of Brachyspira-associated disease is not completely understood, and it is not known whether mixed infections of Brachyspira spp. are important in disease development. Deep sequencing of partial sequences of the nox gene amplified with genus-specific primers was used to detect Brachyspira spp...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406201/proton-pump-inhibitors-review-of-emerging-concerns
#14
REVIEW
Avinash K Nehra, Jeffrey A Alexander, Conor G Loftus, Vandana Nehra
First introduced in 1989, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely utilized medications worldwide, both in the ambulatory and inpatient clinical settings. The PPIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including symptomatic peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and nonulcer dyspepsia as well as for prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. PPIs inhibit gastric acid secretion, and the most commonly associated adverse effects include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headache...
February 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406076/an-epidemiological-investigation-of-the-early-phase-of-the-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-ped-outbreak-in-canadian-swine-herds-in-2014-a-case-control-study
#15
Amanda M Perri, Zvonimir Poljak, Cate Dewey, John C S Harding, Terri L O'Sullivan
The first case of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in Canada was diagnosed in January 2014 in Ontario, approximately 9 months after PED emerged in the United States. An early investigation of the Canadian outbreak suspected that the probable source of the virus was contaminated feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of feed and other possible factors in the early phase of the PED outbreak in Canadian swine herds. The study period of interest for this case-control study was January 22nd to March 1st, 2014...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404412/in-situ-analyses-directly-in-diarrheal-stool-reveal-large-variations-in-bacterial-load-and-active-toxin-expression-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichiacoli-and-vibrio-cholerae
#16
Yasmin Ara Begum, Hanna A Rydberg, Kaisa Thorell, Young-Keun Kwak, Lei Sun, Enrique Joffré, Firdausi Qadri, Åsa Sjöling
The bacterial pathogens enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Vibrio cholerae are major causes of diarrhea. ETEC causes diarrhea by production of the heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STh and STp), while V. cholerae produces cholera toxin (CT). In this study, we determined the occurrence and bacterial doses of the two pathogens and their respective toxin expression levels directly in liquid diarrheal stools of patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. By quantitative culture and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection of the toxin genes, the two pathogens were found to coexist in several of the patients, at concentrations between 102 and 108 bacterial gene copies per ml...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397418/characteristics-of-revisits-of-children-at-risk-for-serious-infections-in-pediatric-emergency-care
#17
Evelien de Vos-Kerkhof, Dorien H F Geurts, Ewout W Steyerberg, Monica Lakhanpaul, Henriette A Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink
In this study, we aimed to identify characteristics of (unscheduled) revisits and its optimal time frame after Emergency Department (ED) discharge. Children with fever, dyspnea, or vomiting/diarrhea (1 month-16 years) who attended the ED of Erasmus MC-Sophia, Rotterdam (2010-2013), the Netherlands, were prospectively included. Three days after ED discharge, we applied standardized telephonic questionnaires on disease course and revisits. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent characteristics of revisits...
February 3, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390982/characteristics-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-among-children-under-5-years-of-age-with-acute-diarrhea-a-hospital-based-study
#18
Yu Zhou, Xuhui Zhu, Hongyan Hou, Yanfang Lu, Jing Yu, Lie Mao, Liyan Mao, Ziyong Sun
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the leading infectious cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Among bacterial agents, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is the major causal agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, particularly in children under the age of 5 years. Here, we performed a hospital-based prospective study to explore the pathotype distribution, epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance patterns of DEC from < 5-year-old diarrheal children. METHODS: Between August 2015 and September 2016, 684 stool samples were collected from children (< 5 years old) with acute diarrhea...
February 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388753/acute-gastroenteritis-evidence-based-management-of-pediatric-patients-digest
#19
KeriAnne Brady, Kathryn H Pade
Although most cases of acute gastroenteritis require minimal medical intervention, severe dehydration and hypoglycemia may develop in cases of prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. The mainstay of treatment for mild-to-moderately dehydrated patients with acute gastroenteritis should be oral rehydration solution. Antiemetics allow for improved tolerance of oral rehydration solution, and, when used appropriately, can decrease the need for intravenous fluids and hospitalization. This issue reviews the common etiologies of acute gastroenteritis, discusses more-severe conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management of acute gastroenteritis in patients with mild-to-moderate dehydration, severe dehydration, and hypoglycemia...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384903/outpatient-treatment-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-absssi-with-tedizolid-phosphate-and-linezolid-in-patients-in-the-united-states-subgroup-analysis-of-2-randomized-phase-3-trials
#20
Carisa De Anda, Steven Anuskiewicz, Philippe Prokocimer, Jose Vazquez
BACKGROUND: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) are a frequent cause of hospital admissions in the United States. Safe and effective outpatient treatments may lower ABSSSI-associated health care costs by reducing unnecessary hospital admissions. Using data from 2 phase 3 trials (ESTABLISH-1, NCT01170221; ESTABLISH-2, NCT01421511), this post-hoc analysis explored the efficacy and safety of tedizolid in an outpatient setting. METHODS: Subgroup analysis was performed on US outpatients (defined as patients who were not in hospital at the time of treatment initiation) with ABSSSI caused by presumed or proven gram-positive pathogens...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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