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diarrhea emergency

Asad Mohammadzadeh, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Ali Haghighi, Nozhat Zebardast, Kobra Kohansal
In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology Research
Naftali Stern
As both the rate of hypertension and cancer rise with age, concomitant hypertension in patients receiving treatment for cancer is very common. Increase in blood pressure during cancer treatment requires careful clinical assessment. Distinction between discontinuation or malabsorption of antihypertensive treatment due to factors such as nausea/vomiting/diarrhea and anti-cancer drug specific effects must be first made. De-novo hypertension during cancer treatment is likely related to anticancer drugs per se. Classical chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and busulfan have been previously linked to rising blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
A J Kivitz, S R Gutierrez-Ureña, J Poiley, M C Genovese, R Kristy, K Shay, X Wang, J P Garg, A Zubrzycka-Sienkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of orally administered once-daily peficitinib in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had an inadequate response to MTX. METHODS: In this multinational, phase IIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial, patients with RA (N=378) were treated with peficitinib 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg + MTX, or matching placebo + MTX once daily for 12 weeks (NCT01554696)...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Kiran Imran, Mirza Naqi Zafar, Uzma Ozair, Sadia Khan, Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi
The goal of this study was to investigate metabolic risk factors in pediatric stone formers in an emerging economy. A prospective, data collection enrolled 250 children age <1-15 years at our center. Risk factors were evaluated by gender and in age groups <1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. Patients were evaluated for demographics, blood and 24 h urine for calcium, magnesium, phosphate, uric acid, electrolytes and additional protein, citrate, ammonia and oxalate in urine. All reported values were two sided and statistical significance was considered at p value ≤0...
October 15, 2016: Urolithiasis
Anton M Kolomeyer, Ken K Nischal, Ellen Mitchell
PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) in a patient with tacrolimus-associated posttransplant thrombotic microangiopathy. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: An 8-year-old boy with a medical history of orthotopic heart transplant, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, and recurrent infections was hospitalized for nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. His ocular history included accommodative esotropia, hyperopia with astigmatism, Molluscum contagiosum lid lesions, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ernest H Law, Melissa Badowski, Yu-Ting Hung, Kimberly Weems, Angelica Sanchez, Todd A Lee
OBJECTIVE: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that is characterized by chronic, watery, nonbloody diarrhea. Concern regarding a potential association between proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and MC has recently emerged. We sought to systematically review and summarize the evidence for the potential association between PPIs and MC. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google Scholar using the terms proton-pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, or esomeprazole), microscopic colitis, collagenous colitis, and lymphocytic colitis STUDY SELECTION: Full-text, English-language reports of case reports/series, observational studies, experimental studies, and systematic reviews/meta-analyses published between January 2000 to August 2016 were included...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Andrew Mitchell, Alexandre Dugas
BACKGROUND: Perforation of the colon occurring during or shortly following colonoscopy or barium enema is a rare complication of collagenous colitis (CC). "Spontaneous" perforation in CC, in which no instigating factor is identified, is even less common, with only five cases reported to date. We report herein an additional case of spontaneous perforation in previously undiagnosed CC and review the clinical and pathological features of previously reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80 year old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain preceded by approximately one month of frequent non-bloody diarrhea...
October 6, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Nurver Ulger Toprak, Gulcin Balkose, Deniz Durak, Ender Dulundu, Tolga Demirbaş, Cumhur Yegen, Guner Soyletir
Extra-intestinal infections due to Clostridium difficile have been reported rarely. Herein we report a case of pyogenic liver abscess from toxigenic C. difficile in an 80-year-old non-hospitalized woman with diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with fever and abdominal pain. There was no history of diarrhea or use of antibiotics. Laboratory parameters revealed signs of inflammation and elevated AST and ALT levels. Abdominal ultrasound and computer tomography showed multiple focal lesions in the bilateral liver lobes and hydropic gallbladder with stones...
September 28, 2016: Anaerobe
E López, T Ripolles, M J Martinez, P Bartumeus, J Blay, A López
AIM: The aim was to prospectively evaluate the positive predictive value of ultrasound in the diagnosis of ischemic colitis, with colonoscopy as the reference standard. METHODS: During a 2-year period we included consecutive patients over 50 years of age with sudden abdominal pain and/or rectal bleeding who underwent abdominal sonography in an emergency setting with a thickened segment of colon with a length of more than 10 cm. This clinical-sonographic triad was considered diagnostic for ischemic colitis...
November 2015: Ultrasound Int Open
Hans Linde Nielsen, Henrik Nielsen, Mia Torpdahl
The emerging enteric pathogen Campylobacter concisus is associated with prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that C. concisus strains are very genetically diverse. Nevertheless, C. concisus strains have been divided into two genomospecies, where GS1 strains have been isolated predominantly from healthy individuals, while the GS2 cluster consists of isolates primarily from diarrheic individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity of C...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Anna Likos, Isabel Griffin, Andrea M Bingham, Danielle Stanek, Marc Fischer, Stephen White, Janet Hamilton, Leah Eisenstein, David Atrubin, Prakash Mulay, Blake Scott, Patrick Jenkins, Danielle Fernandez, Edhelene Rico, Leah Gillis, Reynald Jean, Marshall Cone, Carina Blackmore, Janet McAllister, Chalmers Vasquez, Lillian Rivera, Celeste Philip
During the first 6 months of 2016, large outbreaks of Zika virus disease caused by local mosquito-borne transmission occurred in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories, but local mosquito-borne transmission was not identified in the continental United States (1,2). As of July 22, 2016, the Florida Department of Health had identified 321 Zika virus disease cases among Florida residents and visitors, all occurring in either travelers from other countries or territories with ongoing Zika virus transmission or sexual contacts of recent travelers...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Fanny Lanternier, Karima Amazzough, Loic Favennec, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Hendy Abdoul, Jérome Touret, Stéphane Decramer, Julien Zuber, Anne Scemla, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Cryptosporidiosis is classically reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. METHODS: Through the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network and the French Transplantation Society, we collected all cryptosporidiosis cases identified in solid organ transplanted patients between 2006 and 2010 in France...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
Miguel M Cabada, Maria Luisa Morales, Martha Lopez, Spencer T Reynolds, Elizabeth C Vilchez, Andres G Lescano, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Hector Hugo Garcia, Clinton A White
Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Bailey M Carignan, Kyle D Brumfield, Mike S Son
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious disease cholera, which is characterized by vomiting and severe watery diarrhea. Recently, V. cholerae clinical isolates have demonstrated increased virulence capabilities, causing more severe symptoms with a much higher rate of disease progression than previously observed. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four virulence-regulatory genes (hapR, hns, luxO, and vieA) of a hypervirulent V. cholerae clinical isolate, MQ1795...
September 2016: MSphere
Delali B K Dovie, Mawuli Dzodzomenyo, Oladele A Ogunseitan
There is accumulating evidence that the emerging burden of global climate change threatens the fidelity of routine indicators for disease detection and management of risks to public health. The threat partially reflects the conservative character of the health sector and the reluctance to adopt new indicators, despite the growing awareness that existing environmental health indicators were developed to respond to risks that may no longer be relevant, and are too simplistic to also act as indicators for newer global-scale risk factors...
September 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Shun-Xian Zhang, Li Li, Jian-Wen Yin, Miao Jin, Xiang-Yu Kong, Li-Li Pang, Yong-Kang Zhou, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the most serious problems in global public health that causes considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Human caliciviruses (HuCV) including norovirus (NoV, genogroup GI and GII) and sapovirus (SaV), is a leading cause of acute sporadic diarrhea in individuals across all age groups. However, few studies had been conducted clarifying the characteristics of HuCV in diarrhea cases across all age groups in China. Our study was aimed at assessing the HuCV-related diarrhea burden and NoV genotypes distribution in southwest China...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kumara V Nibhanipudi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. METHODS: This was a prospective institutional review board-approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age) were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more) and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number)...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
Goutam Chowdhury, Gururaja Perumal Pazhani, Anirban Sarkar, Krishnan Rajendran, Asish K Mukhopadhyay, Mihir K Bhattacharya, Amit Ghosh, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy
Carbapenems have been used for many years to treat severe nosocomial Enterobacteriaceae infections. The spread of resistance to these drugs among other bacterial families is an emerging problem worldwide, mostly caused by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1). We screened for the prevalence of NDM-1-expressing enteric pathogens from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhea in Kolkata, India, and identified 27 Vibrio fluvialis-harboring blaNDM-1 (NDM-VF) strains. These isolates were also resistant to all the tested antimicrobial drugs except doxycycline...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Naftali Stern
As both the rate of hypertension and cancer rise with age, concomitant hypertension in patients receiving treatment for cancer is very common. Increase in blood pressure during cancer treatment requires careful clinical assessment. Distinction between discontinuation or malabsorption of antihypertensive treatment due to factors such as nausea/vomiting/diarrhea and anti-cancer drug specific effects must be first made. De-novo hypertension during cancer treatment is likely related to anticancer drugs per se. Classical chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and busulfan have been previously linked to rising blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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