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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240337/nucleic-acid-diagnostic-approaches-in-parasitology
#1
Anne-Marie Kerttula, Antti Lavikainen
Nucleic acid diagnostic technologies are partly replacing traditional microscopy and antigen detection methods in parasitological diagnostics. In particular, the diagnostics of parasitic diarrhea is undergoing a transformation due to the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Diagnostics of malaria is still based on microscopy, but rapid nucleic acid tests are emerging. Laboratories of clinical microbiology in Finland currently provide PCR tests e.g. for intestinal protozoa, Toxoplasma and Trichomonas...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230475/improving-decisions-about-transport-to-the-emergency-department-for-assisted-living-residents-who-fall
#2
Jefferson G Williams, Michael W Bachman, Michael D Lyons, Benjamin B Currie, Lawrence H Brown, A Wooten Jones, Jose G Cabanas, Alan K Kronhaus, J Brent Myers
Background: Residents of assisted living facilities who fall may not be seriously ill or injured, but policies often require immediate transport to an emergency department regardless of the patient's condition. Objective: To determine whether unnecessary transport can be avoided. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: One large county with a single system of emergency medical services. Participants: Convenience sample of residents in 22 assisted living facilities served by 1 group of primary care physicians...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220082/benefits-of-multimodal-enhanced-recovery-pathway-in-patients-undergoing-kidney-transplantation
#3
Kevin A Espino, J Reinier F Narvaez, Michael C Ott, Liise K Kayler
BACKGROUND: Use of Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways to accelerate functional recovery and reduce length of stay (LOS) has rarely been investigated in kidney transplantation (KTX). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive adult isolated KTXs between 7/2015-7/2016 (ERAS, n=139) were compared with a historical cohort between 1/2014-7/2015 (HISTORIC, n=95). RESULTS: ERAS recipients were significantly more likely to receive kidneys that were non-local (56...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218037/wuji-wan-formula-ameliorates-diarrhea-and-disordered-colonic-motility-in-post-inflammation-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota
#4
Ying Chen, Shuiming Xiao, Zipeng Gong, Xiaoxin Zhu, Qing Yang, Yujie Li, Shuangrong Gao, Yu Dong, Zhe Shi, Yajie Wang, Xiaogang Weng, Qi Li, Weiyan Cai, Weijie Qiang
Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the treatment of post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Our previous studies have demonstrated that a Chinese formula, Wuji Wan, has the ability to mitigate abdominal pain and diarrhea in PI-IBS rats. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism and whether the gut microbiota mediate the effect of Wuji Wan on PI-IBS. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether Wuji Wan mitigated PI-IBS by modifying the gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217418/molecular-characterization-of-virulence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-shigella-species-isolated-from-children-with-moderate-to-severe-diarrhea-in-northeastern-brazil
#5
Pedro Henrique Quintela Soares Medeiros, Aldo Ângelo Moreira Lima, Marjorie Moreira Guedes, Alexandre Havt, Mariana Duarte Bona, Luís Carlos Rey, Alberto Melo Soares, Richard Littleton Guerrant, Bernhard H Weigl, Ila Fernanda Nunes Lima
Molecular characterization of virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined for Shigella species isolated from children with diarrhea in Fortaleza, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected along with socioeconomic and clinical data from children with moderate to severe diarrhea requiring emergency care. Shigella spp. were isolated by standard microbiological techniques, and we developed 4 multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays to detect 16 virulence-related genes (VRGs). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion assays...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216027/acute-malnutrition-among-children-mortality-and-humanitarian-interventions-in-conflict-affected-regions-nigeria-october-2016-march-2017
#6
Eva Leidman, Erin Tromble, Adamu Yermina, Robert Johnston, Chris Isokpunwu, Adeyemi Adeniran, Assaye Bulti
A public health emergency was declared by the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health in northeastern Nigeria in June 2016 and escalated by the United Nations to a Level 3 Emergency in August 2016, after confirmation of wild poliovirus and measles outbreaks and evidence that prevalence of acute malnutrition exceeded emergency thresholds in areas newly liberated from Boko Haram control (1,2). To monitor rates of mortality, acute malnutrition among children, infectious disease morbidity, and humanitarian interventions after the emergency declaration, a series of cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in fall 2016 and winter 2017 in the northeastern states of Borno and Yobe using a cluster methodology...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213333/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-027-strains-including-the-newly-sequenced-strain-nckuh-21-isolated-from-a-patient-in-taiwan
#7
Haruo Suzuki, Masaru Tomita, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko, Yuan-Pin Hung, I-Hsiu Huang, Jenn-Wei Chen
Background: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive anaerobe and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. The emergence of ribotype 027 (RT027) strains is associated with increased incidence of infection and mortality. To further understand the relationship between C. difficile NCKUH-21, a RT027 strain isolated from a patient in Taiwan, and other RT027 strains, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing on NCKUH-21 and comparative genomic analyses. Results: The genome size, G+C content, and gene number for the NCKUH-21 strain were determined to be similar to those for other C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209511/effectiveness-of-composting-as-a-biosecure-disposal-method-for-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-infected-pig-carcasses
#8
Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt
Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric disease of swine that has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine herd health and production. Substantial research has been conducted to assess viability of the virus on surfaces of vehicles and equipment, in feed and water, and on production building surfaces, but little is known about the persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. This study was conducted to quantify the persistence of PEDV RNA via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at various time-temperature combinations and in infected piglet carcasses subjected to composting...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204525/sbrt-to-adrenal-metastases-provides-high-local-control-with-minimal-toxicity
#9
Kristin Plichta, Nathan Camden, Muhammed Furqan, Taher Abu Hejleh, Gerald H Clamon, Jun Zhang, Ryan T Flynn, Sudershan K Bhatia, Mark C Smith, John M Buatti, Bryan G Allen
Purpose: The adrenal glands are a common site of metastases because of their rich blood supply. Previously, adrenal metastases were treated with systemic chemotherapy or, more rarely, with surgical resection or palliative radiation therapy. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has recently emerged as an attractive noninvasive approach to definitively treat these lesions. We present our experience in treating adrenal metastases using SBRT and review the current literature. Methods and materials: This is a single-institution retrospective review of patients who received SBRT to adrenal metastases originating from various primary malignancies...
October 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199662/efficacy-and-safety-of-first-line-systemic-chemotherapy-with-epirubicin-cisplatin-plus-5-fluorouracil-and-docetaxel-cisplatin-plus-5-fluorouracil-regimens-in-locally-advanced-inoperable-or-metastatic-gastric-or-gastroesophageal-junction-adenocarcinoma-a-prospective
#10
K G Babu, T Chaudhuri, K C Lakshmaiah, L Dasappa, L A Jacob, McS Babu, A H Rudresha, K N Lokesh, L K Rajeev
BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced inoperable or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma have a poor prognosis. The maximum benefit of systemic chemotherapy is usually achieved in the first-line setting. Even though systemic chemotherapy has been used for long time, in view of unsatisfactory results, no standard regimen has been emerged. Unfortunately, till date, there is no published prospective data from India, comparing the two most commonly used triplet regimens, epirubicin, cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (ECF) and docetaxel, cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (DCF), in this patient population...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191202/evaluation-of-an-accelerated-hydrogen-peroxide-disinfectant-to-inactivate-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-swine-feces-on-aluminum-surfaces-under-freezing-conditions
#11
Kimberlee L Baker, Paul R Thomas, Locke A Karriker, Alejandro Ramirez, Jianqiang Zhang, Chong Wang, Derald J Holtkamp
BACKGROUND: Since its emergence in 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spread rapidly throughout the country due, in part, to contaminated livestock trailers. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of an accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP) disinfectant for inactivating PEDV in swine feces on metal surfaces under freezing conditions. One 15.24 X 15.24 X 2.54 cm aluminum coupon, contaminated with swine feces, and randomly matched to one pig was the experimental unit...
December 1, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187542/type-iii-interferon-restriction-by-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-and-the-role-of-viral-protein-nsp1-in-irf1-signaling
#12
Qingzhan Zhang, Hanzhong Ke, Anthony Blikslager, Takashi Fujita, Dongwan Yoo
Type III interferons (IFN-λs) play a vital role to maintain the antiviral state of the mucosal epithelial surface in the gut, and in turn, enteric viruses may have evolved to evade the type III IFN responses during infection. To study of the possible immune evasion of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) from type III IFN response, a line of porcine intestinal epithelial cells was developed as a cell model for PEDV replication. IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ3 inhibited the PEDV replication, indicating the anti-PEDV activity of type III IFNs...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186198/safety-and-efficacy-of-ferric-citrate-in-patients-with-nondialysis-dependent-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Glenn M Chertow, Geoffrey A Block, John F Neylan, Pablo E Pergola, Katrin Uhlig, Steven Fishbane
Two randomized, placebo-controlled trials conducted in patients with nondialysis-dependent (NDD) chronic kidney disease (CKD), iron deficiency anemia, and normal or elevated serum phosphorus demonstrated that ferric citrate (FC) significantly increased hemoglobin and decreased serum phosphate concentrations. Pooling these trial results could provide a more robust evaluation of the safety and efficacy of FC in this population. We pooled results of a phase 2 (n = 149) and 3 trial (n = 233) of patients randomized and treated for up to 12 and 16 weeks, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183732/role-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-an-emerging-g8p-8-rotavirus-strain-causing-an-outbreak-in-central-japan
#14
Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Masaaki Kobayashi, Sayaka Takanashi, Kazi Selim Anwar, Taeko Watanabe, Pattara Khamrin, Shoko Okitsu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the effectiveness of RV1 and RV5 vaccines during an outbreak of G8P[8] rotavirus group A strain (G8P[8]-RVA). These vaccines were originally designed to provide protection against severe diseases caused by common circulating strains, whereas G8P[8]-RVA remains emerging strain and partially heterotypic to the vaccines. It is imperative to investigate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against G8P[8]-RVA because this strain appears to be predominant in recent years, particularly, in post-vaccine era...
November 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172123/existing-and-emerging-therapies-for-managing-constipation-and-diarrhea
#15
REVIEW
Adil E Bharucha, Mira M Wouters, Jan Tack
Functional bowel disorders (i.e., constipation and diarrhea) are characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, distention, and/or bowel habit abnormalities in the absence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on routine diagnostic tests. These symptoms are attributable to gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunctions resulting from peripheral and/or central mechanisms. Available drugs target the underlying bowel disturbance (i.e., constipation, diarrhea, or both), supplemented when necessary by management of pain...
November 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163745/possible-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-associated-with-eucalyptus-case-report
#16
Daniel Lapid, Mohtashim Arbaab Qureshi, Ihtesham Aatif Quresh, Mohammed Rauf Afzal, Alberto Maud, Gustavo J Rodriguez, Rakesh Khatri
Background: Reversible cerebral vasoconstrictive syndrome (RCVS) has characteristic clinical features, brain imaging and Angiographic features. The majority of RCVS cases are associated with the use of antidepressants, polysubstance abuse, and nasal decongestants. We here present a case that highlights the use of eucalyptus herbs as a possible precipitant factor for RCVS formation. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a tingling sensation on the right-hand side of her body and a two-week progressive throbbing severe holocranial headache radiating to the neck, with associated nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia...
October 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152578/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-nonstructural-protein-16-is-necessary-for-interferon-resistance-and-viral-pathogenesis
#17
Vineet D Menachery, Lisa E Gralinski, Hugh D Mitchell, Kenneth H Dinnon, Sarah R Leist, Boyd L Yount, Rachel L Graham, Eileen T McAnarney, Kelly G Stratton, Adam S Cockrell, Kari Debbink, Amy C Sims, Katrina M Waters, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoVs) encode a mixture of highly conserved and novel genes, as well as genetic elements necessary for infection and pathogenesis, raising the possibility of common targets for attenuation and therapeutic design. In this study, we focused on highly conserved nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16), a viral 2'O-methyltransferase (2'O-MTase) that encodes critical functions in immune modulation and infection. Using reverse genetics, we disrupted a key motif in the conserved KDKE motif of Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) NSP16 (D130A) and evaluated the effect on viral infection and pathogenesis...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151781/molecular-epidemiology-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-in-diarrheal-children-from-low-socioeconomic-status-communities-in-bihar-india-emergence-of-the-ctx-m-type
#18
Abhishek Mandal, Abhishek Sengupta, Ajay Kumar, Utpal K Singh, Anil K Jaiswal, Pradeep Das, Sushmita Das
Background: Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in India, but the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli among children with diarrhea in Bihar remains elusive. In this study, we determine and characterize ESBL-producing E coli pathotypes among hospitalized diarrheal preschool children living in low socioeconomic level communities in Bihar, India. Materials and methods: The stool samples were collected everyday throughout the year for 2 consecutive years...
2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151425/-paraquat-poisoning-mechanism-and-its-clinical-treatment-progress
#19
Baisheng Sun, Yuezhong He
Paraquat (PQ) as a kind of sterile and herbicides, has effects of contact-kill and systemic action, which can be absorbed quickly by green plants and make them wither and die. Therefore, it is widely used in the agricultural production and occupies a large part in our country's pesticide market. PQ poisoning has become one of the most common pesticide poisoning in our country. PQ can be passivated when combining with soil, but it has great toxicity for human. There are still no specific antidotes for PQ poisoning at home and abroad, and the death rate of PQ oral poisoning is up to 95%...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148394/enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-o80-h2-in-young-calves-with-diarrhea-belgium
#20
Damien Thiry, Marc Saulmont, Shino Takaki, Klara De Rauw, Jean-Noël Duprez, Atsushi Iguchi, Denis Piérard, Jacques G Mainil
Serogroup O80 was detected in 40% of 104 enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from calves with diarrhea from 42 farms in Belgium during 2008‒2015. These isolates harbored the eae-ξ and fliCH2 genes, similar to the O80 attaching-effacing Shigatoxigenic E. coli isolates found in humans in France. This strain might be emerging.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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