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diarrhea emergency

Michael G Dieterle, Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young
Clostridium difficile is the leading infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. C. difficile infection (CDI) places a heavy burden on the healthcare system, with nearly half a million infections yearly and an approximate 20% recurrence risk after successful initial therapy. The high incidence has driven new research on improved prevention such as the emerging use of probiotics, intestinal microbiome manipulation during antibiotic therapies, vaccinations, and newer antibiotics that reduce the disruption of the intestinal microbiome...
September 21, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Nan Guo, Bingzhou Zhang, Han Hu, Shiyi Ye, Fangzhou Chen, Zhonghua Li, Pin Chen, Chunmei Wang, Qigai He
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has re-emerged in recent years and has already caused huge economic losses to the porcine industry all over the world. Therefore, it is urgent for us to find out efficient ways to prevent and control this disease. In this study, the antiviral activity of a cationic amphibian antimicrobial peptide Caerin1.1 against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was evaluated by an in vitro system using Vero cells. We found that even at a very low concentration, Caerin1.1 has the ability to destroy the integrity of the virus particles to block the release of the viruses, resulting in a considerable decrease in PEDV infections...
September 18, 2018: Viruses
Genevieve L Wojcik, Chelsea Marie, Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Nobuya Yoshida, Koji Watanabe, Alexander J Mentzer, Tommy Carstensen, Josyf Mychaleckyj, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Stephen S Rich, Patrick Concannon, Rashidul Haque, George C Tsokos, William A Petri, Priya Duggal
Entamoeba histolytica is the etiologic agent of amebic dysentery, though clinical manifestation of infection is highly variable ranging from subclinical colonization to invasive disease. We hypothesize that host genetics contribute to the variable outcomes of E. histolytica infection; thus, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in two independent birth cohorts of Bangladeshi infants monitored for susceptibility to E. histolytica disease in the first year of life. Children with at least one diarrheal episode positive for E...
September 18, 2018: MBio
Vedran Premužić, Marija Santini, Mario Laganović, Marijana Ćorić, Bojan Jelaković
Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is distributed worldwide and is highly contagious. In adults and immunosuppressed patients of any age, the clinical course is much more severe. The most severe complications are pneumonia (the main cause of lethal outcomes in this infection), encephalitis, and very rarely Reye syndrome and hepatitis. Case Presentation: We present a 59-year-old man who came to the emergency department due to varicella and diarrhea. During initial evaluation acute kidney failure (AKF) was diagnosed, and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Linda N Lee, Olivia Quatela, Neil Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine 30-day rates and reasons for revisit and readmission after rhytidectomy surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was performed of multistate ambulatory surgery and hospital databases. Ambulatory rhytidectomy cases were extracted from State Ambulatory Surgery Databases for New York, Florida, Iowa, and California for 2010 and 2011. Cases were linked to State Emergency Department and Inpatient Databases for visits occurring 1 to 30 days postoperatively...
September 8, 2018: Laryngoscope
Xing Gao, Lihong Zhang, Xiong Jiang, Khalid Mehmood, Lei Wang, Xiaole Tong, Meng Wang, Hui Zhang, Jiakui Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a devastating cause of diarrhea in pigs worldwide, and has caused enormous economic losses in the pork industry. To date, however, it is still unclear whether Tibetan pigs from the Tibetan Plateau of China are exposed to PED. This study was to investigate the seroprevalence of PED in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. A total of 364 serum samples were collected from Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi in 2014 and 2015. Each sample was assayed for PED antibodies by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
September 6, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Eric Van Cutsem, Erika Martinelli, Stefano Cascinu, Alberto Sobrero, Maria Banzi, Jean-François Seitz, Carlo Barone, Marc Ychou, Marc Peeters, Baruch Brenner, Ralf Dieter Hofheinz, Evaristo Maiello, Thierry André, Andrea Spallanzani, Rocio Garcia-Carbonero, Yull E Arriaga, Udit Verma, Axel Grothey, Christian Kappeler, Ashok Miriyala, Joachim Kalmus, Alfredo Falcone, Alberto Zaniboni
BACKGROUND: In the phase III CORRECT trial, regorafenib significantly improved survival in treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The CONSIGN study was designed to further characterize regorafenib safety and allow patients access to regorafenib before market authorization. METHODS: This prospective, single-arm study enrolled patients in 25 countries at 186 sites. Patients with treatment-refractory mCRC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≤1 received regorafenib 160 mg once daily for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle...
September 6, 2018: Oncologist
Aashiq H Mirza, Sanchita Das, Maneesh R Pingle, Mark S Rundell, George Armah, Ben Gyan, Richard L Hodinka, Davise H Larone, Eric D Spitzer, Francis Barany, Linnie M Golightly
Rotavirus and noroviruses are major causes of diarrhea. Variable rotavirus vaccination efficacy in Africa and Asia is multifactorial, including the diversity of circulating strains and viral co-infection. We describe a multiplexed assay that detects and genotypes viruses from stool specimens. It includes a one-step reverse transcriptase PCR reaction, a ligase detection reaction (LDR), then hybridization of fluorescent products to micro-beads. In clinical samples it detects rotavirus, caliciviruses (sapovirus and norovirus), mixed infections, and genotypes or genogroups of rotaviruses and noroviruses, respectively...
September 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Humberto de Moura Barbosa, Dionísio Amaral, Jailson Nunes do Nascimento, Dijanah Cota Machado, Thiago Antônio de Sousa Araújo, Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Dayane Aparecida Gomes, Eduardo Carvalho Lira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important medical emergencies of the 21st century. However, commercially available oral drugs with antidiabetic properties have been limited because of potential side effects, such as: hypoglycemia, weight gain, hepatic dysfunction and abdominal discomfort. As well as antidiabetic drugs, many types of medicinal herbal supplements are utilized as alternative treatments for DM and related comorbidities. Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as "umbu", has been used in traditional medicine to treat a vast range of diseases, including DM, infections, digestive disorders, diarrhea and menstrual abnormalities...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
L Zhou, Y Sun, T Lan, R T Wu, J W Chen, Z X Wu, Q M Xie, X B Zhang, J Y Ma
Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), a novel coronavirus, was first discovered in southern China in January 2017 and caused a large scale outbreak of fatal diarrheal disease in piglets. Here, we conducted a retrospective investigation of 236 samples from 45 swine farms with a clinical history of diarrheal disease to evaluate the emergence and the distribution of SADS-CoV in pigs in China. Our results suggest that SADS-CoV has emerged in China at least since August 2016. Meanwhile, we detected a prevalence of SADS-CoV (43...
September 1, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Verónica Martín Domínguez, Jorge Mendoza, Ariel Díaz Menéndez, Magdalena Adrados, José Andrés Moreno Monteagudo, Cecilio Santander
INTRODUCTION: colon lymphoma (CL) is an uncommon variety of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that represents less than 0.6% of all primary colonic neoplasms. Early diagnosis is challenging as clinical manifestations are non-specific. The goal of this review was to discuss our experience over the last few years regarding the clinical, endoscopic, histological, diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary characteristics of CL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a retrospective, descriptive analysis of patients with CL diagnosed from 1994 to 2016 at the Hospital Universitario de La Princesa (Madrid, Spain) was performed...
August 28, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Lang Gong, Ying Lin, Jianru Qin, Qianniu Li, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao
BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is emerging as a pathogenic coronavirus that causes a huge economic burden to the swine industry. Interaction of the viral spike (S) surface glycoprotein with the host cell receptor is recognized as the first step of infection and is the main determinant of virus tropism. The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit PEDV have not been defined. Isolating PEDV neutralizing antibodies are crucial to identifying the receptor-binding domains of the viral spike and elucidating the mechanism of protection against PEDV infection...
August 30, 2018: Virology Journal
Medha Joshi, Salah Aldergash, Ali Hussain, Rakesh Gulati, Varun Malhotra
Renal hypoperfusion noted on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan without any underlying comorbid condition is a rare finding. Most reported cases of renal hypoperfusion have an association with an underlying cardioembolic problem, such as atrial fibrillation, endocarditis, cardiomyopathies, or artificial valve thrombi. We present a case of transient renal hypoperfusion evident on abdominal CT scan following blunt trauma. An 18-year-old male without any significant past medical history presented to the emergency department with the complaint of abdominal pain...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Gang Wang, Xiumin You, Xueyi Wang, Xiufeng Xu, Ludong Bai, Jian Xie, Zhijian Yao, QiZhong Yi, Jun Ma, Jinan Wang, Jianmin Zhuo, Cuili Hu
Background: Anxiety symptoms usually worsen depression and functional impairment. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of escitalopram on social function and quality of life in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with anxiety symptoms. Patients and methods: Adult MDD patients with functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS] score ≥9) and anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A] score ≥14) received escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) for 8 weeks...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Faith A Omonijo, Seungil Kim, Tracy Guo, Qi Wang, Joshua Gong, Ludovic Lahaye, Jean-Christophe Bodin, Martin Nyachoti, Song Liu, Chengbo Yang
Antibiotics have been widely supplemented in feeds at subtherapeutic concentrations to prevent postweaning diarrhea and increase the overall productivity of pigs. However, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria worldwide has made it urgent to minimize the use of in-feed antibiotics. The development of promising alternatives to in-feed antibiotics is crucial for maintaining the sustainability of swine production. Both medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) and essential oils exhibit great potential to postweaning diarrhea; however, their direct inclusion has compromised efficacy because of several factors including low stability, poor palatability, and low availability in the lower gut...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hsu-Feng Chu, Chiao-Che Chen, David C Moses, Yau-Hung Chen, Chao-Hsiung Lin, Ying-Chieh Tsai, Chi-Yuan Chou
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus (CoV) discovered in the 1970s that infects the intestinal tract of pigs, resulting in diarrhea and vomiting. It can cause extreme dehydration and death in neonatal piglets. In Asia, modified live attenuated vaccines have been used to control PEDV infection in recent years. However, a new strain of PEDV that belongs to genogroup 2a appeared in the USA in 2013 and then quickly spread to Canada and Mexico as well as Asian and European countries. Due to the less effective protective immunity provided by the vaccines against this new strain, it has caused considerable agricultural and economic loss worldwide...
October 2018: Antiviral Research
Dechang Diao, Jin Wan, Xiaojiang Yi, Xinquan Lu, Wei Wang, Hongming Li, Wenjun Xiong, Yaobin He
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and application value of the preservation of vegetative nervous functions in radical resection for right-sided colon cancer. METHODS: Clinical data of 55 cases with right-sided colon cancer undergoing laparoscopic D3+ complete mesocolic excision (CME) radical resection from January 2016 to July 2017 at Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery of Guangdong Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were retrospectively analyzed...
August 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Mamoru Miyasaka, Takehiro Noji, Kimitaka Tanaka, Yoshitsugu Nakanishi, Toshimichi Asano, Yuma Ebihara, Yo Kurashima, Toru Nakamura, Soichi Murakami, Takahiro Tsuchikawa, Keisuke Okamura, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano
BACKGROUND: A surgical case of metachronous metastases of pancreatic head cancer (PC) to the large and small bowel is extremely rare. Therefore, there are only a few reports about surgery for intestinal metastases from PC. An oncologic emergency is defined as an acute, potentially life-threatening condition in a cancer patient that developed directly or indirectly because of the malignant disease or cancer treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old man with PC underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and S-1...
August 22, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Jeffrey A Rappaport, Scott A Waldman
Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is a transmembrane receptor expressed on the luminal aspect of the intestinal epithelium. Its ligands include bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins responsible for traveler's diarrhea, the endogenous peptide hormones uroguanylin and guanylin, and the synthetic agents, linaclotide, plecanatide, and dolcanatide. Ligand-activated GUCY2C catalyzes the synthesis of intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP), initiating signaling cascades underlying homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. Mouse models of GUCY2C ablation, and recently, human populations harboring GUCY2C mutations, have revealed the diverse contributions of this signaling axis to epithelial health, including regulating fluid secretion, microbiome composition, intestinal barrier integrity, epithelial renewal, cell cycle progression, responses to DNA damage, epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk, cell migration, and cellular metabolic status...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Mwanaisha Seugendo, Iryna Janssen, Vanessa Lang, Irene Hasibuan, Wolfgang Bohne, Paul Cooper, Rolf Daniel, Katrin Gunka, R L Kusumawati, Stephen E Mshana, Lutz von Müller, Benard Okamo, Jan R Ortlepp, Jörg Overmann, Thomas Riedel, Maja Rupnik, Ortrud Zimmermann, Uwe Groß
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infections (CDI) are considered worldwide as emerging health threat. Uptake of C. difficile spores may result in asymptomatic carrier status or lead to CDI that could range from mild diarrhea, eventually developing into pseudomembranous colitis up to a toxic megacolon that often results in high mortality. Most epidemiological studies to date have been performed in middle- and high income countries. Beside others, the use of antibiotics and the composition of the microbiome have been identified as major risk factors for the development of CDI...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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