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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636257/covalent-attachment-and-pro-pro-endopeptidase-ppep-1-mediated-release-of-clostridium-difficile-cell-surface-proteins-involved-in-adhesion
#1
REVIEW
Jeroen Corver, Valentina Cordo', Hans C van Leeuwen, Oleg I Klychnikov, Paul J Hensbergen
In the past decade, Clostridium difficile has emerged as an important gut pathogen. This anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium is the main cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. Whereas much is known about the mechanism through which the C. difficile toxins cause diarrhea, relatively little is known about the dynamics of adhesion and motility, which is mediated by cell surface proteins. This review will discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the sortase-mediated covalent attachment of cell surface (adhesion) proteins to the peptidoglycan layer of C...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635648/deoxyelephantopin-and-isodeoxyelephantopin-as-potential-anticancer-agents-with-effects-on-multiple-signaling-pathways
#2
REVIEW
Tahir Mehmood, Amara Maryam, Hamed A Ghramh, Muhammad Khan, Tonghui Ma
Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide. The development of drugs to target only one specific signaling pathway has limited therapeutic success. Developing chemotherapeutics to target multiple signaling pathways has emerged as a new prototype for cancer treatment. Deoxyelephantopin (DET) and isodeoxyelephantopin (IDET) are sesquiterpene lactone components of "Elephantopus scaber and Elephantopus carolinianus", traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that have long been used as folk medicines to treat liver diseases, diabetes, diuresis, bronchitis, fever, diarrhea, dysentery, cancer, and inflammation...
June 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633126/emergency-incarcerated-obturator-hernia-repair-with-biologic-mesh-in-a-male-patient-after-ipsilateral-hip-disarticulation-a-case-report
#3
Rodolfo J Oviedo, Alexander H W Molinari
INTRODUCTION: An obturator hernia is an uncommon form of abdominal hernia that is difficult to diagnose due to its non-distinct presentation. This case investigates an emergency treatment of an obturator hernia presenting in a patient with an ipsilateral hip disarticulation in a 266-bed community hospital. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 53-year old man with a history of a left hip disarticulation 3-weeks prior presented to the emergency department with fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea for the past 5-days...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628633/pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-are-associated-with-clinical-signs-and-symptoms-of-human-anaplasmosis
#4
Anna M Schotthoefer, Steven J Schrodi, Jennifer K Meece, Thomas R Fritsche, Sanjay K Shukla
Human anaplasmosis (HA) is an emerging tick-borne disease that may present as a mild flu-like illness or a life threatening, sepsis-like condition. Although disease severity is hypothesized to relate to immunopathology and immune dysfunction in humans, studies to directly measure immune responses in infected humans have been very limited. We quantified cytokines in 80 confirmed HA patients using a multiplex chemiluminescence immunoassay system and compared similarly measured responses in 1000 control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626382/a-symptomatic-coffee-bean-acute-sigmoid-volvulus
#5
Michael Scharl, Luc Biedermann
An acute sigmoid volvulus is due to the torsion of the sigmoid colon around its mesenteric axis. It mainly occurs in elderly patients and represents an abdominal emergency requiring urgent treatment. A 53-year-old male patient with severe craniocerebral injury and traumatic subarachnoidal bleeding 3 weeks prior presented on the ward with distended abdomen without abdominal pain, muscular defense, or resistances. He featured large volume diarrhea within the last few hours without signs of bleeding. A plain abdominal X-ray demonstrated a coffee bean sign indicating a sigmoid volvulus...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619152/the-newly-emerging-duck-origin-goose-parvovirus-in-china-exhibits-a-wide-range-of-pathogenicity-to-main-domesticated-waterfowl
#6
Shifeng Xiao, Shilong Chen, Xiaoxia Cheng, Fengqiang Lin, Shao Wang, Xiaoli Zhu, Bo Yu, Meiqing Huang, Jinxiang Wang, Nanyang Wu, Min Zheng, Shaoying Chen, Fusong Yu
Short beak and dwarfism syndrome virus (SBDSV) is a newly emerging distinct duck-origin goose parvovirus that belongs to the genus Dependovirus. Our previous studies have found that SBDSV was highly pathogenic to Cherry Valley ducklings and mule ducklings. However, little is known about its pathogenicity to other waterfowls. In the present study, the pathogenicity of SBDSV was evaluated in domesticated waterfowl including Muscovy ducklings, Sheldrake ducklings and domestic goslings. All experimentally infected birds exhibited remarkable growth retardation, anorexia and diarrhea similar to naturally infected birds...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603782/socioeconomic-determinants-of-cipro-floxacin-resistant-shigella-infections-in-bangladeshi-children
#7
Randon J Gruninger, Russell A Johnson, Sumon K Das, Eric J Nelson, Emily S Spivak, John R Contreras, A S G Faruque, Daniel T Leung
BACKGROUND: Shigella species (spp.) are a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children worldwide. The recent emergence of quinolone-resistant Shigella spp. gives cause for concern, and South Asia has been identified as a reservoir for global spread. The influence of socioeconomic status on antimicrobial resistance in developing countries, such as those in South Asia, remains unknown. METHODS: We used data collected from 2009 to 2014 from a hospital specializing in the treatment of diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to determine the relationship between Ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602521/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-postweaning-piglets-understanding-the-keys-to-health
#8
REVIEW
Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
Weaning is a critical event in the pig's life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593453/targeting-small-bowel-receptors-to-treat-constipation-and-diarrhea
#9
REVIEW
Elizabeth S John, Sita Chokhavatia
BACKGROUND: The options for the treatment of diarrhea and constipation are evolving as emerging therapies target small bowel receptors. The goal of this review is to discuss small bowel receptors involved in intestinal absorption, secretion, and motility. The review highlights therapies already approved or currently being studied for the modulation of these receptors. METHODS: The articles cited in this review focus on the molecular level of pathways involved in diarrhea and constipation, and highlight the respective pharmacotherapies...
July 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589511/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-novel-s-insertion-variant-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-from-south-korea
#10
Sunhee Lee, Changhee Lee
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an emerging and re-emerging viral pathogen of pigs that is causing significant economic concerns in the global pork industry. The virulent G2b PEDV subgroup, which was responsible for the 2013-2014 pandemics on the American and Asian continents, hit Jeju Island in 2014, which had been PEDV-free since 2004. This study presents molecular characterization of a novel PEDV variant with a 5-amino acid (aa) insertion (DTHPE) in the spike (S) gene (an S-insertion) that was identified in diarrheic piglets from Jeju Island...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584458/epidemiology-of-rotavirus-in-the-iranian-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari, Shima Hadifar, Shayan Mostafaei, Ali Miri, Mohsen Keshavarz, Farhad Babaei, Mohsen Moghoofei
Rotavirus is associated with increased risk for severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence rate of rotavirus from different parts of Iran and provide an overall relative frequency (RF) for Iran. We performed a systematic literature review from several databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, MAG IRAN, IranMedex, and Iranian Scientific Information Database. We searched the following keywords: "rotavirus," "rotavirus infection," "acute gastroenteritis," "diarrhea," "children," "infant," and "Iran...
April 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584140/safety-tolerability-systemic-exposure-and-metabolism-of-crs3123-a-methionyl-trna-synthetase-inhibitor-developed-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-a-phase-i-study
#12
Seema U Nayak, J McLeod Griffiss, Jeffrey Blumer, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Wesley Gray, Robin McKenzie, Robert A Jurao, Amanda T An, Melissa Le, Stacie J Bell, Urs A Ochsner, Thale C Jarvis, Nebojsa Janjic, Jonathan M Zenilman
Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic associated diarrhea and is a major public health concern. Current therapies disrupt the protective intestinal flora, do not reliably prevent recurrent infections and will be decreasingly effective should less susceptible strains emerge. CRS3123 is an oral agent that inhibits bacterial methionyl-tRNA synthetase, has potent activity against C. difficile and aerobic Gram positive bacteria, but little activity against Gram negative bacteria, including anaerobes. This first-in-human, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and systemic exposure of CRS3123 after a single oral dose in healthy adults...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573108/spreading-of-pandemic-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-o3-k6-and-its-serovariants-a-re-analysis-of-strains-isolated-from-multiple-studies
#13
Dongsheng Han, Fei Yu, Hui Tang, Chuanli Ren, Caiyun Wu, Pan Zhang, Chongxu Han
In China, V. parahaemolyticus has been a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks and bacterial infectious diarrhea since the 1990s, and most infections have been associated with the pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and its serovariants. However, a comprehensive overview of the sero-prevalence and genetic diversity of the pandemic V. parahaemolyticus clone in China is lacking. To compensate for this deficiency, pandemic isolates in both clinical and environmental Chinese samples collected from multiple studies were analyzed in this study...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562131/cost-reduction-from-resolution-improvement-of-carcinoid-syndrome-symptoms-following-treatment-with-above-standard-dose-of-octreotide-lar
#14
Lynn Huynh, Todor Totev, Francis Vekeman, Maureen P Neary, Mei S Duh, Al B Benson
AIMS: To calculate the cost reduction associated with diarrhea/flushing symptom resolution/improvement following treatment with above-standard dose octreotide-LAR from the commercial payor's perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diarrhea and flushing are two major carcinoid syndrome symptoms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Previously, a study of NET patients from three US tertiary oncology centers (NET 3-Center Study) demonstrated that dose escalation of octreotide LAR to above-standard dose resolved/improved diarrhea/flushing in 79% of the patients within 1 year...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556364/phase-i-study-of-glasdegib-pf-04449913-an-oral-smoothened-inhibitor-in-japanese-patients-with-select-hematologic-malignancies
#15
Yosuke Minami, Hironobu Minami, Toshihiro Miyamoto, Goichi Yoshimoto, Yukio Kobayashi, Wataru Munakata, Yasushi Onishi, Masahiro Kobayashi, Mari Ikuta, Geoffrey Chan, Adrian Woolfson, Chiho Ono, Mohammed Naveed Shaik, Yosuke Fujii, Xianxian Zheng, Tomoki Naoe
The hedgehog signaling pathway regulates multiple morphogenetic processes during embryogenesis. Aberrant activation of the hedgehog pathway signal transduction in adult tissues is associated with the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. We report findings from an open-label, multicenter phase I trial of the selective, small-molecule hedgehog signaling inhibitor glasdegib (PF-04449913) in Japanese patients with select advanced hematologic malignancies. Glasdegib was administered as once-daily oral doses (25, 50, and 100 mg) in 28-day cycles after a lead-in dose on Day -5...
May 26, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555169/strongyloides-colitis-as-a-harmful-mimicker-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Julio Poveda, Farah El-Sharkawy, Leopoldo R Arosemena, Monica T Garcia-Buitrago, Claudia P Rojas
Autoinfection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis frequently becomes a life-long disease unless it is effectively treated. There is overlapping histomorphology between Strongyloides colitis and inflammatory bowel disease; a low index of suspicion can lead to misdiagnosis and fatal consequences. We present a case of Strongyloides colitis mimicking the clinical and pathologic features of inflammatory bowel disease. A 64-year-old female presented to the emergency department with a four-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hematochezia...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549806/chronic-consequences-on-human-health-induced-by-microbial-pathogens-growth-faltering-among-children-in-developing-countries
#17
James P Nataro, Richard L Guerrant
Enteric infections continue to cause approximately 500,000 childhood deaths annually worldwide. In addition to the burden of diarrhea, there is emerging evidence that exposure to enteric pathogens may induce physiologic abnormalities that lead to linear growth faltering. This enteric disease, known as environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) remains cryptic with regard to its causes and features. In this workshop, experts in the field addressed the contribution of enteric pathogens to growth faltering in the absence of clinical diarrhea...
May 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546075/antimicrobial-storage-and-antibiotic-knowledge-in-the-community-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study-in-north-western-angola
#18
Joana Cortez, Edite Rosário, João E Pires, João Taborda Lopes, Moisés Francisco, Erika Vlieghe, Miguel Brito
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are drugs that were once lifesavers and mainly curative. Nowadays their value is increasingly under pressure because of the rapid and worldwide emergence of antimicrobial resistance, which, in low-resource settings, frequently occurs in microorganisms that are likely to be transmitted in the community. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional pilot study including 102 households within the 10th Health and Demographic Surveillance System round in Dande, Bengo Province, Angola...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540290/biomarkers-and-microscopic-colitis-an-unmet-need-in-clinical-practice
#19
REVIEW
Laura Francesca Pisani, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Beatrice Marinoni, Vincenzo Villanacci, Barbara Bruni, Maurizio Vecchi, Luca Pastorelli
One of the most common causes of chronic diarrhea is ascribed to microscopic colitis (MC). MC is classified in subtypes: collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). Patients with MC report watery, non-bloody diarrhea of chronic course, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue that may impair patient's health-related quality of life. A greater awareness, and concomitantly an increasing number of diagnoses over the last years, has demonstrated that the incidence and prevalence of MC are on the rise...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538608/assessing-dehydration-employing-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-in-children-with-vomiting-and-diarrhea
#20
Stephen B Freedman, David W Johnson, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Angelo Mikrogianakis, Sarah Williamson-Urquhart, Nicholas Monfries, Adam Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Serum bicarbonate reflects dehydration severity in children with gastroenteritis. Previous work in children receiving intravenous rehydration has correlated end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) with serum bicarbonate. We evaluated whether EtCO2 predicts weight change in children with vomiting and/or diarrhea. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Eligible children were 3 months to 10 years old and presented for emergency department (ED) care because of vomiting and/or diarrhea...
May 23, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
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