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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904986/sex-matters-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-adolescent-rats
#1
David K Wright, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz, Richelle Mychasiuk
OBJECTIVE: Whether sex differences contribute to the heterogeneity of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and repeated mTBI (RmTBI) outcomes in adolescents is unknown. Therefore, this study examined changes in, and differences between, male and female rats following single mTBI and RmTBI. METHODS: Rats were given a single mTBI, RmTBI (i.e., 3x), or sham injuries. Injuries were administered using a lateral impact model that mimics forces common in human mTBI. After the final injury, rats underwent extensive behavioral testing to examine cognition, motor function, and anxiety- and depressive-like behavior...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900525/a-case-of-legionella-pneumophila-evaluated-with-ct-and-ultrasound
#2
Alessio D'Angelo, Chiara De Simone, Marco Pagnottella, Stefano Rossi, Raffaele Pepe, Giacomo Ruggieri, Giulio Cocco, Cosima Schiavone
A 36-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department of "SS Annunziata" hospital in Chieti complaining of a sharp chest pain arisen some hours before admission. On examination, the patient looked sweaty; his vital signs showed tachycardia and augmented breath rate; sinus tachycardia and normal ventricular repolarization were observed on ECG, and no abnormalities were observed in the echoscan of the hearth. According to the clinical and electrocardiographic findings, and to previous episode of DVT in anamnesis, a thorax CT scan was performed in order to rule out pulmonary embolism...
September 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899008/phenotypic-analysis-of-303-multiplex-families-with-common-epilepsies
#3
(no author information available yet)
Gene identification in epilepsy has mainly been limited to large families segregating genes of major effect and de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. Many families that present with common non-acquired focal epilepsies and genetic generalized epilepsies remain unexplained. We assembled a cohort of 'genetically enriched' common epilepsies by collecting and phenotyping families containing multiple individuals with unprovoked seizures. We aimed to determine if specific clinical epilepsy features aggregate within families, and whether this segregation of phenotypes may constitute distinct 'familial syndromes' that could inform genomic analyses...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895568/response-to-targeted-cognitive-training-correlates-with-change-in-thalamic-volume-in-a-randomized-trial-for-early-schizophrenia
#4
Ian S Ramsay, Susanna Fryer, Alison Boos, Brian J Roach, Melissa Fisher, Rachel Loewy, Sophia Vinogradov, Daniel H Mathalon
Reduced thalamic volume is consistently observed in schizophrenia, and correlates with cognitive impairment. Targeted cognitive training (TCT) of auditory processing in schizophrenia drives improvements in cognition that are believed to result from functional neuroplasticity in prefrontal and auditory cortices. In this study, we sought to determine whether response to TCT is also associated with structural neuroplastic changes in thalamic volume in patients with early schizophrenia (ESZ). Additionally, we examined baseline clinical, cognitive, and neural characteristics predictive of a positive response to TCT...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894024/the-synergistic-antimicrobial-effects-of-novel-bombinin-and-bombinin-h-peptides-from-the-skin-secretion-of%C3%A2-bombina-orientalis
#5
Jie Xiang, Mei Zhou, Yuxin Wu, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw, Lei Wang
Bombinin and bombinin H are two antimicrobial peptide (AMP) families initially discovered from the skin secretion of Bombina that share the same biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs, but have different structures and physicochemical properties. Insight into their possible existing relationship lead us to perform the combination investigations into their anti-infectious activities. In this work, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterisation of two novel AMPs belonging to bombinin and bombinin H families from secretions of Bombina orientalis Their mature peptides (BHL-bombinin and bombinin HL), coded by single open-reading frame (ORF), were chemically synthesised along with an analogue peptide that replaced L-leucine with D-leucine from the 2nd position of the N-terminus (bombinin HD)...
September 11, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893915/hyperbiofilm-formation-by-bordetella-pertussis-strains-correlates-with-enhanced-virulence-traits
#6
Natalia Cattelan, Jamie Jennings-Gee, Purnima Dubey, Osvaldo M Yantorno, Rajendar Deora
Pertussis or whooping cough caused by the obligate human pathogen Bordetella pertussis is undergoing a world-wide resurgence. Majority of studies with this pathogen are conducted with laboratory-adapted strains which may not be representative of the species as a whole. Biofilm formation by B. pertussis plays an important role in its pathogenesis. We conducted a side-by side comparison of the biofilm forming ability of the prototype laboratory strains with currently circulating isolates from two countries with different vaccination programs...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893842/hdl-structure-and-function-is-profoundly-affected-when-stored-frozen-in-the-absence-of-cryoprotectants
#7
Michael Holzer, Sabine Kern, Markus Trieb, Athina Trakaki, Gunther Marsche
Analysis of structural and functional parameters of HDL have gained significant momentum in recent years since they are stronger predictors of cardiovascular risk than HDL-cholesterol levels. Surprisingly, in most HDL studies very low attention is paid to HDL storage, which might critically affect functional properties. In the present study, we systematically examined the impact of storage and freezing on structural/functional properties of freshly isolated HDL. Initial damage to HDL starts between week one and four of storage...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892934/why-do-patients-undergoing-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-treatment-turn-defaulters-a-follow-up-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-jamnagar-india
#8
Amrita Sarkar, Abhay Javia, Pradeep Pithadia, Dipesh Parmar
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), a progressive respiratory illness requiring long-term treatment, is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality and economic burden on the family as well as the country. In the tertiary health care facility where the study was carried out, it was observed that many COPD patients did not come for regular follow up. In these patients, treatment interruption may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. AIM: This study aimed to find out the reasons for defaulting follow up and treatment in COPD patients...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888646/disparity-in-the-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-between-healthy-cattle-on-feed-at-entry-processing-and-with-respiratory-disease
#9
Mohamed Zeineldin, James Lowe, Maria de Godoy, Nidia Maradiaga, Chelsey Ramirez, Mohamed Ghanem, Yassein Abd El-Raof, Brian Aldridge
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most serious causes of health and economic problems in the beef production industry, especially in recently weaned, intensely raised and newly transported feedlot cattle. While the importance of upper airway structure and function in the susceptibility of the lower respiratory tract to colonization with potential pathogens is well established, the role of the mucosal microbiota in respirtatory health is less well defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle at entry into a commercial feedlot, during initial management processing, and to compare the dynamics of change in these microbial communities between clinically healthy calves and those that develop BRD within the first month after entry...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887049/an-fda-oncology-analysis-of-cd3-bispecific-constructs-and-first-in-human-dose-selection
#10
Haleh Saber, Pedro Del Valle, Tiffany K Ricks, John K Leighton
We retrospectively examined the nonclinical studies conducted with 17 CD3 bispecific constructs in support of first-in-human (FIH) trials in oncology. We also collected information on the design of dose-finding clinical trials. Sponsors have used different MABEL approaches for FIH dose selection. To better assess acceptable approaches, FIH doses were computed from nonclinical studies and compared to the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) in patients, to the highest human doses (HHDs) when an MTD was not identified, or to the recommended human dose (RHD) for blinatumomab...
September 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882179/medical-expenditure-for-esophageal-cancer-in-china-a-10-year-multicenter-retrospective-survey-2002-2011
#11
Lan-Wei Guo, Hui-Yao Huang, Ju-Fang Shi, Li-Hong Lv, Ya-Na Bai, A-Yan Mao, Xian-Zhen Liao, Guo-Xiang Liu, Jian-Song Ren, Xiao-Jie Sun, Xin-Yu Zhu, Jin-Yi Zhou, Ji-Yong Gong, Qi Zhou, Lin Zhu, Yu-Qin Liu, Bing-Bing Song, Ling-Bin Du, Xiao-Jing Xing, Pei-An Lou, Xiao-Hua Sun, Xiao Qi, Shou-Ling Wu, Rong Cao, Li Lan, Ying Ren, Kai Zhang, Jie He, Jian-Gong Zhang, Min Dai
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is associated with substantial disease burden in China, and data on the economic burden are fundamental for setting priorities in cancer interventions. The medical expenditure for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer in China has not been fully quantified. This study aimed to examine the medical expenditure of Chinese patients with esophageal cancer and the associated trends. METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, a hospital-based multicenter retrospective survey was conducted in 37 hospitals in 13 provinces/municipalities across China as a part of the Cancer Screening Program of Urban China...
September 7, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881560/sequential-osce-based-on-item-response-theory
#12
Sara Mortaz Hejri, Mohammad Jalili
Purpose: In sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) all students initially take a short screening OSCE. Examinees who pass are excused from further testing, but an additional OSCE will be administered for the remaining examinees. Previous investigations on sequential OSCE were based on the Classical Test Theory. We aimed at designing and evaluating screening OSCEs based on Item Response Theory. Methods: We carried out a retrospective observational study...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880154/micromagnetic-stimulation-of-the-mouse-auditory-cortex-in-vivo-using-an-implantable-solenoid-system
#13
Shunsuke Minusa, Hisayuki Osanai, Takashi Tateno
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have reported that micromagnetic stimulation (μMS), which can activate neural tissue and cells via sub-millimeter inductors, may address several limitations of conventional magnetic stimulation methods. Previous studies have examined the effects of μMS on single neurons, yet little is known about how μMS can affect brain tissue including local neural networks. Here, we propose a new, readily available implantable μMS system and computationally and experimentally evaluate its validity...
September 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874244/the-interplay-between-fasting-glucose-echocardiography-and-biomarkers-pathophysiological-considerations-and-prognostic-implications
#14
Manan Pareek
BACKGROUND: Traditional cardiovascular risk stratification tools that employ clinical risk factors are limited by their modest discriminative abilities. As such, robust cardiovascular risk assessment, including our understanding of the complex interplay between risk factors, in the primary preventive setting, remains incomplete. Phenotypical heterogeneity may be even greater among subjects with hyperglycemic conditions, i.e., prediabetes and diabetes, which is worrisome, given the dramatic global rise in mean fasting glucose levels, and the strong association with adverse cardiovascular outcomes...
September 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871374/clinical-outcomes-and-radiosurgical-considerations-for-pediatric-arteriovenous-malformation-influence-of-clinical-features-on-obliteration-rate
#15
Chang Kyu Park, Seok Keun Choi, Sung Ho Lee, Man Kyu Choi, Young Jin Lim
PURPOSE: Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is an established treatment modality for brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM), but there have been few published studies examining the relationship between clinical features of AVM and successful obliteration with GKRS in pediatric patients. In the current study, we investigate the outcomes of GKRS for pediatric patients with brain AVM and analyze the variables that influence obliteration. METHODS: We analyzed 68 pediatric patients (≤ 18 years) with a mean follow-up period of 61...
September 4, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869057/the-social-utility-of-clinical-exome-sequencing
#16
Stefan Timmermans, Tanya Stivers
OBJECTIVE: Examine the presentation of clinical and social implications of exome sequencing findings during patient-geneticist interactions. METHODS: Video-recordings of 34 returns of exome sequencing results with findings in an academic genetics clinic were examined using an inductive thematic analysis to distinguish categories of consequences. We then operationalized these categories for structured observation coding of parent or geneticist/genetic counselor-initiated mention of consequences, complemented with semi-structured interviews with 16 families...
August 24, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867131/posterior-vitreous-detachment-and-the-posterior-hyaloid-membrane
#17
Gregory S Fincham, Sean James, Carl Spickett, Michael Hollingshead, Christopher Thrasivoulou, Arabella V Poulson, Annie McNinch, Allan Richards, David Snead, Gloria A Limb, Martin P Snead
PURPOSE: Despite posterior vitreous detachment being a common ocular event affecting most individuals in an aging population, there is little consensus regarding its precise anatomic definition. We investigated the morphologic appearance and molecular composition of the posterior hyaloid membrane to determine whether the structure clinically observed enveloping the posterior vitreous surface after posterior vitreous detachment is a true basement membrane and to postulate its origin. Understanding the relationship between the vitreous (in both its attached and detached state) and the internal limiting membrane of the retina is essential to understanding the cause of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and vitreoretinal interface disorders, as well as potential future prophylactic and treatment strategies...
August 31, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864488/how-does-preclinical-laboratory-training-impact-physical-examination-skills-during-the-first-clinical-year-a-retrospective-analysis-of-routinely-collected-objective-structured-clinical-examination-scores-among-the-first-two-matriculating-classes-of-a-reformed
#18
Jolanta Świerszcz, Agata Stalmach-Przygoda, Marcin Kuźma, Konrad Jabłoński, Tomasz Cegielny, Agnieszka Skrzypek, Ewa Wieczorek-Surdacka, Olga Kruszelnicka, Kaja Chmura, Bernadeta Chyrchel, Andrzej Surdacki, Michał Nowakowski
OBJECTIVE: As a result of a curriculum reform launched in 2012 at our institution, preclinical training was shortened to 2 years instead of the traditional 3 years, creating additional incentives to optimise teaching methods. In accordance with the new curriculum, a semester-long preclinical module of clinical skills (CS) laboratory training takes place in the second year of study, while an introductory clinical course (ie, brief introductory clerkships) is scheduled for the Fall semester of the third year...
September 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859651/video-based-feedback-as-a-method-for-training-rural-healthcare-workers-to-manage-medical-emergencies-a-pilot-study
#19
Zainab Oseni, Hla Hla Than, Edyta Kolakowska, Lauren Chalmers, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: Video-based feedback has been shown to aid knowledge retention, skills learning and improve team functionality. We explored the use of video-based feedback and low fidelity simulation for training rural healthcare workers along the Thailand-Myanmar border and Papua New Guinea (PNG) to manage medical emergencies effectively. METHODS: Twenty-four study participants were recruited from three Shoklo Malaria Research Unit clinics along the Thailand-Myanmar border and eight participants from Kudjip Nazarene Hospital, PNG...
August 31, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858696/social-support-flexible-resources-and-health-care-navigation
#20
Elizabeth A Gage-Bouchard
Recent research has focused attention on the role of patients' and clinicians' cultural skills and values in generating inequalities in health care experiences. Yet, examination of how social structural factors shape people's abilities to build, refine, and leverage strategies for navigating the health care system have received less attention. In this paper I place focus on one such social structural factor, social support, and examine how social support operates as a flexible resource that helps people navigate the health care system...
August 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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