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Optical neuritis causes and features

Stefan Evers
Premise This review summarises the pain syndromes that overlap between headache and facial pain and overlap between pain and cranial nerve lesion. Problem These syndromes share two features in common. First, they show both cranial nerve impairment (e.g. palsy, autonomic dysfunction) and pain; second, they have inflammatory (and/or small vessel) processes as the underlying mechanism. A typical representative of these syndromes is recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy, which was previously called ophthalmoplegic migraine and was regarded as a migraine subtype...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Lei Zhou, Yongheng Huang, Haiqing Li, Jie Fan, Jingzi Zhangbao, Hai Yu, Yuxin Li, Jiahong Lu, Chongbo Zhao, Chuanzhen Lu, Min Wang, Chao Quan
We aim to evaluate the clinical relevance of MOG-ab in a cohort of Chinese Han adults with CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDDs). MOG-ab and AQP4-ab were examined through a fixed cell based indirect immune-fluorescence assay in 86 patients with CNS-IDDs. MOG-ab was positive in 12 patients, while AQP4-ab was positive in 31 patients; none double positives. Optic neuritis (ON) was the most frequent symptom at onset (75.0%) or during the whole disease course (83.3%) of MOG-ab associated IDDs (MOG-IDDs); 79...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
M Li, Q G Xu, J Q Wang, Y R Wang, J Zhao, S H Wei
Objective: To investigate spectrum of causes in optic nerve subarachnoid space (ONSS) expansion by using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Methods: A retrospective study. Twenty-six patients (46 eyes) with ONSS expansion and 20 healthy adults (40 eyes) were recruited in Neuro-ophthalmology Department of Chinese PLA General Hospital from January, 2014 to December, 2015. The diameters were measured on the optic nerve (OND) and optic nerve sheath (ONSD) 2.4 mm behind the globe. ONSS was calculated by the formula of (ONSD-OND)/2...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Y Wang, L Yang, Z L Zhang
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Teresa M Crout, Laura P Parks, Vikas Majithia
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), previously known as Devic's syndrome, are a group of inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by severe, immune-mediated demyelination and axonal damage, predominantly targeting optic nerves and the spinal cord typically associated with a disease-specific serum NMO-IgG antibody that selectively binds aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The classic and best-defined features of NMOSD include acute attacks of bilateral or rapidly sequential optic neuritis (leading to visual loss) or transverse myelitis (often causing limb weakness and bladder dysfunction) or both with a typically relapsing course...
August 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
Eiji Matsusue, Yoshio Fujihara, Yutaka Suto, Shotaro Takahashi, Kenichiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Nakayasu, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Toshihide Ogawa
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterized by attacks of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Cases positive for aquaporin 4 antibodies are classified to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) which includes cases with optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, or with brain lesions typical of NMO. Our three cases with NMO/NMOSD revealed five imaging features: (i) extensive transverse cord lesions, extending more than three vertebral segments, partially persisting as cavitation; (ii) periependymal lesions; (iii) lesions of the corticospinal tracts; (iv) extensive and confluent hemispheric white matter lesions reflecting vasogenic edema and partially involving the cerebral cortices and basal ganglia; and (v) two patterns of serial hemispheric white matter lesions: one is cavitation and another is partial regression or disappearance...
May 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
Stuart L Graham, Alexander Klistorner
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that involves inflammation and demyelination at multiple sites and causes a wide variety of clinical presentations with variable neurological deficits. The visual pathways are frequently involved with either visual or motor dysfunction. Optic neuritis (ON) is one the most common and best characterized presentations of the disease, but there are many other manifestations depending on the site of the lesion. Eyes that have never had ON show slow progressive loss of axons and retinal ganglion cells...
January 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Chinar Osman, Sally Hannigan, Adam Ditchfield, Stephen Harden, Ben Marshall, Ashwin Arnold Pinto
Although optic neuritis is commonly associated with multiple sclerosis, patients with atypical optic neuritis require further investigations to exclude other associated conditions. We report a woman presenting with cough, fatigue, atypical optic neuritis with chiasmitis. She responded partially to corticosteroids and we subsequently found she had a ground-glass lung nodule. Follow-up CT scan of thorax at 12 months showed new parenchymal lung lesions that suggested schistosomiasis. Further questioning by a respiratory physician identified, in retrospect, a previous exposure history; serological testing confirmed schistosoma infection...
June 2016: Practical Neurology
Rui Zhang, Jiang Qian, Zhujian Wang, Yifei Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical manifestations of syphilitic uveoretinitis in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Uveoretinitis patients presenting between January 2008 and December 2014 at Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were collected. Patients were selected with positive serologic tests, including rapid plasma regain titer (RPR) > 1:8, treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
October 2015: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Eoin P Flanagan, Timothy J Kaufmann, Karl N Krecke, Allen J Aksamit, Sean J Pittock, B Mark Keegan, Caterina Giannini, Brian G Weinshenker
OBJECTIVE: To compare longitudinally extensive myelitis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and spinal cord sarcoidosis (SCS). METHODS: We identified adult patients evaluated between 1996 and 2015 with SCS or NMOSD whose first myelitis episode was accompanied by a spinal cord lesion spanning ≥3 vertebral segments. All NMOSD patients were positive for aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G, and all sarcoidosis cases were pathologically confirmed. Clinical characteristics were evaluated...
March 2016: Annals of Neurology
Yan Zhang, Xiaolei Liang, Shihui Wei, Hongyang Li
PURPOSE: To analyze clinical features and main causes of multiple sclerosis-related optic neuritis (MS-ON), providing evidence for the differential diagnosis of MS-ON. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 527 patients, 123 males and 404 females, diagnosed with MS-ON between June 2008 and June 2013. Visual acuity, optometry, visual field, slit-lamp microscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy (20D), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed...
March 2015: Eye Science
Sudarshini Ramanathan, Kristina Prelog, Elizabeth H Barnes, Esther M Tantsis, Stephen W Reddel, Andrew P D Henderson, Steve Vucic, Mark P Gorman, Leslie A Benson, Gulay Alper, Catherine J Riney, Michael Barnett, John D E Parratt, Todd A Hardy, Richard J Leventer, Vera Merheb, Margherita Nosadini, Victor S C Fung, Fabienne Brilot, Russell C Dale
BACKGROUND: Recognizing the cause of optic neuritis (ON) affects treatment decisions and visual outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to define radiological features of first-episode demyelinating ON. METHODS: We performed blinded radiological assessment of 50 patients presenting with first-episode myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated ON (MOG-ON; n=19), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-associated ON (AQP4-ON; n=11), multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated ON (MS-ON; n=13), and unclassified ON (n=7)...
April 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Selvakumar Ambika, Mahalakshmi Balasubramanian, Lily Theresa, Akila Veeraputhiran, Deepak Arjundas
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that causes attacks of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. The discovery of a specific serum marker for NMO-IgG antibody [aquaporin 4 antibody/AQP4 Ab] has revolutionised the treatment of demyelinating diseases. Severe vision loss can be seen in optic neuritis (ON) associated with both multiple sclerosis (MS) and NMO. Identifying this antibody in optic neuritis patients can help us to establish the likelihood of these patients developing NMO (Jarius et al...
December 2015: International Ophthalmology
Fiona Costello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to highlight the clinical presentation of a variety of inflammatory optic neuropathies through a case-based format. While emphasis will be placed on optic neuritis, which represents the most common acquired inflammatory optic nerve injury, the cardinal clinical features of other demyelinating forms of optic neuropathy and potential mimics for typical optic neuritis will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel developments in the diagnostic evaluation, clinical associations, and treatment options for several inflammatory optic neuropathies will be described...
August 2014: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Dimitrios Karussis
Multiple sclerosis (MS), is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of motor and sensory function, that results from immune-mediated inflammation, demyelination and subsequent axonal damage. MS is one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults. Several variants of MS (and CNS demyelinating syndromes in general) have been nowadays defined in an effort to increase the diagnostic accuracy, to identify the unique immunopathogenic profile and to tailor treatment in each individual patient...
February 2014: Journal of Autoimmunity
Ying Feng, Yukifumi Nawa, Kittisak Sawanyavisuth, Zhiyue Lv, Zhong-Dao Wu
Angiostrongyliasis, caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, is a food-borne parasitic disease. Its larvae evoke eosinophilic inflammation in the central nervous system, but can also cause pathological changes in the eyes. Among ocular angiostrongyliasis cases, the incidence of optic neuritis is low and only few sporadic reports exist. Some patients with optic neuritis developed obvious hypopsia or even vision loss, which would seriously influence the quality of life of patients. Prompt treatment of optic neuritis caused by A...
December 2013: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Wei-Qiang Tang, Shi-Hui Wei
AIM: To determine the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) related optic neuritis. METHODS: The clinical data of 8 patients (12 eyes) with primary SS related optic neuritis were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Eight of 128 consecutive patients with optic neuritis resulted from varied causes fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for the primary SS. They presented initially with the signs and symptoms of non-specific optic neuritis, and 5 patients presenting without dryness showed a chronic inflammation of submandibular gland or parotid gland, and lymphocyte infiltration was demonstrated by labial gland biopsy in 2 patients...
2013: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Shariful Hasan, Hamidon B Basri, Lim P Hin, Johnson Stanslas
Encephalitis has been included in the causes of optic neuritis, but post encephalitic optic neuritis has been rarely reported. Majority of the cases of optic neuritis are either idiopathic or associated with multiple sclerosis, especially in western countries. This is very important in the Asian population where the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis is not as high as in the Western countries. Although post infectious optic neuritis is more common in children, it can also be found in adults and is usually seen one to three weeks after a symptomatic infective prodrome...
May 2013: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Gerald Pfeffer, Ailbhe Burke, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, D Alastair S Compston, Patrick F Chinnery
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) (known as "Harding disease") is a chance finding, or the 2 disorders are mechanistically linked. METHODS: We performed a United Kingdom-wide prospective cohort study of prevalent cases of MS with LHON mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. The new cases were compared with published cases, enabling a comprehensive clinical description. We also performed a meta-analysis of studies screening patients with MS for LHON mtDNA mutations to find evidence of a genetic association...
December 10, 2013: Neurology
Silje Agnethe Stokke Kvistad, Stig Wergeland, Øivind Torkildsen, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Christian A Vedeler
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized mainly by recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. The aim of this article is to present current knowledge on the clinical features, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of the condition. METHOD: The article is based on a discretionary selection of English-language original articles, meta-analyses and review articles found in PubMed, and on the authors' own experience with the patient group...
October 15, 2013: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
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