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Jacob M Dixon, Shunji Egusa
The purpose of the presented protocols is to study the process of Au(III) binding to BSA, yielding conformation change-induced red fluorescence (λem = 640 nm) of BSA-Au(III) complexes. The method adjusts the pH to show that the emergence of the red fluorescence is correlated with the pH-induced equilibrium transitions of the BSA conformations. Red fluorescent BSA-Au(III) complexes can only be formed with an adjustment of pH at or above 9.7, which corresponds to the "A-form" conformation of BSA. The protocol to adjust the BSA to Au molar ratio and to monitor the time-course of the process of Au(III) binding is described...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shiyu Dong, Nicole D Wagner, David H Russell
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of intrinsically disordered proteins that exhibit extreme diversity in structure, biological functionality, and metal ion specificity. Structure(s) of coordinatively saturated metalated MTs have been extensively studied, but there exists very limited structural information for the partially metalated MTs. Here, the conformational preferences of partial metalated rabbit metallothionein-2A (MT) by Cd2+ , Zn2+ , and Ag+ is studied using nano-electrospray ionization-ion mobility-mass spectrometry (nESI-IM-MS)...
September 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Qingxuan Li, Qilin Wei, Wenjun Zheng, Yiting Zheng, Nsikak Okosi, Zhiqiang Wang, Ming Su
This article reports a new property enabled by nanoparticles, where bismuth nanoparticles added in a polymer matrix can block X-ray radiation several times more efficient than microparticles at the same mass ratio. Bismuth nanoparticles are made with cellulous nanofibers and dispersed evenly into a polymer. A four time reduction in the mass of bismuth material is identified at 2% mass ratio when nanoparticles (5 nm in diameter) are used in composite to shield a given flux and energy of radiation, in relative to those of microparticles (5 µm diameter)...
September 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nasim Akhtar, Abhishek Saha, Vishnu Kumar, Nirmalya Pradhan, Subhankar Panda, Sudhir Morla, Sachin Kumar, Debasis Manna
Synthetic anion transporters have been recognized as one of the potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases including cystic fibrosis, myotonia and epilepsy that originate due to the malfunctioning of natural Cl─ ion transport systems. Recent studies showed that the synthetic Cl─ ion transporters can also disrupt cellular ion-homeostasis, and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines, leading to a revived attention for synthetic Cl─ ion transporters. Herein, we report the development of conformationally controlled 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine based bis(thiourea) derivatives as a new class of selective Cl─ ion carrier...
September 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nureddin Ashammakhi, Samad Ahadian, Fan Zengjie, Kasinan Suthiwanich, Farnaz Lorestani, Gorka Orive, Serge Ostrovidov, Ali Khademhosseini
Three-dimensionally printed constructs are static and do not recapitulate the dynamic nature of tissues. Four-dimensional (4D) bioprinting has emerged to include conformational changes in printed structures in a predetermined fashion using stimuli-responsive biomaterials and/or cells. The ability to make such dynamic constructs would enable us to fabricate tissue structures that can undergo morphological changes. Furthermore, other fields (bioactuation, biorobotics, and biosensing) will benefit from developments in 4D bioprinting...
September 17, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Zhanna Evgrafova, Bruno Voigt, Monika Baumann, Madlen Stephani, Wolfgang H Binder, Jochen Balbach
Covalent conjugates between a synthetic polymer and a peptide hormone were used to probe the molecular extension of these macromolecules and how the polymer modifies the fibril formation of the hormone. NMR spectroscopy of 15N labeled parathyroid hormone (PTH) was employed to visualize the conformation of the conjugated synthetic polymer, triggered by small temperature changes via its lower critical solution temperature. A shroud-like polymer conformation dominated the molecular architecture of the conjugated chimeras...
September 17, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Yuxiao Yang, Allison T Connolly, Maryam M Shanechi
OBJECTIVE: Closed-loop electrical brain stimulation systems may enable a precisely-tailored treatment for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders by controlling the stimulation based on neural activity feedback in real time. Developing model-based closed-loop systems requires a principled system identification framework to quantify the effect of input stimulation on output neural activity by learning an input-output (IO) dynamic model from data. Further, developing these systems needs a realistic clinical simulation testbed to design and validate the closed-loop controllers derived from the IO models before testing in human patients...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Nicholas M Matsumoto, Rene P M Lafleur, Xianwen Lou, Kuo-Chih Shih, Sjors P W Wijnands, Cl Eacute Ment Guibert, Johannes W A M Van Rosendaal, Ilja K Voets, Anja R A Palmans, Yao Lin, Egbert Willem Meijer
In biology, polymorphism is a well-known phenomenon by which a discreet biomacromolecule can adopt multiple specific conformations in response to its environment. The controlled incorporating polymorphism into non-covalent aqueous assemblies of synthetic small molecules is an important step towards the development of bioinspired responsive materials. Herein, we report on a family of carboxylic acid functionalized water-soluble benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides (BTAs) which self-assemble in water to form 1-dimensional fibers, membranes, and hollow nanotubes...
September 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ahmad J Obaidullah, Mostafa H Ahmed, Todd Kitten, Glen E Kellogg
The pneumococcal surface antigen A (PsaA) metal transporter protein provides manganese to bacterial cells. X-ray crystal structures of PsaA, in both closed (Mn bound) and open (metal free) conformations, were explored with virtual screening to identify potential inhibitors of manganese transport. We pursued three strategies for inhibition: 1) targeting a cavity close to the bound Mn to keep the metal in-place; 2) targeting the metal-free Mn site to prevent metal uptake; and 3) targeting a potentially druggable allosteric site involving loops that translate between the conformations...
September 17, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Akiko Asano, Takeshi Yamada, Taizo Taniguchi, Masahiro Sasaki, Kenji Yoza, Mitsunobu Doi
Four cyclic octapeptides were designed from ascidiacyclamide [cyclo(-Ile-Oxz-D-Val- Thz-)2 ] (ASC, 1) to investigate the effects of oxazoline (Oxz) and thiazole (Thz) rings on the structures and cytotoxicities of the peptides. cyclo(-Ile-Thz-D-Val-Oxz-)2 (2) had the same number of Oxz and Thz rings as ASC, but the ring positions were switched. cyclo(-Ile-Oxz-D-Val-Thz-Ile-Thz-D-Val-Thz-) (3) and cyclo(-Ile-Thz-D-Val-Oxz-Ile-Thz-D-Val-Thz-) (4) contained one Oxz and three Thz rings within the molecule. All Oxz rings were substituted with Thz in cyclo(-Ile-Thz-D-Val-Thz-)2 (5)...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Malinda J McPherson, Josh H McDermott
Pitch conveys critical information in speech, music, and other natural sounds, and is conventionally defined as the perceptual correlate of a sound's fundamental frequency (F0). Although pitch is widely assumed to be subserved by a single F0 estimation process, real-world pitch tasks vary enormously, raising the possibility of underlying mechanistic diversity. To probe pitch mechanisms we conducted a battery of pitch-related music and speech tasks using conventional harmonic sounds and inharmonic sounds whose frequencies lack a common F0...
January 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Thomas Prince, Andrew Ackerman, Alice Cavanaugh, Brielle Schreiter, Brendon Juengst, Chaylen Andolino, John Danella, Mitch Chernin, Heinric Williams
Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a common malignancy and major cause of morbidity worldwide. Over the last decade mortality rates for MIBC have not decreased as compared to other cancers indicating a need for novel strategies. The molecular chaperones HSP70 and HSP90 fold and maintain the 3-dimensional structures of numerous client proteins that signal for cancer cell growth and survival. Inhibition of HSP70 or HSP90 results in client protein degradation and associated oncogenic signaling. Here we targeted HSP70 and HSP90 with small molecule inhibitors that trap or block each chaperone in a low client-affinity "open" conformation...
August 24, 2018: Oncotarget
Mark C Kenamond, R Alfredo Siochi, Malcolm D Mattes
Objective: Contemporary radiotherapy guidelines for locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) recommend omitting elective nodal irradiation, despite the fact that evidence supporting this came primarily from older reports assessing comprehensive nodal coverage using 3D conformal techniques. Herein, we evaluated the dosimetric implications of the addition of limited elective nodal irradiation (LENI) to standard involved field irradiation (IFI) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning...
March 2018: Journal of Radiation Oncology
Tiago Anselmo, Rhodri Nelson, Bruno Carneiro da Cunha, Darren G Crowdy
We present a novel method to solve the accessory parameter problem arising in constructing conformal maps from a canonical simply connected planar region to the interior of a circular arc quadrilateral. The Schwarz-Christoffel accessory parameter problem, relevant when all sides have zero curvature, is also captured within our approach. The method exploits the isomonodromic tau function associated with the Painlevé VI equation. Recently, these tau functions have been shown to be related to certain correlation functions in conformal field theory and asymptotic expansions have been given in terms of tuples of the Young diagrams...
August 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Gideon Steinitz, Peter Kotlarsky, Oksana Piatibratova
An enhanced confined mode (ECM) radon simulation experiment, tested in the laboratory in Jerusalem, was relocated to a subsurface geophysical observatory located 400 km apart, at a depth of 150 m and with a stable temperature. Five gamma sensors are placed around the ECM canister and lead shielding minimizes the influence of natural local gamma radiation. Simultaneous measurement of the geological radon and from radon in the ECM system indicates that the temporal variation of gamma radiation from radon in the ECM system contains annual, multi-day and daily signals, that correspond to signals in the local geological radon...
August 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Simon Otjes
There is growing evidence that voter and party positions on economic items do not conform to a left-right dimension. This article proposes that in Northern Eurozone states voter policy positions on economic issues are characterized by two dimensions: A redistribution dimension that consists out of views on income equality and a reform dimension that divides those who favour reform of the welfare state to ensure its long-term sustainability and those who oppose such reforms because they would hurt those who need the welfare state now...
September 2018: Party Politics
Yilin Meng, Lalima G Ahuja, Alexandr P Kornev, Susan S Taylor, Benoît Roux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Søren Lykke-Andersen, Britt Kidmose Ardal, Anne Kruse Hollensen, Christian Kroun Damgaard, Torben Heick Jensen
Box C/D snoRNAs constitute a class of abundant noncoding RNAs that associate with common core proteins to form catalytic snoRNPs. Most of these operate in trans to assist the maturation of rRNAs by guiding and catalyzing the 2'-O-methylation of specific nucleotides. Here, we report that the human intron-hosted box C/D snoRNA snoRD86 acts in cis as a sensor and master switch controlling levels of the limiting snoRNP core protein NOP56, which is important for proper ribosome biogenesis. Our results support a model in which snoRD86 adopts different RNP conformations that dictate the usage of nearby alternative splice donors in the NOP56 pre-mRNA...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Cell
Colin T Mant, Andrew Byars, Sean Ankarlo, Ziqing Jiang, Robert S Hodges
We are currently examining the potential of amphipathic cationic α-helical peptides as a new generation of peptide standards for both cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. Thus, amphipathic peptides are particularly suitable for high-performance liquid chromatography standards due to the preferred binding of the non-polar face to the hydrophobic stationary phase of reversed-phase packings or the preferred binding of the polar face to the charged/hydrophilic stationary phase of cation-exchange packings...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jian Zhang, Hongtao Cai, Ling Tang, Guangming Liu
The positively charged poly(N,N'-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes have been employed as model weak polyelectrolyte brushes (WPBs) to demonstrate the tuning of the pH response of WPBs with specific anion effects. The charge density of PDMAEMA brushes can be modulated by specific ion-pairing interactions between counterions and the protonated dimethylamino group, as a result, the strength of the pH response of PDMAEMA brushes can be tuned by specific anion effects. A more chaotropic counterion can more strongly interact with the protonated dimethylamino group, thereby more effectively neutralizing the positively charged group associated with the grafted weak polyelectrolyte chains and more remarkably suppressing the pH response of PDMAEMA brushes...
September 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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