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María Morales, Mayte Gallego, Victor Iraola, Marta Taulés, Eliandre de Oliveira, Raquel Moya, Jerónimo Carnés
BACKGROUND: Allergy to cat epithelia is highly prevalent, being the major recommendation for allergy sufferers its avoidance. However, this is not always feasible. Allergen specific immunotherapy is therefore recommended for these patients. The use of polymerized allergen extracts, allergoids, would allow to achieve the high allergen doses suggested to be effective while maintaining safety. RESULTS: Cat native extract and its depigmented allergoid were manufactured and biochemically and immunochemically characterized...
February 24, 2017: BMC Immunology
Margitta Worm, Dennis Ernst, Markus Kraller, Magda Babina
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy and safety of allergoid immunotherapy have been demonstrated in clinical trials. However, simultaneous monitoring of the immunological changes by allergoids versus allergens in the cells of the same individual has not been extensively performed, and the impact of concurrent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligation has not been specified. METHODS: Three types of birch allergen were utilized: glutaraldehyde-treated allergoid (extract A), the same allergoid plus monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), i...
2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Peter A Ricketti, Sultan Alandijani, Chen Hsing Lin, Thomas B Casale
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a multifactorial disease characterized by paroxysmal symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and nasal congestion. For over a century, subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) has been recognized as the most effective therapy to date that may modify the underlying disease course and provide long-term benefits for individuals refractory to pharmacotherapy. However, over the past 25 years, there has been substantial growth in developing alternative therapies to traditional SCIT...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Douglas J DeBoer
Allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is a foundation treatment for canine atopic dermatitis (CAD), though few critical studies have documented its effectiveness as a disease-modifying treatment in dogs. The mechanisms by which ASIT works in dogs have not been elucidated, although they are likely to parallel those known for humans. Current ASIT approaches in CAD focus on either subcutaneous or sublingual administration. Greater knowledge of major allergens in dogs, ideal dosage regimes and details of allergen admixture are likely to lead to better efficacy in CAD...
February 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
Mitat Aricigil, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Engin Umut Sakarya, Emine Güven Sakalar, Mehmet Senturk, William R Reisacher, Cemal Cingi
OBJECTIVES: Allergen immunotherapy is the only cure for immunoglobulin E mediated type I respiratory allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are the most common treatments. In this article, we reviewed new routes of allergen immunotherapy. METHODS: Data on alternative routes to allow intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT), epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT), local nasal immunotherapy (LNIT), oral immunotherapy (OIT), and oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT) were gathered from the literature and were discussed...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Pablo Rodríguez Del Río, Carmen Vidal, Jocelyne Just, Ana I Tabar, Inmaculada Sanchez-Machin, Peter Eberle, Jesus Borja, Petra Bubel, Oliver Pfaar, Pascal Demoly, Moises A Calderón
BACKGROUND: Safety data on 'real-life' allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in children and adolescents is usually extrapolated from studies in adults. METHODS: Patients aged 18 or under initiating aeroallergen AIT were evaluated in a prospective European survey. Patient profiles and systemic reactions (SRs) were recorded. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for SRs. RESULTS: A total of 1563 patients (mean ± SD age: 11...
February 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Radoslaw Gawlik, Alicja Grzanka, Barbara Jawor, Eugeniusz Czecior
INTRODUCTION: A pathomechanism of allergic rhinitis is complex. A neurogenic mechanism seems to play a significant role in this phenomenon. AIM: The evaluation of influence of specific immunotherapy of mugwort pollen allergic patients on the bradykinin concentration in the nasal lavage fluid. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis patients. Thirty persons with monovalent allergy to mugwort pollen, confirmed with skin prick tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, underwent a 3-year-long allergen immunotherapy with the mugwort extract (Allergovit, Allergopharma, Germany)...
August 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Claudia Petrarca, Emanuela Clemente, Valentina Amato, Alessia Gatta, Sara Cortese, Alessia Lamolinara, Cosmo Rossi, Stefania Zanotta, Gianni Mistrello, Roberto Paganelli, Mario Di Gioacchino
BACKGROUND: Airborne allergens can induce an immunological chronic disease characterized by airway hyper responsiveness and inflammation, mediated by exaggerated Th2 immune response. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is effective for treating this condition because it is able to modify its natural course by opposing the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and determining immune suppression, immune deviation and tolerance. The rational for the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving allergoid-based IT in terms of efficacy and safety...
2016: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
Albert Roger, Nathalie Depreux, Yanina Jurgens, Aina T Serra, Matthew D Heath, Gloria Garcia, Murray A Skinner
AIM: A 1-year follow-up study comparing the safety and tolerability of the dosing schedules, satisfaction and effectiveness of a novel microcrystalline tyrosine-adsorbed mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus)-allergoid subcutaneous immunotherapy (Acarovac Plus™) in 30 adult patients (18-65 years) with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. MATERIALS & METHODS: The effectiveness of the product was assessed by nasal provocation test measuring peak nasal inspiratory flow/symptoms, in vitro immunologic changes (IgE, IgG4 and IL-10) and Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication...
October 2016: Immunotherapy
David El-Qutob, Francisco Moreno, Alicia Subtil-Rodríguez
AIM: Effectiveness of a 9-month specific immunotherapy with a subcutaneous hypoallergenic high-dose house dust mite extract to reduce allergic symptoms as perceived by patients and physicians was assessed. PATIENTS & METHODS: An observational, retrospective, multicenter study was carried out in patients diagnosed with asthma and/or rhinitis caused by house dust mites having started specific immunotherapy with Acaroid(®). Primary end point was perceived effectiveness...
July 2016: Immunotherapy
Sofía Sirvent, Irene Soria, Cristina Cirauqui, Bárbara Cases, Ana I Manzano, Carmen M Diez-Rivero, Pedro A Reche, Juan López-Relaño, Eduardo Martínez-Naves, F Javier Cañada, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Javier Subiza, Miguel Casanovas, Enrique Fernández-Caldas, José Luis Subiza, Oscar Palomares
BACKGROUND: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative treatment for allergy. AIT faces pitfalls related to efficacy, security, duration, and patient compliance. Novel vaccines overcoming such inconveniences are in demand. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study the immunologic mechanisms of action for novel vaccines targeting dendritic cells (DCs) generated by coupling glutaraldehyde-polymerized grass pollen allergoids to nonoxidized mannan (PM) compared with glutaraldehyde-polymerized allergoids (P) or native grass pollen extracts (N)...
August 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Andreas Distler, Debbie Pappelendam
BACKGROUND: The Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) published an analysis of reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in 2001 with test and therapy allergens from the period from 1991 to 2000. Possible risk factors were evaluated for the ADR reports classified as "serious". During the analyzed period, modified semi-depot preparations (allergoids) induced between 0.01 % and 0.0005 % serious systemic reactions, i. e. one serious ADR occurred in 10,000 to 200,000 injections. No information was provided regarding the respective incidences in relation to the individual companies or preparations...
2015: Allergo Journal International
C Hüser, P Dieterich, J Singh, K Shah-Hosseini, S Allekotte, W Lehmacher, E Compalati, R Mösges
BACKGROUND: In sublingual immunotherapy, optimal doses are a key factor for therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this study with tablets containing carbamylated monomeric house dust mite allergoids was to determine the most effective and safe dose. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 131 patients with house dust mite-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were randomized to 12-week treatments with 300 UA/day, 1000 UA/day, 2000 UA/day, 3000 UA/day or placebo...
January 2017: Allergy
Nhung T Nguyen, Esther Raskopf, Kija Shah-Hosseini, Gregor Zadoyan, Ralph Mösges
To modify the course of allergy, different types of specific allergen immunotherapy have been developed such as sublingual immunotherapy and subcutaneous immunotherapy with native allergens or subcutaneous immunotherapy with polymerized allergoids. However, the optimal specific immunotherapy, especially for cat allergy, remains undetermined. Few studies investigating immunotherapy in cat allergy have been published, and the risk of serious adverse reactions and systemic reactions has often been an important issue...
2016: Immunotherapy
Mário Morais-Almeida, Cristina Arêde, Graça Sampaio, Luis Miguel Borrego
BACKGROUND: Traditional subcutaneous immunotherapy up dosing with allergenic extracts has been shown to be associated with frequent adverse reactions. In recent studies it has been demonstrated that using modified extracts, namely allergoids, it is a safe and effective procedure particularly on accelerated schedules. However data assessing its safety in paediatric age is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety profile in paediatric population of using modified allergen extracts, in an ultrarush schedule, to reach the maintenance dose in the first day...
January 2016: Asia Pacific Allergy
A M Chaker, B Al-Kadah, U Luther, U Neumann, M Wagenmann
BACKGROUND: The number of injections in the dose escalation of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is small for some currently used hypoallergenic allergoids, but can still be inconvenient to patients and can impair compliance. The aim of this trial was to compare safety and tolerability of an accelerated to the conventional dose escalation scheme of a grass pollen allergoid. METHODS: In an open label phase II trial, 122 patients were 1:1 randomized for SCIT using a grass pollen allergoid with an accelerated dose escalation comprising only 4 weekly injections (Group I) or a conventional dose escalation including 7 weekly injections (Group II)...
2015: Clinical and Translational Allergy
S Leonardi, A Castro, A Lanzafame, G Parisi, M Filippelli, L Spicuzza, G Panasci, G Scalone, C Cuppari, M Miraglia Del Giudice, C Salpietro
The aim of this randomized open study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of different dosages (2000 UI vs 4000 UI) of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in patients with allergic diseases such as asthma associated to rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis sensitized to house dust mites. We enrolled 61 patients with a history of allergic asthma, and a positive skin prick test for Dermatophagoides (D.) pteronyssinus/farinae. Patients were randomly assigned to receiving SLIT at dosage of 2000 UI (Group A) or 4000 UI (Group B) maintenance dose...
April 2015: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Ana I Manzano, F Javier Cañada, Bárbara Cases, Sofia Sirvent, Irene Soria, Oscar Palomares, Enrique Fernández-Caldas, Miguel Casanovas, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, José L Subiza
Immunotherapy for treating IgE-mediated allergies requires high doses of the corresponding allergen. This may result in undesired side effects and, to avoid them, hypoallergenic allergens (allergoids) polymerized with glutaraldehyde are commonly used. Targeting allergoids to dendritic cells to enhance cell uptake may result in a more effective immunotherapy. Allergoids coupled to yeast mannan, as source of polymannoses, would be suitable for this purpose, since mannose-binding receptors are expressed on these cells...
February 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
A J Bell, M D Heath, S J Hewings, M A Skinner
Infectious disease vaccine potency is affected by antigen adjuvant adsorption. WHO and EMA guidelines recommend limits and experimental monitoring of adsorption in vaccines and allergy immunotherapies. Adsorbed allergoids and MPL® in MATA-MPL allergy immunotherapy formulations effectively treat IgE mitigated allergy. Understanding vaccine antigen adjuvant adsorption allows optimisation of potency and should be seen as good practice; however current understanding is seldom applied to allergy immunotherapies...
November 2015: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Ludger Klimek, Claus Bachert, Karl-Friedrich Lukat, Oliver Pfaar, Hanns Meyer, Annemie Narkus
BACKGROUND: Pollen extracts and chemically modified allergoids are used successfully in allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Recombinant extracts offer potential advantages with respect to pharmaceutical quality, standardization and dosing. A hypoallergenic recombinant folding variant of the major birch pollen allergen (rBet v 1-FV) was compared with an established native birch preparation. A pre-seasonal, randomized, actively controlled phase II study was performed in birch pollen allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with or without asthma, GINA I/ II...
2015: Clinical and Translational Allergy
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