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fluids and electrolytes in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174011/submandibular-duct-transposition-for-drooling-in-children-a-casuistic-review-and-evaluation-of-grade-of-satisfaction
#1
REVIEW
Sofia Sousa, Magda Rocha, Francisco Patrão, Gabriel Pereira, Sofia Reis, Patrícia Horta, Conceição Salgado, Marques Dos Santos
INTRODUCTION: Drooling of saliva is the unintentional loss of saliva from the mouth resulting in excess pooling of saliva in the anterior portion of the oral cavity. It is considered normal in infants and usually resolves itself by 15-18 months of age. It is a common problem in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy or other neurological disorders. Drooling interferes with speech, impairs oral hygiene and contributes to oral dermatitis, aspiration pneumonias and fluid electrolyte imbalances...
October 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139574/incidence-of-pathologic-postobstructive-diuresis-after-resolution-of-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-with-a-normal-contralateral-kidney
#2
J D Roth, J D Lesier, J T Casey, K M Szymanski, B M Whittam, R Misseri, R C Rink, M P Cain
INTRODUCTION: Postobstructive diuresis (POD) after unilateral pyeloplasty or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) tube insertion for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in patients with a normal contralateral kidney is not well described. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and characteristics of POD after relief of unilateral UPJO in patients with a normal contralateral kidney. STUDY DESIGN: Children who underwent a unilateral pyeloplasty or PCN for UPJO from 2010 to 2017 with a normal contralateral kidney were retrospectively reviewed...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092813/smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome-presenting-as-acute-adrenal-crisis-in-a-child-a-case-report
#3
Chamara Jayamanne, Sajith Sandamal, Kasun Jayasundara, Mayoorathy Saranavabavananthan, Sachith Mettananda
BACKGROUND: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis which is characterized by multiple congenital malformations and global developmental delay. Here we report the case of a 3-year-old, previously undiagnosed, child with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome presenting with acute adrenal crisis, which is an extremely rare and atypical presentation of this disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old Sri Lankan Sinhalese boy without evidence of infection presented with circulatory collapse...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025810/viral-gastroenteritis
#4
REVIEW
Krisztián Bányai, Mary K Estes, Vito Martella, Umesh D Parashar
Enteric viruses, particularly rotaviruses and noroviruses, are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotaviruses primarily affect young children, accounting for almost 40% of hospital admissions for diarrhoea and 200 000 deaths worldwide, with the majority of deaths occurring in developing countries. Two vaccines against rotavirus were licensed in 2006 and have been implemented in 95 countries as of April, 2018. Data from eight high-income and middle-income countries showed a 49-89% decline in rotavirus-associated hospital admissions and a 17-55% decline in all-cause gastroenteritis-associated hospital admissions among children younger than 5 years, within 2 years of vaccine introduction...
July 14, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912723/balanced-crystalloids-versus-saline-for-perioperative-intravenous-fluid-administration-in-children-undergoing-neurosurgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Mariana F Lima, Iuri S Neville, Sergio Cavalheiro, Dafne C Bourguignon, Paolo Pelosi, Luiz M S Malbouisson
BACKGROUND: Balanced crystalloid solutions induce less hyperchloremia than normal saline, but their role as primary fluid replacement for children undergoing surgery is unestablished. We hypothesized that balanced crystalloids induce less chloride and metabolic derangements than 0.9% saline solutions in children undergoing brain tumor resection. METHODS: In total, 53 patients (age range, 6 mo to 12 y) were randomized to receive balanced crystalloid (balanced group) or 0...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898235/medical-complications-of-eating-disorders-in-pediatric-patients
#6
Maria C Monge, Miranda Loh
Eating disorders affect millions of children, adolescents, and their families worldwide, and the pediatric primary care provider is often the first line of evaluation for these patients. Eating disorders affect nearly every system in the body, and signs and symptoms vary depending on patient behaviors (restrictive eating, binge eating, purging). Because the diagnosis is not always straightforward, a clinician's ability to recognize the potential medical complications of eating disorders early in their course can help facilitate timely treatment and an appropriate level of support...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894342/severe-disruption-of-water-and-electrolyte-balance-after-appendectomy-a-case-report
#7
Olga Bossong, Christoph Rudin, Gabor Szinnai, Thomas O Erb, Jens Moll
Perioperative derangements of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis are rare complications in healthy children. Nonetheless, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory to avoid a potentially life-threatening situation. However, the variety of underlying pathologies may prove to make accurate diagnosis challenging. This case report presents the management of an unexpected occurrence of a perioperative partial diabetes insipidus with massive fluid loss. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are discussed in the context of laboratory findings, and an overview of the existing literature is given...
June 11, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851190/choosing-wisely-in-pediatric-anesthesia-an-interpretation-from-the-german-scientific-working-group-of-paediatric-anaesthesia-wakka
#8
Karin Becke, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Andreas Machotta, Markus Schreiber, Robert Sümpelmann
Inspired by the Choosing Wisely initiative, a group of pediatric anesthesiologists representing the German Working Group on Paediatric Anaesthesia (WAKKA) coined and agreed upon 10 concise positive ("dos") or negative ("don'ts") evidence-based recommendations. (i) In infants and children with robust indications for surgical, interventional, or diagnostic procedures, anesthesia or sedation should not be avoided or delayed due to the potential neurotoxicity associated with the exposure to anesthetics...
July 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735573/adolescent-consumption-of-sports-drinks
#9
Kyla Cordrey, Sarah A Keim, Ruth Milanaik, Andrew Adesman
BACKGROUND: Sports drinks are aggressively marketed to teenagers to replenish fluids and/or electrolytes. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, typical adolescent physical activity does not require sports drink rehydration. Given US obesity rates and that sugar-sweetened sports drinks add superfluous calories to the diet, it is important to assess adolescent sports drink consumption and changes over time. METHODS: Researchers in the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey and 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey collected nationally representative samples of US high school students about sports drink consumption...
June 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698409/heparin-free-dialysis-in-critically-sick-children-using-sustained-low-efficiency-dialysis-sledd-f-a-new-hybrid-therapy-for-dialysis-in-developing-world
#10
Sidharth Kumar Sethi, Shyam B Bansal, Anshika Khare, Maninder Dhaliwal, Veena Raghunathan, Nikita Wadhwani, Ashish Nandwani, Dinesh Kumar Yadav, Amit Kumar Mahapatra, Rupesh Raina
BACKGROUND: In critically sick adults, sustained low efficiency dialysis [SLED] appears to be better tolerated hemodynamically and outcomes seem to be comparable to CRRT. However, there is paucity of data in critically sick children. In children, two recent studies from Taiwan (n = 11) and India (n = 68) showed benefits of SLED in critically sick children. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to look at the feasibility and tolerability of sustained low efficiency daily dialysis-filtration [SLEDD-f] in critically sick pediatric patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527518/management-of-diarrhoeal-dehydration-in-childhood-a-review-for-clinicians-in-developing-countries
#11
REVIEW
Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje
The survival of a child with severe volume depletion at the emergency department depends on the competency of the first responder to recognize and promptly treat hypovolemic shock. Although the basic principles on fluid and electrolytes therapy have been investigated for decades, the topic remains a challenge, as consensus on clinical management protocol is difficult to reach, and more adverse events are reported from fluid administration than for any other drug. While the old principles proposed by Holliday and Segar, and Finberg have stood the test of time, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have highlighted the risk of hyponatraemia, and hyponatraemic encephalopathy in some children treated with hypotonic fluids...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412539/understanding-fluid-homeostasis-in-infants-and-children-part-1
#12
Doreen Crawford
Fluid requirements differ between infants and children. It is important for children's nurses to understand the principles of fluid mechanics and apply this understanding to ensure each child's state of hydration, and thereby preserve their safety and well-being. This two-part article aims to introduce the concept of fluid balance and electrolytes to children's nursing students, help them identify what is normal and what is not, and provide guidance on what actions should be taken when problems occur. It may also be useful for registered nurses to use for revalidation...
February 7, 2018: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374316/pediatric-acute-kidney-injury-and-the-subsequent-risk-for-chronic-kidney-disease-is-there-cause-for-alarm
#13
Vaka K Sigurjonsdottir, Swasti Chaturvedi, Cherry Mammen, Scott M Sutherland
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized clinically as an abrupt decline in renal function marked by reduced excretion of waste products, disordered electrolytes, and disrupted fluid homeostasis. The recent development of a standardized AKI definition has transformed our understanding of AKI epidemiology and outcomes. We now know that in the short term, children with AKI experience greater morbidity and mortality; additionally, observational studies have established that chronic renal sequelae are far more common after AKI events than previously realized...
January 26, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333566/principles-of-management-of-central-nervous-system-infections
#14
REVIEW
Sunit Singhi, Suresh Kumar Angurana
CNS infections in children are medical emergency and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. For diagnosis, a high index of suspicion is required. Clinical assessment should be supplemented by laboratory investigations including CSF Gram stain and cultures, blood culture, PCR on CSF, serological tests, and imaging. Commonly associated life threatening complications include coma, seizure, raised intracranial pressure (ICP), focal deficits, shock, respiratory failure, and fluid and electrolyte abnormalities...
January 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329448/the-prevalence-and-management-of-dehydration-amongst-neonatal-admissions-to-general-paediatric-wards-in-kenya-a-clinical-audit
#15
Samuel Akech, Beatrice Rotich, Mercy Chepkirui, Philip Ayieko, Grace Irimu, Mike English
An audit of randomly selected case records of 810 patients admitted to 13 hospitals between December 2015 and November 2016 was done. Prevalence of dehydration was 19.7% (2293 of 11 636) [95% CI: 17.1-22.6%], range across hospitals was 9.4% to 27.0%. Most cases with dehydration were clinically diagnosed (82 of 153; 53.6%), followed by excessive weight loss (54 of 153; 35.3%) and abnormal urea/electrolytes/creatinine (23 of 153; 15.0%). Documentation of fluids prescribed was poor but, where data were available, Ringers lactate (30 of 153; 19...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280097/current-treatment-paradigms-in-pediatric-short-bowel-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Raghav Chandra, Anil Kesavan
Pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition which occurs in children with congenital or acquired reduction in length of the small intestine. SBS results in excessive fluid loss, nutrient malabsorption, electrolyte abnormalities, increased susceptibility to infections, parenteral nutrition associated complications and affects weight gain and growth. In children, SBS is debilitating and uniformly fatal without treatment. The primary goal of treatment is to restore enteral autonomy and reduce long-term dependence on parenteral support by increasing the absorptive potential of the remnant intestine...
April 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156484/-perioperative-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-children
#17
Robert Sümpelmann
The objective of this consensus-based S1 Guideline for perioperative fluid therapy in children is to maintain or re-establish the child's homeostasis. Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. For the intraoperative background infusion a physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1 - 2.5% glucose is recommended to maintain normal glucose concentrations and to avoid hyponatremia, hyperchloremia, and lipolysis...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151300/the-effect-of-antidiuretic-hormone-on-urine-and-serum-electrolyte-levelsin-children-with-primary-monosymptomatic-nocturnal-enuresis
#18
Nesrin Taş, Yaşar Kandur, Kibriya Fidan, Oğuz Söylemezoğlu
Background/aim: The data concerning the effects of desmopressin on water/electrolyte disturbances of children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) are limited. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect and tolerability of desmopressin on blood and urine electrolytes and osmolality in PMNE.Materials and methods: Thirty-five children with PMNE between the ages of 5 and 15 participated in the study. Patients collected urine during the daytime and acknowledged the night time fluid restriction before starting to use the desmopressin tablets...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151001/intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-hospitalized-and-critically-ill-children-rationale-available-drugs-and-possible-side-effects
#19
Thomas Langer, Rosamaria Limuti, Concezione Tommasino, Niels van Regenmortel, Els L I M Duval, Pietro Caironi, Manu L N G Malbrain, Antonio Pesenti
Human beings are constituted mainly of water. In particular, children's total body water might reach 75-80% of their body weight, compared to 60-70% in adults. It is therefore not surprising, that children, especially hospitalized newborns and infants, are markedly prone to water and electrolyte imbalances. Parenteral fluid therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment and is thus of exceptional relevance in this patient population. It is crucial to appreciate the fact that intravenous fluids are drugs with very different characteristics, different indications, contraindications and relevant side effects...
2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111613/management-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infected-children-a-multi-national-multi-specialty-survey
#20
Stephen B Freedman, Silviu Grisaru, Jianling Xie, Susan Samuel, Andrew Dixon, Amy C Plint, David Schnadower
AIM: Research has highlighted the potential role that hydration status may play in predicting outcomes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-infected children. Because little is known about the management of STEC-infected children in the pre-haemolytic uremic syndrome phase, we compared paediatric emergency medicine and nephrologist-stated management approaches to STEC-infected children. METHODS: Members of the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC; n = 228), the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee (PEM CRC; n = 221) and the Canadian Association of Pediatric Nephrologists (CAPN; n = 66) were surveyed...
April 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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