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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786877/morphomic-malnutrition-score-a-standardized-screening-tool-for-severe-malnutrition-in-adults
#1
Christopher Lee, Erica Raymond, Brian A Derstine, Joshua M Glazer, Rebecca Goulson, Avinash Rajasekaran, Jill Cherry-Bukowiec, Grace L Su, Stewart C Wang
BACKGROUND: Granular diagnostic criteria for adult malnutrition are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study uses analytic morphomics to define the Morphomic Malnutrition Score (MMS), a robust screening tool for severe malnutrition. METHODS: The study population (n = 643) consisted of 2 cohorts: 1) 124 emergency department patients diagnosed with severe malnutrition by a registered dietitian (RD) and an available computed tomography (CT) scan within 2 days of RD evaluation, and 2) 519 adult kidney donor candidates to represent a healthy cohort...
May 22, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786683/-the-application-of-kinesiotaping-for-the-rehabilitation-of-the-post-stroke-patients
#2
V I Berezutsky
This review of the scientific literature was designed to consider the prospects for the application of kinesiotaping for the rehabilitation of the post-stroke patients. The relevance of the work arises from the absence of a systemic analysis of the large number of investigations that have been carried out during the past two years. The objective of the present review article was to evaluate the influence of kinesiotaping on the health status of the post-stroke patients and the course of their rehabilitative treatment based on the results of analysis of the scientific reports published during the period from 2015 to 2017...
May 21, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784532/short-term-results-of-flexor-hallucis-longus-transfer-in-delayed-and-neglected-achilles-tendon-repair
#3
Hamza Ozer, Yilmaz Ergisi, Gulcan Harput, Mehmet S Senol, Gul Baltaci
Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer to the calcaneus in the repair of delayed or neglected Achilles tendon (AT) injuries is a viable and dynamic option. Nineteen patients (18 males, 1 female; mean age 47.4 ± 12.4, range 24 to 74, years; body mass index 27.5 ± 4.5, range 23.2 to 38.9, kg/m2 ; interval from injury to surgery 40.8 ± 11.6, range 28 to 60, days) with delayed or neglected repair of AT rupture were included in the present study. FHL transfer to the calcaneus through a single incision and repair of the defect with native tendon lengthening or a tendinous turndown flap was performed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776331/genome-wide-detection-of-selection-signatures-in-chinese-indigenous-laiwu-pigs-revealed-candidate-genes-regulating-fat-deposition-in-muscle
#4
Minhui Chen, Jiying Wang, Yanping Wang, Ying Wu, Jinluan Fu, Jian-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Currently, genome-wide scans for positive selection signatures in commercial breed have been investigated. However, few studies have focused on selection footprints of indigenous breeds. Laiwu pig is an invaluable Chinese indigenous pig breed with extremely high proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF), and an excellent model to detect footprint as the result of natural and artificial selection for fat deposition in muscle. RESULT: In this study, based on GeneSeek Genomic profiler Porcine HD data, three complementary methods, FST , iHS (integrated haplotype homozygosity score) and CLR (composite likelihood ratio), were implemented to detect selection signatures in the whole genome of Laiwu pigs...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775984/static-postural-stability-in-chronic-ankle-instability-an-ankle-sprain-and-healthy-ankles
#5
Yong Ung Kwon
To identify the single leg balance (SLB) test that discriminates among healthy, coper, and chronic ankle instability (CAI) groups and to determine effects of ankle muscles on the balance error scoring system (BESS) among the three populations. 60 subjects (20 per group) performed the SLB test with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Normalized mean amplitude (NMA) of the tibia anterior (TA), fibularis longus (FL), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles and BESS were measured while performing the SLB test. The coper group had a lower error score than the CAI group in the EC...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775908/mirror-therapy-for-improving-lower-limb-motor-function-and-mobility-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
P Broderick, F Horgan, C Blake, M Ehrensberger, D Simpson, K Monaghan
BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy has been proposed as an effective intervention for lower limb rehabilitation post stroke. RESEARCH QUESTION: This systematic review with meta-analysis examined if lower limb mirror therapy improved the primary outcome measures of muscle tone and motor function and the secondary outcome measures balance characteristics, functional ambulation, walking velocity, passive range of motion (PROM) for ankle dorsiflexion and gait characteristics in patients with stroke compared to other interventions...
May 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771332/mechanisms-of-skeletal-muscle-wasting-in-a-mouse-model-for-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#7
Ginny R Morriss, Kimal Rajapakshe, Shixia Huang, Cristian Coarfa, Thomas A Cooper
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease resulting in severe muscle weakening and wasting. DM1 is caused by expansion of CTG repeats in the 3'-UTR of the DMPK gene. We have developed an inducible, skeletal muscle-specific mouse model of DM1 (CUG960) that expresses 960 CUG repeats in the context of human DMPK exons 11-15. CUG960 RNA-expressing mice induced at PN1, as well as adult-onset animals, show clear, measurable muscle wasting accompanied by severe histological defects including central myonuclei, reduced fiber cross sectional area, increased percentage of oxidative myofibers, and the presence of nuclear RNA foci that colocalize with Mbnl1 protein...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767748/glial-activation-and-central-synapse-loss-but-not-motoneuron-degeneration-are-prevented-by-the-sigma-1-receptor-agonist-pre-084-in-the-smn2b-mouse-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#8
Clàudia Cerveró, Alba Blasco, Olga Tarabal, Anna Casanovas, Lídia Piedrafita, Xavier Navarro, Josep E Esquerda, Jordi Calderó
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by the loss of α-motoneurons (MNs) with concomitant muscle denervation. MN excitability and vulnerability to disease are particularly regulated by cholinergic synaptic afferents (C-boutons), in which Sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) is concentrated. Alterations in Sig1R have been associated with MN degeneration. Here, we investigated whether a chronic treatment with the Sig1R agonist PRE-084 was able to exert beneficial effects on SMA. We used a model of intermediate SMA, the Smn2B/- mouse, in which we performed a detailed characterization of the histopathological changes that occur throughout the disease...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767354/proprioceptive-muscle-tendon-stimulation-reduces-symptoms-in-primary-orthostatic-tremor
#9
M Wuehr, C Schlick, K Möhwald, R Schniepp
INTRODUCTION: Primary orthostatic tremor (OT) is characterized by high-frequency lower limb muscle contractions and a disabling sense of unsteadiness while standing. To date, therapeutic options for OT are limited. Here, we examined the effects of proprioceptive leg muscle stimulation via muscle tendon vibration (MTV) on tremor and balance control in patients with primary OT. METHODS: Tremor in nine patients with primary OT was examined during four conditions: standing (1), standing with MTV on the bilateral soleus muscles (2), lying (3), and lying with MTV (4)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763676/effect-of-single-session-dual-tdcs-before-physical-therapy-on-lower-limb-performance-in-sub-acute-stroke-patients-a-randomized-sham-controlled-crossover-study
#10
Wanalee Klomjai, Benchaporn Aneksan, Anuchai Pheungphrarattanatrai, Thanwarat Chantanachai, Nattha Choowong, Soontaree Bunleukhet, Paradee Auervitchayapat, Yongchai Nilanon, Vimonwan Hiengkaew
Anodal stimulation increases cortical excitably, whereas cathodal stimulation decreases cortical excitability. Dual transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS; anodal over the lesioned hemisphere, cathodal over the non-lesioned hemisphere) was found to enhance motor learning. The corresponding tDCS-induced changes were reported to reduce the inhibition exerted by the unaffected hemisphere on the affected hemisphere and restore the normal balance of the interhemispheric inhibition. Most studies were devoted to the possible modification of upper-limb motor function after tDCS; however, almost no study has demonstrated its effects on lower-limb function and gait, which are also commonly disordered in stroke patients with motor deficits...
May 12, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761748/transfemoral-amputation-adductor-myodesis-using-fibertape-and-knotless-anchors
#11
Andrew R Hsu
Transfemoral amputation is considered the last treatment option for severe infection, vascular disease, trauma, and malignant tumors of the lower extremity that have failed limb salvage. Unopposed pull of the hip abductors causes a flexion-abduction thigh deformity that results in abnormal biomechanics and increased oxygen consumption during ambulation. Myodesis of the adductor tendons is a critical component of transfemoral amputation that creates dynamic muscle balance, enhances prosthetic fitting and function, and improves clinical outcomes...
May 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761295/a-startling-acoustic-stimulus-facilitates-voluntary-lower-extremity-movements-and-automatic-postural-responses-in-people-with-chronic-stroke
#12
Milou J M Coppens, Jolanda M B Roelofs, Nicole A J Donkers, Jorik Nonnekes, Alexander C H Geurts, Vivian Weerdesteyn
A startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) involuntary releases prepared movements at accelerated latencies, known as the StartReact effect. Previous work has demonstrated intact StartReact in paretic upper extremity movements in people after stroke, suggesting preserved motor preparation. The question remains whether motor preparation of lower extremity movements is also unaffected after stroke. Here, we investigated StartReact effects on ballistic lower extremity movements and on automatic postural responses (APRs) following perturbations to standing balance...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760707/the-yin-and-yang-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-during-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#13
Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Ina Rohwedder, Adriana Ribeiro Silva, Alessandra Silveira Ferreira, Angela R M Kurz, Céline Cougoule, Sarah Klapproth, Tanja Eggersmann, Johnatas D Silva, Gisele Pena de Oliveira, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Gabriel Gutfilen Schlesinger, Edlaine Rijo Costa, Rita de Cassia Elias Estrela Marins, Attila Mócsai, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini, Barbara Walzog, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco, Markus Sperandio, Hugo Caire de Castro-Faria-Neto
Neutrophils are the first cells of our immune system to arrive at the site of inflammation. They release cytokines, e.g., chemokines, to attract further immune cells, but also actively start to phagocytose and kill pathogens. In the case of sepsis, this tightly regulated host defense mechanism can become uncontrolled and hyperactive resulting in severe organ damage. Currently, no effective therapy is available to fight sepsis; therefore, novel treatment targets that could prevent excessive inflammatory responses are warranted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760375/effect-of-ankle-range-of-motion-rom-and-lower-extremity-muscle-strength-on-static-balance-control-ability-in-young-adults-a-regression-analysis
#14
Seong-Gil Kim, Wan-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle ROM and lower-extremity muscle strength on static balance control ability in young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted with 65 young adults, but 10 young adults dropped out during the measurement, so 55 young adults (male: 19, female: 36) completed the study. Postural sway (length and velocity) was measured with eyes open and closed, and ankle ROM (AROM and PROM of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion) and lower-extremity muscle strength (flexor and extensor of hip, knee, and ankle joint) were measured...
May 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759027/upper-limb-congenital-muscular-hypertrophy-and-aberrant-muscle-syndrome-in-children
#15
Emmanuel Dahan, Camilo Chaves, Manon Bachy, Frank Fitoussi
Congenital muscle hypertrophy of the upper limb is a very rare condition with unknown aetiology. This descriptive observational and retrospective series included eight children followed by a multidisciplinary team from 2005 to 2017. The diagnosis was based on a cluster of clinical and radiological characteristics after elimination of differential diagnoses. Patients were categorized according to: anomalies of the wrist, anomalies of long fingers of intrinsic or extrinsic origin; and anomalies of the thumb with or without first web space contracture...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756656/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-achalasia-in-a-muscle-mechanical-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Hans Gregersen, Kar Man Lo
This review provides a biomechanical perspective on the pathophysiology and treatment of achalasia. The esophagus is efficient in transporting ingested material to the stomach in healthy subjects. A fine balance exists between the peristaltic forces generated in the esophageal body (which herein is defined as the preload) and the resistance in the outlet, the esophago-gastric junction (which is defined as the afterload). Achalasia is a rare esophageal disease that progressively over many years challenges esophageal efficacy...
May 14, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754437/reduced-fiber-size-capillary-supply-and-mitochondrial-activity-in-constitutional-thinness-skeletal-muscle
#17
Bogdan Galusca, Julien Verney, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Yiin Ling, Pascal Edouard, Leonard Feasson, Marion Ravelojaona, Hubert Vidal, Bruno Estour, Natacha Germain
AIM: Constitutional thinness (CT) is a rare condition of natural low bodyweight, with no psychological issues, no marker of undernutrition and a resistance to weight gain. This study evaluated the skeletal muscle phenotype of CT women by comparison to a normal BMI control group. METHODS: 10 CT women (BMI< 17.5 kg/m2) and 10 female controls (BMI: 18.5-25 kg/m2) underwent metabolic and hormonal assessment along with muscle biopsies to analyse the skeletal muscular fibers pattern, capillarity, enzymes activities and transcriptomics...
May 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753766/licorice-flavonoid-oil-enhances-muscle-mass-in-kk-a-y-mice
#18
Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Yoko Yamashita, Hideyuki Kishida, Kaku Nakagawa, Hitoshi Ashida
AIMS: Muscle mass is regulated by the balance between the synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. Loss of skeletal muscle mass is associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of licorice flavonoid oil on muscle mass in KK-Ay /Ta mice. MAIN METHODS: Male genetically type II diabetic KK-Ay /Ta mice received 0, 1, or 1.5 g/kg BW of licorice flavonoid oil by mouth once daily for 4 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750880/akt-enos-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-mediated-the-phenotypic-switching-of-thoracic-aorta-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-aging-hypertensive-rats
#19
Lin Zhang, Zhaoxia Xu, Ying Wu, Jingwen Liao, Fanxing Zeng, Lijun Shi
Considerable evidence demonstrates that phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is influenced by aging and hypertension. During phenotypic switching, VSMCs undergo a switch to a proliferative and migratory phenotype, with this switch being a common pathology in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the joint influence of age and hypertension on thoracic aortic smooth muscle phenotypic switching and the balance of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling during this switch...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750024/locomotive-syndrome-clinical-perspectives
#20
Tatsunori Ikemoto, Young-Chang Arai
The deterioration of locomotive components, which comprise bones, joints, and intervertebral discs, and muscles and nerves, can lead to symptoms such as pain, limitations in the range of joint mobility, malalignment, impaired balance, and difficulty walking. Locomotive syndrome (LoS) was proposed by the Japanese Orthopedic Association in 2007 as a concept for people who are at a high risk of developing a musculoskeletal ambulation disability attributed to locomotor organs. Although many international articles related to LoS have been published, an international consensus of this concept seems to be lacking...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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