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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776293/converging-effects-of-diverse-treatment-modalities-on-frontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-review-of-longitudinal-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#1
REVIEW
Ayse Sakalli Kani, Ann K Shinn, Kathryn E Lewandowski, Dost Öngür
OBJECTIVES: A variety of treatment options exist for schizophrenia, but the effects of these treatments on brain function are not clearly understood. To facilitate the development of more effective treatment strategies, it is important to identify how brain function in schizophrenia patients is affected by the diverse therapeutic approaches that are currently available. The aim of the present article is to systematically review the evidence for functional brain changes associated with different treatment modalities for schizophrenia...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751669/review-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-sleep-medicines-in-older-adults
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
November 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663802/an-update-on-meta-analysis-of-medical-and-non-medicaltreatments-of-the-prodromal-phase-of-psychotic-illness-in-at-risk-mental-states
#3
Gavin Deas, Christopher Kelly, Andreas V Hadjinicolaou, Clare Holt, Mark Agius, Rashid Zaman
INTRODUCTION: There are now many existing studies which assess the treatments available for 'at risk mental states', as patients who are believed to be in the prodromal phase of psychotic illness are referred to. However, concerns regarding side effects of possible treatments remain. We here conduct a meta-analysis of the studies available up to July 2016. The aim of this study is to decide what would be the best treatment for 'at high risk patients'. RESULTS: 18 studies were selected for inclusion; 12 showed significance, 5 did not and one tended towards significance...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630144/positive-allosteric-modulation-of-the-muscarinic-m1-receptor-improves-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-in-mouse-glutamatergic-deficit-models-of-behavior
#4
Kwok H C Choy, David M Shackleford, Daniel T Malone, Shailesh N Mistry, Rahul T Patil, Peter J Scammells, Christopher J Langmead, Christos Pantelis, Patrick M Sexton, Johnathan R Lane, Arthur Christopoulos
Current antipsychotics are effective in treating the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia, but they remain suboptimal in targeting cognitive dysfunction. Recent studies have suggested that positive allosteric modulation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) may provide a novel means of improving cognition. However, very little is known about the potential of combination therapies in extending coverage across schizophrenic symptom domains. This study investigated the effect of the M1 mAChR positive allosteric modulator BQCA [1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid], alone or in combination with haloperidol (a first-generation antipsychotic), clozapine (a second-generation atypical antipsychotic), or aripiprazole (a third-generation atypical antipsychotic), in reversing deficits in sensorimotor gating and spatial memory induced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine]...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548592/behavioral-disorders-in-dementia-appropriate-nondrug-interventions-and-antipsychotic-use
#5
Tyler R Reese, Derrick J Thiel, Katherine E Cocker
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia pose management challenges for caregivers and clinicians. Firstline nonpharmacologic treatments include eliminating physical and emotional stressors, modifying the patient's environment, and establishing daily routines. Family members and caregivers benefit from education about dementia symptoms and reminders that the behaviors are normal and unintentional. Cognitive and emotion-oriented interventions, sensory stimulation interventions, behavior management techniques, and other psychosocial interventions are modestly effective...
August 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514778/implementation-of-a-clinical-practice-guideline-for-schizophrenia-in-a-specialist-mental-health-center-an-observational-study
#6
Ilan Fischler, Sanaz Riahi, Melanie I Stuckey, Philip E Klassen
BACKGROUND: In mental health settings, implementation of and adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is low. Strategies are needed to overcome barriers and facilitate successful implementation of CPGs into standard care. The goals of this study were to develop a framework for the implementation of a CPG for schizophrenia for hospitalized service users in a mental health care facility, and to monitor adherence to the guideline. METHODS: An eight-step framework was developed based on project management principles: 1) the Appraisal Guideline for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) tool was used to rate and select a CPG; 2) an algorithm was created from the guideline; 3) a gap analysis identified clinical services and processes not conforming with the CPG recommendations; 4) a governance structure was created; 5) a modified Delphi process determined key outcome and process adherence metrics; 6) a project charter was developed; 7) clinical informatics ensured that systems and tools were in place to support the CPG; and 8) therapeutic services were realigned to match the requirements of the CPG within specified fiscal constraints...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470381/celecoxib-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-alone-and-in-combination-with-risperidone-affect-the-behavior-and-brain-biochemistry-in-amphetamine-induced-model-of-schizophrenia
#7
Alaa El-Sayed El-Sisi, Samia Salem Sokkar, Magda El-Sayed El-Sayad, Ehab Sayed Ramadan, Enass Yossef Osman
The implications of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have been elucidated. Despite their effectiveness against positive symptoms of schizophrenia, antipsychotics have limited effectiveness against negative and cognitive symptoms and are associated with remarkable adverse effects. The use of celecoxib or omega-3 in schizophrenia may have beneficial effects. This study aimed to evaluate the possible efficacies of celecoxib, omega-3 or the combination of celecoxib+risperidone and omega-3+ risperidone compared to risperidone on the behavior and brain biochemistry in rats...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355332/melatonin-based-therapies-for-delirium-and-dementia
#8
Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan
Melatonin levels have been shown to decline with aging. Melatonin and its analogs in addition to their effect on sleep promotion, has been shown to have multiple pleiotropic effects. It can also help with neuroprotection through different mechanisms. Evidence in animal and human studies suggests that low levels of melatonin have been linked to delirium, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and with certain behavioral problems. Recent clinical trials have showed that both melatonin and its analogs may be useful in the prevention, treatment of delirium, and the management of dementia...
May 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293137/treatment-of-negative-symptoms-where-do-we-stand-and-where-do-we-go
#9
REVIEW
André Aleman, Tania M Lincoln, Richard Bruggeman, Ingrid Melle, Johan Arends, Celso Arango, Henderikus Knegtering
Negative symptoms, e.g. social withdrawal, reduced initiative, anhedonia and affective flattening, are notoriously difficult to treat. In this review, we take stock of recent research into treatment of negative symptoms by summarizing psychosocial as well as pharmacological and other biological treatment strategies. Major psychosocial approaches concern social skills training, cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis, cognitive remediation and family intervention. Some positive findings have been reported, with the most robust improvements observed for social skills training...
June 9, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197125/-a-review-and-recommendations-of-evidence-based-treatments-for-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Bertrand Lauth, Urður Njardvik, Tord Ivarsson
UNLABELLED: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions. In this review we depict evidence-based treatments for pediatric OCD patients. We searched PubMed for relevant publications including randomized controlled trials, reviews, and expert guidelines. Substantial evidence for cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) among treatment-naïve patients shows that both treatments are effective...
April 2016: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130958/pharmacotherapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-clinical-practice-data-of-842-inpatients-from-the-international-amsp-project-between-1994-and-2012
#11
Christine Poppe, Sabrina T Müller, Waldemar Greil, Alice Walder, Renate Grohmann, Susanne Stübner
BACKGROUND: Specific treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on cognitive-behavioral therapy, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) or their combination. Treatment strategies do not always follow evidence-based guidelines in outpatient settings. Data on pharmacotherapy in inpatient settings are lacking. METHODS: Prescription data for inpatients suffering from OCD in the time period 1994-2012 were obtained from the database of the Drug Safety Program in Psychiatry (AMSP)...
August 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27064142/challenges-and-promises-of-pediatric-psychopharmacology
#12
REVIEW
Lisa L Giles, D Richard Martini
Most prescriptions for psychotropic medications are written by primary care physicians, yet pediatricians, many of whom are teaching residents and medical students about pediatric psychopharmacology, often feel inadequately trained to treat mental health concerns. Over the past several decades, the number, size, and quality of psychopharmacologic studies in youth has greatly increased. Here we review the current evidence for efficacy and safety of each of the major pharmacologic drug classes in youth (psychostimulants, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics)...
August 2016: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901889/-a-case-with-multiple-comorbidities-of-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders
#13
Ayako Arikawa, Hironori Mito, Mikuni Motoyama, Kyosuke Yamanishi, Kazuhisa Hayashida, Kensei Maebayashi, Hisato Matsunaga
Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) have been introduced in a revision to DSM-5 as a novel category that is distinct from other anxiety disorders in DSM-IV. OCRDs consist of 5 primary disorders: obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), hoarding disorder (HD), skin picking disorder (SPD), and hair pulling disorder (HPD), which share core clinical features such as preoccupation or recurrent thoughts and/or repetitive behaviors. Repetitive behaviors in BDD and HD can be differentially characterized by the presence of cognitive components associated with preceding anxiety from those in SPD or HPD, which are only observed as motoric components that regulate emotions or alleviate tension...
2015: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893564/neuroleptic-induced-deficit-syndrome-in-bipolar-disorder-with-psychosis
#14
Satoshi Ueda, Takeshi Sakayori, Ataru Omori, Hajime Fukuta, Takashi Kobayashi, Kousuke Ishizaka, Tomoyuki Saijo, Yoshiro Okubo
Neuroleptics can induce not only physical adverse effects but also mental effects that produce deficit status in thought, affect, cognition, and behavior. This condition is known as neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS), which includes apathy, lack of initiative, anhedonia, indifference, blunted affect, and reduced insight into disease. Although this old concept now appears almost forgotten, neuroleptics, whether typical or atypical, can make depression or bipolar disorder resemble other more refractory conditions, readily leading to mistaken diagnosis and inappropriate treatment...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26799351/management-of-sleep-disorders-in-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Allison Beck Blackmer, James A Feinstein
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined as a group of disorders caused by changes in early brain development, resulting in behavioral and cognitive alterations in sensory and motor systems, speech, and language. NDDs affect approximately 1-2% of the general population. Up to 80% of children with NDDs are reported to have disrupted sleep; subsequent deleterious effects on daytime behaviors, cognition, growth, and overall development of the child are commonly reported. Examples of NDDs discussed in this review include autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Smith-Magenis syndrome...
January 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740928/treating-comorbid-anxiety-and-depression-psychosocial-and-pharmacological-approaches
#16
REVIEW
Jeremy D Coplan, Cindy J Aaronson, Venkatesh Panthangi, Younsuk Kim
Comorbid anxiety with depression predicts poor outcomes with a higher percentage of treatment resistance than either disorder occurring alone. Overlap of anxiety and depression complicates diagnosis and renders treatment challenging. A vital step in treatment of such comorbidity is careful and comprehensive diagnostic assessment. We attempt to explain various psychosocial and pharmacological approaches for treatment of comorbid anxiety and depression. For the psychosocial component, we focus only on generalized anxiety disorder based on the following theoretical models: (1) "the avoidance model"; (2) "the intolerance of uncertainty model"; (3) "the meta-cognitive model"; (4) "the emotion dysregulation model"; and (5) "the acceptance based model"...
December 22, 2015: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26729104/pharmacotherapy-treatment-options-for-insomnia-a-primer-for-clinicians
#17
Gregory M Asnis, Manju Thomas, Margaret A Henderson
Insomnia is a prevalent disorder with deleterious effects such as decreased quality of life, and a predisposition to a number of psychiatric disorders. Fortunately, numerous approved hypnotic treatments are available. This report reviews the state of the art of pharmacotherapy with a reference to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) as well. It provides the clinician with a guide to all the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved hypnotics (benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, ramelteon, low dose sinequan, and suvorexant) including potential side effects...
December 30, 2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690687/interventions-for-psychotic-symptoms-concomitant-with-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Saeed Farooq, Akhtar Sherin
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2008.People suffering from epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms. The psychotic syndromes associated with epilepsy have generally been classified as ictal, postictal, and interictal psychosis. Anticonvulsant drugs have been reported to precipitate psychosis. Moreover, all antipsychotic drugs have the propensity to cause paroxysmal electroencephalogram abnormalities and induce seizures...
December 21, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26650554/-attenuated-psychosis-syndrome-a-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Alejandro Szmulewicz, José M Smith, Marina P Valerio
Despite recent findings on the treatment of schizophrenia, it is an illness still associated with high morbidity and incapacity in social and work domains. There is a growing interest in examining the phases prior to the development of the illness so as to make early interventions that would potentially change its devastating course. The attenuated psychosis syndrome was included in the section III of the last version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition in which a patient exhibits mild psychotic symptoms, an intact reality testing and certain degree of social or occupational impairment...
May 2015: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644152/drug-therapy-for-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia
#20
Feng Wang, Ting-Yi Feng, Shilin Yang, Maurice Preter, Jiang-Ning Zhou, Xiao-Ping Wang
Dementia, which can be induced by diverse factors, is a clinical syndrome characterized by the decline of cognitive function. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include depression, agitation, and aggression. Dementia causes a heavy burden on patients and their caregivers. Patients with BPSD should be assessed comprehensively by practitioners and offered appropriate non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapy. Nonpharmacologic therapy has been recommended as the basal treatment for BPSD; however, pharmacologic therapy is required under many situations...
2016: Current Neuropharmacology
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