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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102368/-body-dysmorphic-disorder-future-prospects-of-medical-care
#1
E Siegfried, A Ayrolles, H Rahioui
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by excessive preoccupation with a slight or imagined defect in one's physical appearance, believing they look ugly, abnormal or deformed. While the most common preoccupations focus on the skin, hair and nose, any part of the body may be involved. Preoccupations are intrusive, time-consuming and hard to control. Repetitive behaviors are performed in response to the preoccupations. BDD is associated with marked impairment in socio-professional functioning, poor quality of life and high suicide rates...
November 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083031/practitioner-review-definition-recognition-and-treatment-challenges-of-irritability-in-young-people
#2
REVIEW
Argyris Stringaris, Pablo Vidal-Ribas, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft
BACKGROUND: Irritability is one of the most common reasons for referral to child and adolescent mental health services and is the main characteristic of the new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). However, the recognition and management of irritability presents a major challenge in clinical practice and may be partly responsible for the dramatic increase in antipsychotic prescribing in recent years. METHODS: In this review, we provide up-to-date information on the definition and mechanisms underlying irritability, and its assessment in clinical practice...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065847/long-term-administration-of-antipsychotic-drugs-in-schizophrenia-and-influence-of-substance-and-drug-abuse-on-the-disease-outcome
#3
F-M Werner, Rafael Coveñas
BACKGROUND: Many schizophrenic patients with a long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs do not regularly adhere to the prescribed pharmacotherapy. Antipsychotic drugs constitute a palliative, but not a curative treatment, and the long-term effect of these drugs is not secure. Patients tend to consume nicotine and alcohol, as well as some patients consume drugs such as cannabis and amphetamines. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this mini-review is to examine the reasons for the high tendency of schizophrenic patients to consume alcohol, nicotine and drugs and in addition to suggest measures to reduce the abuse of substances and drugs...
October 20, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052453/review-of-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-common-primary-psychiatric-causes-of-cutaneous-disease
#4
J A Krooks, A G Weatherall, P J Holland
Approximately half of all patients presenting to dermatologists exhibit signs and symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are either primary or secondary to cutaneous disease. Because patients typically resist psychiatric consult, dermatologists often are on the front line in evaluating and treating these patients. Accordingly, distinguishing the specific underlying or resulting psychiatric condition is essential for effective treatment. The etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and first-line treatment of specific primary psychiatric causes of dermatologic conditions, including delusional infestation, Morgellons syndrome, olfactory reference syndrome, body dysmorphic disorder, excoriation disorder, trichotillomania, and dermatitis artefacta are discussed here, followed by a discussion of the recommended treatment approach with an overview of the different first-line therapies discussed in this review, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927482/treating-depressive-episodes-or-symptoms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#5
Geeske van Rooijen, Jentien Marloes Vermeulen, Henricus Gerardus Ruhé, Lieuwe de Haan
Depressive episodes or symptoms occur frequently in patients with schizophrenia and may have far-reaching consequences. Despite the high prevalence rate and clinical relevance of this comorbidity, knowledge about treatment options is still limited. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning treatment options for depressive episodes or symptoms in schizophrenia. Based on the current evidence, we present a stepwise treatment approach. The first step is to evaluate the current antipsychotic treatment of psychotic symptoms and consider lowering the dosage, since increased blockade of the dopamine D2 receptors may be associated with a worse subjective sense of well-being and dysphoria...
September 20, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912995/coprophagia-and-entomophagia-in-a-patient-with-alcohol-related-dementia
#6
João B Fonseca, Pedro Morgado
Coprophagia and entomophagia are two phenomena not commonly reported in the medical literature and their occurrence is usually associated with mental disorders. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse who was evaluated due to cognitive deterioration and disturbed eating habits including feces and living insects. Organic causes were ruled out and an important cognitive impairment became evident on neuropsychological formal test. The behavior remitted after antipsychotic pharmacologic therapy and alcohol detoxification, leaving the diagnostic impression of alcohol related dementia...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883731/antipsychotic-associated-weight-gain-management-strategies-and-impact-on-treatment-adherence
#7
REVIEW
Madhubhashinee Dayabandara, Raveen Hanwella, Suhashini Ratnatunga, Sudarshi Seneviratne, Chathurie Suraweera, Varuni A de Silva
Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a major management problem for clinicians. It has been shown that weight gain and obesity lead to increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life and poor drug compliance. This narrative review discusses the propensity of various antipsychotics to cause weight gain, the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions available to counteract this effect and its impact on adherence. Most antipsychotics cause weight gain. The risk appears to be highest with olanzapine and clozapine...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855875/therapeutic-potential-of-selectively-targeting-the-%C3%AE-2c-adrenoceptor-in-cognition-depression-and-schizophrenia-new-developments-and-future-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Madeleine Monique Uys, Mohammed Shahid, Brian Herbert Harvey
α2A- and α2C-adrenoceptors (ARs) are the primary α2-AR subtypes involved in central nervous system (CNS) function. These receptors are implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness, particularly those associated with affective, psychotic, and cognitive symptoms. Indeed, non-selective α2-AR blockade is proposed to contribute toward antidepressant (e.g., mirtazapine) and atypical antipsychotic (e.g., clozapine) drug action. Both α2C- and α2A-AR share autoreceptor functions to exert negative feedback control on noradrenaline (NA) release, with α2C-AR heteroreceptors regulating non-noradrenergic transmission (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763213/novel-3-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl-1h-indole-based-multifunctional-ligands-with-antipsychotic-like-mood-modulating-and-procognitive-activity
#9
Adam Bucki, Monika Marcinkowska, Joanna Śniecikowska, Krzysztof Więckowski, Maciej Pawłowski, Monika Głuch-Lutwin, Anna Gryboś, Agata Siwek, Karolina Pytka, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Anna Partyka, Anna Wesołowska, Paweł Mierzejewski, Marcin Kołaczkowski
The most troublesome aspects of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are nowadays addressed by antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic drugs, often administered off-label. Considering their modest effectiveness in dementia patients, the increased risk of adverse events and cognitive decline, there is an unmet need for well-tolerated and effective therapy of BPSD. We designed and synthesized multifunctional ligands characterized in vitro as high-affinity partial agonists of D2R, antagonists of 5-HT6R, and blockers of SERT...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705298/methamphetamine-related-disorders
#10
Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Roland Härtel-Petri, Willem Hamdorf, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Stephan Mühlig, Norbert Wodarz
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine is considered more dangerous than other stimulants because of its acute complications, long-term neurotoxicity, and potential for drug dependence. Until now, there have been no evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders, either in Germany or abroad. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed on the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders. Based on this literature review, a multidisciplinary expert panel developed recommendations using the nominal group technique...
June 30, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686559/-attenuated-psychosis-syndrome-a-new-diagnostic-category-for-further-study-in-dsm-5
#11
G Samiotakis, C Kollias, H Lazaratou, D Anagnostopoulos, V Kontaxakis
In recent years an increasing number of studies focus on the issue of early diagnosis and intervention. At the same time, a large number of special service units for early psychosis have been established around the world especially in Australia, USA, UK, Germany etc. Recently, similar units operate in Greece also. The Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association in its latest edition in 2013 (DSM-5), introduced the category "Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome" (APS) for people with early psychotic experiences in the section: "Conditions for further study '...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634087/treatment-with-levetiracetam-improves-cognition-in-a-ketamine-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#12
Ming Teng Koh, Yi Shao, Sharon Rosenzweig-Lipson, Michela Gallagher
Imbalance in neural excitation and inhibition is associated with behavioral dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia and at risk for this illness. We examined whether targeting increased neural activity with the antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, would benefit memory performance in a preclinical model of schizophrenia that has been shown to exhibit hyperactivity in the hippocampus. Adult rats exposed to ketamine subchronically during late adolescence showed impaired hippocampal-dependent memory performance...
June 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617392/-panic-disorder-clinical-phenomena-and-treatment-options
#13
Yu P Sivolap
Panic disorder is a common mental disease with high psychiatric comorbidity. It is considered that a combination of genetic predisposition and a special psychic vulnerability plays a key role in the occurrence of panic disorder. Clinically proven efficacy in the treatment of panic disorder have benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors; antidepressants from other pharmaceutical groups are also used...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554324/multi-target-directed-ligands-affecting-serotonergic-neurotransmission-for-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy-advances-in-chemical-and-biological-research
#14
Agnieszka Jankowska, Anna Wesołowska, Maciej Pawłowski, Grażyna Chłoń-Rzepa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive cognitive impairments and chronic inflammation that affects over 30 million people all over the world. Most of Alzheimer's patients also suffer from psychosis, aggression, agitation, depression, anxiety, and many other behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Unfortunately, currently available anti-AD drugs provide modest symptomatic relief, and do not reverse the neurodegeneration. Consequently, the average life expectancy after diagnosis is between six to ten years...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474552/new-directions-in-the-use-of-brain-stimulation-interventions-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Laura Cremaschi, Lucio Oldani, Alfredo Carlo Altamura
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling condition with early onset and chronic course in most of the affected patients. In addition, OCD may show high comorbidity and suicide attempt rates, which worsen the overall burden of the disease for patients and their caregivers. First-line treatments for OCD consist of pro-serotonergic compounds and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Nonetheless, many patients show only limited benefit from such interventions and require additional "next-step" interventions, including augmentative antipsychotics and glutamate-modulating agents...
May 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463714/two-stage-integrated-care-versus-antipsychotic-medication-alone-on-outcomes-of-schizophrenia-one-year-randomized-controlled-trial-and-follow-up
#16
Shenglin She, Yongjie Deng, Yuwei Chen, Chao Wu, Wenying Yi, Xiaodan Lu, Xinrui Chen, Juanhua Li, Ruikeng Li, Jie Zhang, Di Xiao, Haibo Wu, Yuping Ning, Yingjun Zheng
Integrated care can reduce rate of relapse and improve personal and social functions in patients with schizophrenia. We established and evaluated a new model of "intensive-consolidation" two-stage integrated care (IC) for inpatients with schizophrenia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2015. Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia (n=170) diagnosed according to DSM-IV were randomly assigned to antipsychotic medication-alone (n=84) or two-stage IC (n=86) and followed up for 12 months. The IC model included intensive treatments (antipsychotics plus the cognitive behavior therapy and rehabilitation treatment) during hospitalization and 3-time consolidation treatments with 3-month intervals at clinics...
April 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436192/predictors-of-non-pharmacological-intervention-effect-on-cognitive-function-and-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-older-people-with-dementia
#17
Ting-Jung Hsu, Hui-Te Tsai, An-Chun Hwang, Liang-Yu Chen, Liang-Kung Chen
AIM: Our previous work showed that non-pharmacological interventions could effectively reduce the severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), while the factors influencing the effect of intervention were less explored. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictors of the non-pharmacological intervention effect for old veterans with dementia and BPSD. METHODS: A total of 141 old veterans with dementia living in two veterans' homes in northern Taiwan were recruited...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429077/-implementation-of-the-german-s3-guidelines-on-dementia-in-clinical-practice-wish-or-reality
#18
H Lohmann, F Kulessa, H Holling, A Johnen, S Reul, G Lueg, T Duning
BACKGROUND: Published in 2009, the German S3 guidelines on dementia define a milestone in quality improvement of the diagnostics and treatment of dementia. In clinical practice patients suffering from dementia are primarily treated by physicians in private practice; therefore, this study examined how the guidelines are implemented in outpatient clinical settings. Furthermore, it aimed at the identification of behavioral determinants that govern the actual diagnostic and therapeutic approach in clinical practice...
April 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424378/-recognition-care-and-prevention-of-suicidal-behaviour-in-adults
#19
Zoltán Rihmer, Attila Németh, Tamás Kurimay, Dóra Perczel-Forintos, György Purebl, Péter Döme
Suicide is a major public health problem everywhere in the world and in the WHO European Region suicide accounts for over 120,000 deaths per year. 1. Recognition and diagnosis: An underlying psychiatric disorder is present in up to 90% of people who completed suicide. Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders is high. In order to achieve successful prevention of suicidality, adequate diagnostic procedures and appropriate treatment for the underlying disorder are essential...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411772/psychocutaneous-disease-pharmacotherapy-and-psychotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Helena Kuhn, Constance Mennella, Michelle Magid, Caroline Stamu-O'Brien, George Kroumpouzos
Building a strong therapeutic alliance with the patient is of utmost importance in the management of psychocutaneous disease. Optimal management of psychocutaneous disease includes both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This article reviews psychotropic medications currently used for psychocutaneous disease, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and anxiolytics, with a discussion of relevant dosing regimens and adverse effects. Pruritus management is addressed. In addition, basic and complex forms of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and habit-reversal training, are described...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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