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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912995/coprophagia-and-entomophagia-in-a-patient-with-alcohol-related-dementia
#1
João B Fonseca, Pedro Morgado
Coprophagia and entomophagia are two phenomena not commonly reported in the medical literature and their occurrence is usually associated with mental disorders. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse who was evaluated due to cognitive deterioration and disturbed eating habits including feces and living insects. Organic causes were ruled out and an important cognitive impairment became evident on neuropsychological formal test. The behavior remitted after antipsychotic pharmacologic therapy and alcohol detoxification, leaving the diagnostic impression of alcohol related dementia...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883731/antipsychotic-associated-weight-gain-management-strategies-and-impact-on-treatment-adherence
#2
REVIEW
Madhubhashinee Dayabandara, Raveen Hanwella, Suhashini Ratnatunga, Sudarshi Seneviratne, Chathurie Suraweera, Varuni A de Silva
Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a major management problem for clinicians. It has been shown that weight gain and obesity lead to increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life and poor drug compliance. This narrative review discusses the propensity of various antipsychotics to cause weight gain, the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions available to counteract this effect and its impact on adherence. Most antipsychotics cause weight gain. The risk appears to be highest with olanzapine and clozapine...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855875/therapeutic-potential-of-selectively-targeting-the-%C3%AE-2c-adrenoceptor-in-cognition-depression-and-schizophrenia-new-developments-and-future-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Madeleine Monique Uys, Mohammed Shahid, Brian Herbert Harvey
α2A- and α2C-adrenoceptors (ARs) are the primary α2-AR subtypes involved in central nervous system (CNS) function. These receptors are implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness, particularly those associated with affective, psychotic, and cognitive symptoms. Indeed, non-selective α2-AR blockade is proposed to contribute toward antidepressant (e.g., mirtazapine) and atypical antipsychotic (e.g., clozapine) drug action. Both α2C- and α2A-AR share autoreceptor functions to exert negative feedback control on noradrenaline (NA) release, with α2C-AR heteroreceptors regulating non-noradrenergic transmission (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763213/novel-3-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl-1h-indole-based-multifunctional-ligands-with-antipsychotic-like-mood-modulating-and-procognitive-activity
#4
Adam Bucki, Monika Marcinkowska, Joanna Śniecikowska, Krzysztof Więckowski, Maciej Pawłowski, Monika Głuch-Lutwin, Anna Gryboś, Agata Siwek, Karolina Pytka, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Anna Partyka, Anna Wesołowska, Paweł Mierzejewski, Marcin Kołaczkowski
The most troublesome aspects of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are nowadays addressed by antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic drugs, often administered off-label. Considering their modest effectiveness in dementia patients, the increased risk of adverse events and cognitive decline, there is an unmet need for well-tolerated and effective therapy of BPSD. We designed and synthesized multifunctional ligands characterized in vitro as high-affinity partial agonists of D2R, antagonists of 5-HT6R, and blockers of SERT...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705298/methamphetamine-related-disorders
#5
Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Roland Härtel-Petri, Willem Hamdorf, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Stephan Mühlig, Norbert Wodarz
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine is considered more dangerous than other stimulants because of its acute complications, long-term neurotoxicity, and potential for drug dependence. Until now, there have been no evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders, either in Germany or abroad. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed on the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders. Based on this literature review, a multidisciplinary expert panel developed recommendations using the nominal group technique...
June 30, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686559/-attenuated-psychosis-syndrome-a-new-diagnostic-category-for-further-study-in-dsm-5
#6
G Samiotakis, C Kollias, H Lazaratou, D Anagnostopoulos, V Kontaxakis
In recent years an increasing number of studies focus on the issue of early diagnosis and intervention. At the same time, a large number of special service units for early psychosis have been established around the world especially in Australia, USA, UK, Germany etc. Recently, similar units operate in Greece also. The Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association in its latest edition in 2013 (DSM-5), introduced the category "Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome" (APS) for people with early psychotic experiences in the section: "Conditions for further study '...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634087/treatment-with-levetiracetam-improves-cognition-in-a-ketamine-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#7
Ming Teng Koh, Yi Shao, Sharon Rosenzweig-Lipson, Michela Gallagher
Imbalance in neural excitation and inhibition is associated with behavioral dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia and at risk for this illness. We examined whether targeting increased neural activity with the antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, would benefit memory performance in a preclinical model of schizophrenia that has been shown to exhibit hyperactivity in the hippocampus. Adult rats exposed to ketamine subchronically during late adolescence showed impaired hippocampal-dependent memory performance...
June 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617392/-panic-disorder-clinical-phenomena-and-treatment-options
#8
Yu P Sivolap
Panic disorder is a common mental disease with high psychiatric comorbidity. It is considered that a combination of genetic predisposition and a special psychic vulnerability plays a key role in the occurrence of panic disorder. Clinically proven efficacy in the treatment of panic disorder have benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors; antidepressants from other pharmaceutical groups are also used...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554324/multi-target-directed-ligands-affecting-serotonergic-neurotransmission-for-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy-advances-in-chemical-and-biological-research
#9
Agnieszka Jankowska, Anna Wesołowska, Maciej Pawłowski, Grażyna Chłoń-Rzepa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive cognitive impairments and chronic inflammation that affects over 30 million people all over the world. Most of Alzheimer's patients also suffer from psychosis, aggression, agitation, depression, anxiety, and many other behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Unfortunately, currently available anti-AD drugs provide modest symptomatic relief, and do not reverse the neurodegeneration. Consequently, the average life expectancy after diagnosis is between six to ten years...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474552/new-directions-in-the-use-of-brain-stimulation-interventions-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Laura Cremaschi, Lucio Oldani, Alfredo Carlo Altamura
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling condition with early onset and chronic course in most of the affected patients. In addition, OCD may show high comorbidity and suicide attempt rates, which worsen the overall burden of the disease for patients and their caregivers. First-line treatments for OCD consist of pro-serotonergic compounds and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Nonetheless, many patients show only limited benefit from such interventions and require additional "next-step" interventions, including augmentative antipsychotics and glutamate-modulating agents...
May 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463714/two-stage-integrated-care-versus-antipsychotic-medication-alone-on-outcomes-of-schizophrenia-one-year-randomized-controlled-trial-and-follow-up
#11
Shenglin She, Yongjie Deng, Yuwei Chen, Chao Wu, Wenying Yi, Xiaodan Lu, Xinrui Chen, Juanhua Li, Ruikeng Li, Jie Zhang, Di Xiao, Haibo Wu, Yuping Ning, Yingjun Zheng
Integrated care can reduce rate of relapse and improve personal and social functions in patients with schizophrenia. We established and evaluated a new model of "intensive-consolidation" two-stage integrated care (IC) for inpatients with schizophrenia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2015. Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia (n=170) diagnosed according to DSM-IV were randomly assigned to antipsychotic medication-alone (n=84) or two-stage IC (n=86) and followed up for 12 months. The IC model included intensive treatments (antipsychotics plus the cognitive behavior therapy and rehabilitation treatment) during hospitalization and 3-time consolidation treatments with 3-month intervals at clinics...
April 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436192/predictors-of-non-pharmacological-intervention-effect-on-cognitive-function-and-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-older-people-with-dementia
#12
Ting-Jung Hsu, Hui-Te Tsai, An-Chun Hwang, Liang-Yu Chen, Liang-Kung Chen
AIM: Our previous work showed that non-pharmacological interventions could effectively reduce the severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), while the factors influencing the effect of intervention were less explored. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictors of the non-pharmacological intervention effect for old veterans with dementia and BPSD. METHODS: A total of 141 old veterans with dementia living in two veterans' homes in northern Taiwan were recruited...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429077/-implementation-of-the-german-s3-guidelines-on-dementia-in-clinical-practice-wish-or-reality
#13
H Lohmann, F Kulessa, H Holling, A Johnen, S Reul, G Lueg, T Duning
BACKGROUND: Published in 2009, the German S3 guidelines on dementia define a milestone in quality improvement of the diagnostics and treatment of dementia. In clinical practice patients suffering from dementia are primarily treated by physicians in private practice; therefore, this study examined how the guidelines are implemented in outpatient clinical settings. Furthermore, it aimed at the identification of behavioral determinants that govern the actual diagnostic and therapeutic approach in clinical practice...
April 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424378/-recognition-care-and-prevention-of-suicidal-behaviour-in-adults
#14
Zoltán Rihmer, Attila Németh, Tamás Kurimay, Dóra Perczel-Forintos, György Purebl, Péter Döme
Suicide is a major public health problem everywhere in the world and in the WHO European Region suicide accounts for over 120,000 deaths per year. 1. Recognition and diagnosis: An underlying psychiatric disorder is present in up to 90% of people who completed suicide. Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders is high. In order to achieve successful prevention of suicidality, adequate diagnostic procedures and appropriate treatment for the underlying disorder are essential...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411772/psychocutaneous-disease-pharmacotherapy-and-psychotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Helena Kuhn, Constance Mennella, Michelle Magid, Caroline Stamu-O'Brien, George Kroumpouzos
Building a strong therapeutic alliance with the patient is of utmost importance in the management of psychocutaneous disease. Optimal management of psychocutaneous disease includes both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This article reviews psychotropic medications currently used for psychocutaneous disease, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and anxiolytics, with a discussion of relevant dosing regimens and adverse effects. Pruritus management is addressed. In addition, basic and complex forms of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and habit-reversal training, are described...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300948/superwellness-program-a-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-based-group-intervention-to-reduce-weight-gain-in-patients-treated-with-antipsychotic-drugs
#16
Laura R Magni, Clarissa Ferrari, Giuseppe Rossi, Elena Staffieri, Aldo Uberti, Dario Lamonaca, Ileana Boggian, Silvia Merlin, Giuseppe Primerano, Alessandra Mombrini, Roberto Poli, Francesco M Saviotti, Maria T Caldera, Luciana Zanotti, Roberta Rossi
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based intervention (Superwellness Program) on weight gain compared with a treatment-as-usual (TAU) approach in patients treated with antipsychotics, and to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) variation and clinical variables. Method: Eighty-five patients treated with antipsychotics were allocated across two groups, experimental (n=59) and control (n=26). The Superwellness Program (experimental group) consisted of 32 twice-weekly 1-hour sessions, conducted by a psychologist and a nutritionist/nurse, concurrently with moderate food intake and moderate physical activity plans...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222513/clinical-effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-of-dementia
#17
Moshe Isserles, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Sanjeev Kumar, Tarek K Rajji, Daniel M Blumberger
BACKGROUND: Dementia frequently presents with aggression, agitation, and disorganized behavior for which current treatment is partially effective and is associated with significant adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the clinical effectiveness and tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a sample of patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia (NPS) and to explore factors associated with response and with cognitive adverse effects...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138119/the-normalization-of-brain-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-hypometabolism-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-a-55-year-old-woman-with-treatment-resistant-late-onset-depression-a-case-report
#18
Jeongjae Bak, Sang Mi Lee, Young-Joon Kwon, Se-Hoon Shim, Joong Il Kim
Major depressive disorder, especially in later life, has heterogeneous clinical characteristics and treatment responses. Symptomatically, psychomotor retardation, lack of energy, and apathy tends to be more common in people with late-onset depression (LOD). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacologic treatments, 20% to 30% of patients with mood disorders experience inadequate responses to medication, often resulting in a trial of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the therapeutic mechanism of ECT is still unclear...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997328/pathological-jealousy-an-interactive-condition
#19
REVIEW
Mary V Seeman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to describe the psychopathology, antecedents, and current management of pathological jealousy from an interpersonal perspective. METHOD: The Google Scholar database was searched with the following terms: delusional jealousy; morbid jealousy; paranoid jealousy; pathological jealousy; Othello syndrome; delusional disorder-jealous type; conjugal paranoia. From a total of 600 articles, 40 were selected based on their currency and pertinence to the interpersonal aspects of jealousy...
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776293/converging-effects-of-diverse-treatment-modalities-on-frontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-review-of-longitudinal-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#20
REVIEW
Ayse Sakalli Kani, Ann K Shinn, Kathryn E Lewandowski, Dost Öngür
OBJECTIVES: A variety of treatment options exist for schizophrenia, but the effects of these treatments on brain function are not clearly understood. To facilitate the development of more effective treatment strategies, it is important to identify how brain function in schizophrenia patients is affected by the diverse therapeutic approaches that are currently available. The aim of the present article is to systematically review the evidence for functional brain changes associated with different treatment modalities for schizophrenia...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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