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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474552/new-directions-in-the-use-of-brain-stimulation-interventions-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Laura Cremaschi, Lucio Oldani, Altamura Alfredo Carlo
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling condition with early onset and chronic course in most of the affected patients. In addition, OCD may show high comorbidity and suicide attempt rates, which worsen the overall burden of the disease for patients and their caregivers. First-line treatments for OCD consist of pro-serotonergic compounds and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Nonetheless, many patients show only limited benefit from such interventions and require additional "next-step" interventions, including augmentative antipsychotics and glutamate-modulating agents...
May 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463714/two-stage-integrated-care-versus-antipsychotic-medication-alone-on-outcomes-of-schizophrenia-one-year-randomized-controlled-trial-and-follow-up
#2
Shenglin She, Yongjie Deng, Yuwei Chen, Chao Wu, Wenying Yi, Xiaodan Lu, Xinrui Chen, Juanhua Li, Ruikeng Li, Jie Zhang, Di Xiao, Haibo Wu, Yuping Ning, Yingjun Zheng
Integrated care can reduce rate of relapse and improve personal and social functions in patients with schizophrenia. We established and evaluated a new model of "intensive-consolidation" two-stage integrated care (IC) for inpatients with schizophrenia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2015. Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia (n=170) diagnosed according to DSM-IV were randomly assigned to antipsychotic medication-alone (n=84) or two-stage IC (n=86) and followed up for 12 months. The IC model included intensive treatments (antipsychotics plus the cognitive behavior therapy and rehabilitation treatment) during hospitalization and 3-time consolidation treatments with 3-month intervals at clinics...
April 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436192/predictors-of-non-pharmacological-intervention-effect-on-cognitive-function-and-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-older-people-with-dementia
#3
Ting-Jung Hsu, Hui-Te Tsai, An-Chun Hwang, Liang-Yu Chen, Liang-Kung Chen
AIM: Our previous work showed that non-pharmacological interventions could effectively reduce the severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), while the factors influencing the effect of intervention were less explored. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictors of the non-pharmacological intervention effect for old veterans with dementia and BPSD. METHODS: A total of 141 old veterans with dementia living in two veterans' homes in northern Taiwan were recruited...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429077/-implementation-of-the-german-s3-guidelines-on-dementia-in-clinical-practice-wish-or-reality
#4
H Lohmann, F Kulessa, H Holling, A Johnen, S Reul, G Lueg, T Duning
BACKGROUND: Published in 2009, the German S3 guidelines on dementia define a milestone in quality improvement of the diagnostics and treatment of dementia. In clinical practice patients suffering from dementia are primarily treated by physicians in private practice; therefore, this study examined how the guidelines are implemented in outpatient clinical settings. Furthermore, it aimed at the identification of behavioral determinants that govern the actual diagnostic and therapeutic approach in clinical practice...
April 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424378/-recognition-care-and-prevention-of-suicidal-behaviour-in-adults
#5
Zoltán Rihmer, Attila Németh, Tamás Kurimay, Dóra Perczel-Forintos, György Purebl, Péter Döme
Suicide is a major public health problem everywhere in the world and in the WHO European Region suicide accounts for over 120,000 deaths per year. 1. Recognition and diagnosis: An underlying psychiatric disorder is present in up to 90% of people who completed suicide. Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders is high. In order to achieve successful prevention of suicidality, adequate diagnostic procedures and appropriate treatment for the underlying disorder are essential...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411772/psychocutaneous-disease-pharmacotherapy-and-psychotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Helena Kuhn, Constance Mennella, Michelle Magid, Caroline Stamu-O'Brien, George Kroumpouzos
Building a strong therapeutic alliance with the patient is of utmost importance in the management of psychocutaneous disease. Optimal management of psychocutaneous disease includes both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This article reviews psychotropic medications currently used for psychocutaneous disease, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and anxiolytics, with a discussion of relevant dosing regimens and adverse effects. Pruritus management is addressed. In addition, basic and complex forms of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and habit-reversal training, are described...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300948/superwellness-program-a-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-based-group-intervention-to-reduce-weight-gain-in-patients-treated-with-antipsychotic-drugs
#7
Laura R Magni, Clarissa Ferrari, Giuseppe Rossi, Elena Staffieri, Aldo Uberti, Dario Lamonaca, Ileana Boggian, Silvia Merlin, Giuseppe Primerano, Alessandra Mombrini, Roberto Poli, Francesco M Saviotti, Maria T Caldera, Luciana Zanotti, Roberta Rossi
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based intervention (Superwellness Program) on weight gain compared with a treatment-as-usual (TAU) approach in patients treated with antipsychotics, and to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) variation and clinical variables. Method: Eighty-five patients treated with antipsychotics were allocated across two groups, experimental (n=59) and control (n=26). The Superwellness Program (experimental group) consisted of 32 twice-weekly 1-hour sessions, conducted by a psychologist and a nutritionist/nurse, concurrently with moderate food intake and moderate physical activity plans...
March 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222513/clinical-effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-of-dementia
#8
Moshe Isserles, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Sanjeev Kumar, Tarek K Rajji, Daniel M Blumberger
BACKGROUND: Dementia frequently presents with aggression, agitation, and disorganized behavior for which current treatment is partially effective and is associated with significant adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the clinical effectiveness and tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a sample of patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia (NPS) and to explore factors associated with response and with cognitive adverse effects...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138119/the-normalization-of-brain-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-hypometabolism-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-a-55-year-old-woman-with-treatment-resistant-late-onset-depression-a-case-report
#9
Jeongjae Bak, Sang Mi Lee, Young-Joon Kwon, Se-Hoon Shim, Joong Il Kim
Major depressive disorder, especially in later life, has heterogeneous clinical characteristics and treatment responses. Symptomatically, psychomotor retardation, lack of energy, and apathy tends to be more common in people with late-onset depression (LOD). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacologic treatments, 20% to 30% of patients with mood disorders experience inadequate responses to medication, often resulting in a trial of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the therapeutic mechanism of ECT is still unclear...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997328/pathological-jealousy-an-interactive-condition
#10
Mary V Seeman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to describe the psychopathology, antecedents, and current management of pathological jealousy from an interpersonal perspective. METHOD: The Google Scholar database was searched with the following terms: delusional jealousy; morbid jealousy; paranoid jealousy; pathological jealousy; Othello syndrome; delusional disorder-jealous type; conjugal paranoia. From a total of 600 articles, 40 were selected based on their currency and pertinence to the interpersonal aspects of jealousy...
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776293/converging-effects-of-diverse-treatment-modalities-on-frontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-review-of-longitudinal-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#11
REVIEW
Ayse Sakalli Kani, Ann K Shinn, Kathryn E Lewandowski, Dost Öngür
OBJECTIVES: A variety of treatment options exist for schizophrenia, but the effects of these treatments on brain function are not clearly understood. To facilitate the development of more effective treatment strategies, it is important to identify how brain function in schizophrenia patients is affected by the diverse therapeutic approaches that are currently available. The aim of the present article is to systematically review the evidence for functional brain changes associated with different treatment modalities for schizophrenia...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751669/review-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-sleep-medicines-in-older-adults
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
November 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663802/an-update-on-meta-analysis-of-medical-and-non-medicaltreatments-of-the-prodromal-phase-of-psychotic-illness-in-at-risk-mental-states
#13
Gavin Deas, Christopher Kelly, Andreas V Hadjinicolaou, Clare Holt, Mark Agius, Rashid Zaman
INTRODUCTION: There are now many existing studies which assess the treatments available for 'at risk mental states', as patients who are believed to be in the prodromal phase of psychotic illness are referred to. However, concerns regarding side effects of possible treatments remain. We here conduct a meta-analysis of the studies available up to July 2016. The aim of this study is to decide what would be the best treatment for 'at high risk patients'. RESULTS: 18 studies were selected for inclusion; 12 showed significance, 5 did not and one tended towards significance...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630144/positive-allosteric-modulation-of-the-muscarinic-m1-receptor-improves-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-in-mouse-glutamatergic-deficit-models-of-behavior
#14
Kwok H C Choy, David M Shackleford, Daniel T Malone, Shailesh N Mistry, Rahul T Patil, Peter J Scammells, Christopher J Langmead, Christos Pantelis, Patrick M Sexton, Johnathan R Lane, Arthur Christopoulos
Current antipsychotics are effective in treating the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia, but they remain suboptimal in targeting cognitive dysfunction. Recent studies have suggested that positive allosteric modulation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) may provide a novel means of improving cognition. However, very little is known about the potential of combination therapies in extending coverage across schizophrenic symptom domains. This study investigated the effect of the M1 mAChR positive allosteric modulator BQCA [1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid], alone or in combination with haloperidol (a first-generation antipsychotic), clozapine (a second-generation atypical antipsychotic), or aripiprazole (a third-generation atypical antipsychotic), in reversing deficits in sensorimotor gating and spatial memory induced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine]...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548592/behavioral-disorders-in-dementia-appropriate-nondrug-interventions-and-antipsychotic-use
#15
REVIEW
Tyler R Reese, Derrick J Thiel, Katherine E Cocker
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia pose management challenges for caregivers and clinicians. Firstline nonpharmacologic treatments include eliminating physical and emotional stressors, modifying the patient's environment, and establishing daily routines. Family members and caregivers benefit from education about dementia symptoms and reminders that the behaviors are normal and unintentional. Cognitive and emotion-oriented interventions, sensory stimulation interventions, behavior management techniques, and other psychosocial interventions are modestly effective...
August 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514778/implementation-of-a-clinical-practice-guideline-for-schizophrenia-in-a-specialist-mental-health-center-an-observational-study
#16
Ilan Fischler, Sanaz Riahi, Melanie I Stuckey, Philip E Klassen
BACKGROUND: In mental health settings, implementation of and adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is low. Strategies are needed to overcome barriers and facilitate successful implementation of CPGs into standard care. The goals of this study were to develop a framework for the implementation of a CPG for schizophrenia for hospitalized service users in a mental health care facility, and to monitor adherence to the guideline. METHODS: An eight-step framework was developed based on project management principles: 1) the Appraisal Guideline for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) tool was used to rate and select a CPG; 2) an algorithm was created from the guideline; 3) a gap analysis identified clinical services and processes not conforming with the CPG recommendations; 4) a governance structure was created; 5) a modified Delphi process determined key outcome and process adherence metrics; 6) a project charter was developed; 7) clinical informatics ensured that systems and tools were in place to support the CPG; and 8) therapeutic services were realigned to match the requirements of the CPG within specified fiscal constraints...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470381/celecoxib-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-alone-and-in-combination-with-risperidone-affect-the-behavior-and-brain-biochemistry-in-amphetamine-induced-model-of-schizophrenia
#17
Alaa El-Sayed El-Sisi, Samia Salem Sokkar, Magda El-Sayed El-Sayad, Ehab Sayed Ramadan, Enass Yossef Osman
The implications of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have been elucidated. Despite their effectiveness against positive symptoms of schizophrenia, antipsychotics have limited effectiveness against negative and cognitive symptoms and are associated with remarkable adverse effects. The use of celecoxib or omega-3 in schizophrenia may have beneficial effects. This study aimed to evaluate the possible efficacies of celecoxib, omega-3 or the combination of celecoxib+risperidone and omega-3+ risperidone compared to risperidone on the behavior and brain biochemistry in rats...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355332/melatonin-based-therapies-for-delirium-and-dementia
#18
Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan
Melatonin levels have been shown to decline with aging. Melatonin and its analogs in addition to their effect on sleep promotion, has been shown to have multiple pleiotropic effects. It can also help with neuroprotection through different mechanisms. Evidence in animal and human studies suggests that low levels of melatonin have been linked to delirium, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and with certain behavioral problems. Recent clinical trials have showed that both melatonin and its analogs may be useful in the prevention, treatment of delirium, and the management of dementia...
May 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293137/treatment-of-negative-symptoms-where-do-we-stand-and-where-do-we-go
#19
REVIEW
André Aleman, Tania M Lincoln, Richard Bruggeman, Ingrid Melle, Johan Arends, Celso Arango, Henderikus Knegtering
Negative symptoms, e.g. social withdrawal, reduced initiative, anhedonia and affective flattening, are notoriously difficult to treat. In this review, we take stock of recent research into treatment of negative symptoms by summarizing psychosocial as well as pharmacological and other biological treatment strategies. Major psychosocial approaches concern social skills training, cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis, cognitive remediation and family intervention. Some positive findings have been reported, with the most robust improvements observed for social skills training...
June 9, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197125/-a-review-and-recommendations-of-evidence-based-treatments-for-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Bertrand Lauth, Urður Njardvik, Tord Ivarsson
UNLABELLED: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions. In this review we depict evidence-based treatments for pediatric OCD patients. We searched PubMed for relevant publications including randomized controlled trials, reviews, and expert guidelines. Substantial evidence for cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) among treatment-naïve patients shows that both treatments are effective...
April 2016: Læknablađiđ
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