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Chloride cotransporter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891704/isoflavone-genistein-inhibits-estrogen-induced-chloride-and-bicarbonate-secretory-mechanisms-in-the-uterus-in-rats
#1
Asma Chinigarzadeh, Kamarulzaman Karim, Sekaran Muniandy, Naguib Salleh
We hypothesized that genistein could affect the chloride (Cl(-) ) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-) ) secretory mechanisms in uterus. Ovariectomized female rats were given estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Following completion of the treatment, uterine fluid Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations were determined by in vivo uterine perfusion. Uteri were subjected for molecular biological analysis (Western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry) to detect levels of expression of Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Cl(-) /HCO3(-) exchanger (SLC26a6), Na(+) /HCO3(-) cotransporter (SLC4a4), and estrogen receptor (ER)-α and β...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861335/response-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-to-volume-interventions-in-arterial-hypertension-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#2
Jelmer K Humalda, Sarah Seiler-Muler, Arjan J Kwakernaak, Marc G Vervloet, Gerjan Navis, Danilo Fliser, Gunnar H Heine, Martin H de Borst
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) rises progressively in chronic kidney disease and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. FGF-23 putatively induces volume retention by upregulating the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). We studied whether, conversely, interventions in volume status affect FGF-23 concentrations.We performed a post hoc analysis of 1) a prospective saline infusion study with 12 patients with arterial hypertension who received 2 L of isotonic saline over 4 hours, and 2) a randomized controlled trial with 45 diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients on background angiotensin-converting enzyme -inhibition (ACEi), who underwent 4 6-week treatment periods with add-on hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) or placebo, combined with regular sodium (RS) or low sodium (LS) diet in a cross-over design...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859594/glutamate-transporter-associated-anion-channels-adjust-intracellular-chloride-concentrations-during-glial-maturation
#3
Verena Untiet, Peter Kovermann, Niklas J Gerkau, Thomas Gensch, Christine R Rose, Christoph Fahlke
Astrocytic volume regulation and neurotransmitter uptake are critically dependent on the intracellular anion concentration, but little is known about the mechanisms controlling internal anion homeostasis in these cells. Here we used fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with the chloride-sensitive dye MQAE to measure intracellular chloride concentrations in murine Bergmann glial cells in acute cerebellar slices. We found Bergmann glial [Cl(-) ]int to be controlled by two opposing transport processes: chloride is actively accumulated by the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1, and chloride efflux through anion channels associated with excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) reduces [Cl(-) ]int to values that vary upon changes in expression levels or activity of these channels...
November 18, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852771/reduced-efficacy-of-the-kcc2-cotransporter-promotes-epileptic-oscillations-in-a-subiculum-network-model
#4
Anatoly Buchin, Anton Chizhov, Gilles Huberfeld, Richard Miles, Boris S Gutkin
: Pharmacoresistant epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition in which a basal brain hyperexcitability results in paroxysmal hypersynchronous neuronal discharges. Human temporal lobe epilepsy has been associated with dysfunction or loss of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in a subset of pyramidal cells in the subiculum, a key structure generating epileptic activities. KCC2 regulates intraneuronal chloride and extracellular potassium levels by extruding both ions. Absence of effective KCC2 may alter the dynamics of chloride and potassium levels during repeated activation of GABAergic synapses due to interneuron activity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803317/jointly-reduced-inhibition-and-excitation-underlies-circuit-wide-changes-in-cortical-processing-in-rett-syndrome
#5
Abhishek Banerjee, Rajeev V Rikhye, Vincent Breton-Provencher, Xin Tang, Chenchen Li, Keji Li, Caroline A Runyan, Zhanyan Fu, Rudolf Jaenisch, Mriganka Sur
Rett syndrome (RTT) arises from loss-of-function mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene (Mecp2), but fundamental aspects of its physiological mechanisms are unresolved. Here, by whole-cell recording of synaptic responses in MeCP2 mutant mice in vivo, we show that visually driven excitatory and inhibitory conductances are both reduced in cortical pyramidal neurons. The excitation-to-inhibition (E/I) ratio is increased in amplitude and prolonged in time course. These changes predict circuit-wide reductions in response reliability and selectivity of pyramidal neurons to visual stimuli, as confirmed by two-photon imaging...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789743/channel-transporter-complexes-an-emerging-theme-in-cell-signaling
#6
Geoffrey W Abbott
In a recent edition of Biochemical Journal, Mistry and colleagues described the discovery of a novel protein complex, formed from the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) [Biochem. J. (2016) Hoover, S.R]. The importance of these two proteins in the regulation of salt balance and blood pressure has long been known, as has their overlapping expression in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. The new study by Mistry et al. now demonstrates their physical interaction in the kidney and when heterologously co-expressed...
November 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784676/a-role-for-sodium-chloride-cotransporters-in-the-rapid-regulation-of-ion-uptake-following-acute-environmental-acidosis-new-insights-from-the-zebrafish-model
#7
Raymond W M Kwong, Steve F Perry
The effects of acute exposure to acidic water on Na(+) and Cl(-) homeostasis, and the mechanisms underlying their compensatory regulation, were investigated in the larval zebrafish Danio rerio Exposure to acidic water (pH 4.0; control pH 7.6) for 2 h significantly reduced Na(+) uptake and whole body Na(+) content. Nevertheless, the capacity for Na(+) uptake was substantially increased in fish preexposed to acidic water but measured in control water. Based on the accumulation of the Na(+)-selective dye, Sodium Green, two ionocyte subtypes exhibited intracellular Na(+) enrichment after preexposure to acidic water: H(+)-ATPase rich (HR) cells, which coexpress the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3b (NHE3b), and a non-HR cell population...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783647/bumetanide-an-inhibitor-of-nkcc1-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-isoform-1-enhances-propofol-induced-loss-of-righting-reflex-but-not-its-immobilizing-actions-in-neonatal-rats
#8
Yukihide Koyama, Tomio Andoh, Yoshinori Kamiya, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Koichi Maruyama, Takayuki Kariya, Takahisa Goto
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to induce excitation on immature neurons due to increased expression of Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter isoform 1 (NKCC1), and the transition of GABAergic signaling from excitatory to inhibitory occurs before birth in the rat spinal cord and spreads rostrally according to the developmental changes in cation-chloride co-transporter expression. We previously showed that midazolam activates the hippocampal CA3 area and induces less sedation in neonatal rats compared with adolescent rats in an NKCC1-dependent manner...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754276/ed-09-1-renal-sodium-handling-and-salt-sensitivity
#9
Richard Wainford
This lecture will provide a background on the physiology of renal sodium handling and its importance in long term blood pressure regualtion. A brief overview of the classical Guytonion Pressure-Natriuresis Hypothesis of blood pressure control will be provided. The global impact of dietary salt intake on hypertension incidence and cardiovasular health will be discussed. Addtionally, recent insights into the mechanisitc regualtion of renal sodium handling during health and the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension - including a focus on the regulation of the sodium chloride cotransport will be provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753931/os-05-06-in-primary-aldosteronism-mineralocorticoids-and-potassium-influence-abundance-of-the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-cotransporter
#10
Wolley Mj, Wu A, Xu S, Gordon Rd, Fenton Ra, Stowasser M
BACKGROUND: Distal tubular sodium retention is a potent driver of hypertension, with the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) a key player. The upstream modulators of NCC are unclear, but recent evidence has revealed the kinases 'with-no-lysine kinase 4' (WNK4) and 'STE20/SPS1-related, proline alanine-rich kinase' (SPAK) to be involved. The wider role of mineralocorticoids is poorly understood, but animal models implicate aldosterone as a potent regulator, possibly via effects on plasma potassium...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753890/ish-nia-os-05-interleukin-6-transactivation-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#11
Brandi Wynne, Trinity Kronk, Otor Al-Khalili, Benjamin Ko, Franziska Theilig, Douglas Eaton, Robert Hoover
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is characterized by increased sodium reabsorption along the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and systemic inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a possible mediator, signaling via the transmembrane IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα); however, whether IL-6Rα is present in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is unknown. Increased sodium reabsorption is not always correlated with increased aldosterone (Aldo). Thus, understanding how Aldo-independent sodium reabsorption occurs is critical...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748541/a-novel-variant-in-the-slc12a1-gene-in-two-families-with-antenatal-bartter-syndrome
#12
Anders Breinbjerg, Charlotte Siggaard Rittig, Niels Gregersen, Søren Rittig, Jane Hvarregaard Christensen
AIM: Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disease in which patients present with hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis. We present two apparently non-related cases with antenatal Bartter syndrome type I, due to a novel variant in the SLC12A1 gene encoding the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-(potassium)-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. METHODS: Blood samples were received from the two cases and 19 of their relatives and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted...
October 17, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742704/na-k-cl-cotransporter-nkcc-maintains-the-chloride-gradient-to-sustain-pacemaker-activity-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#13
Mei Hong Zhu, Tae Sik Sung, Masaaki Kurahashi, Lauren E O'Kane, Kate O'Driscoll, Sang Don Koh, Kenton M Sanders
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) generate electrical slow waves by coordinated openings of ANO1 channels, a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (CaCC) conductance. Efflux of Cl(-) during slow waves must be significant, as there is high current density during slow-wave currents and slow waves are of sufficient magnitude to depolarize the syncytium of smooth muscle cells and PDGFRα(+) cells to which they are electrically coupled. We investigated how the driving force for Cl(-) current is maintained in ICC. We found robust expression of Slc12a2 (which encodes an Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, NKCC1) and immunohistochemical confirmation that NKCC1 is expressed in ICC...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688312/pulsed-radiofrequency-attenuates-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-epigenetic-suppression-of-potassium-chloride-cotransporter-2-expression
#14
Chia-Kai Liu, Wen-Tzu Liao, Yu-Chi Chu, Chien-Hui Yang, Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Hsien Wu, Chung-Ren Lin
BACKGROUND:  Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment offers pain relief for patients suffering from chronic pain who do not respond well to conventional treatments. We tested whether PRF treatment attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. Epigenetic modification of potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) gene expression was examined to elucidate the potential contributing mechanism. METHODS:  Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with CFA into the plantar surface of the left hind paw to induce inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681558/vasopressin-lowers-renal-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-levels-by-activating-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase
#15
Christin Boldt, Tom Röschel, Nina Himmerkus, Allein Plain, Markus Bleich, Robert Labes, Maximilian Blum, Hans Krause, Ahmed Magheli, Torsten Giesecke, Kerim Mutig, Michael Rothe, Steven M Weldon, Duska Dragun, Wolf-Hagen Schunck, Sebastian Bachmann, Alexander Paliege
Activation of the thick ascending limb (TAL) Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) by the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is an essential mechanism of renal urine concentration and contributes to extracellular fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. AVP effects in the kidney are modulated by locally and/or by systemically produced epoxyeicosatrienoic acid derivates (EET). The relation between AVP and EET metabolism has not been determined. Here, we show that chronic treatment of AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats with the AVP V2 receptor analog desmopressin (dDAVP; 5 ng/h, 3 days) significantly lowered renal EET levels (-56 ± 3% for 5,6-EET, -50 ± 3...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643324/os-05-06-in-primary-aldosteronism-mineralocorticoids-and-potassium-influence-abundance-of-the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-cotransporter
#16
Wolley Mj, Wu A, Xu S, Gordon Rd, Fenton Ra, Stowasser M
BACKGROUND: Distal tubular sodium retention is a potent driver of hypertension, with the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) a key player. The upstream modulators of NCC are unclear, but recent evidence has revealed the kinases 'with-no-lysine kinase 4' (WNK4) and 'STE20/SPS1-related, proline alanine-rich kinase' (SPAK) to be involved. The wider role of mineralocorticoids is poorly understood, but animal models implicate aldosterone as a potent regulator, possibly via effects on plasma potassium...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643273/ed-09-1-renal-sodium-handling-and-salt-sensitivity
#17
Richard Wainford
This lecture will provide a background on the physiology of renal sodium handling and its importance in long term blood pressure regualtion. A brief overview of the classical Guytonion Pressure-Natriuresis Hypothesis of blood pressure control will be provided. The global impact of dietary salt intake on hypertension incidence and cardiovasular health will be discussed. Addtionally, recent insights into the mechanisitc regualtion of renal sodium handling during health and the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension - including a focus on the regulation of the sodium chloride cotransport will be provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643236/ish-nia-os-05-interleukin-6-transactivation-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#18
Brandi Wynne, Trinity Kronk, Otor Al-Khalili, Benjamin Ko, Franziska Theilig, Douglas Eaton, Robert Hoover
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is characterized by increased sodium reabsorption along the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and systemic inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a possible mediator, signaling via the transmembrane IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα); however, whether IL-6Rα is present in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is unknown. Increased sodium reabsorption is not always correlated with increased aldosterone (Aldo). Thus, understanding how Aldo-independent sodium reabsorption occurs is critical...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641671/intracellular-chloride-ion-concentration-in-differentiating-neuronal-cell-and-its-role-in-growing-neurite
#19
Ken-Ichi Nakajima, Yoshinori Marunaka
Chloride ion (Cl(-)) is one of the most abundant anions in our body. Increasing evidence suggests that Cl(-) plays fundamental roles in various cellular functions. We have previously reported that electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters, such as Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (KCC1), are involved in neurite outgrowth during neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we studied if there is correlation between intracellular Cl(-) concentrations ([Cl(-)]i) and the length of growing neurites...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638207/high-fat-diet-modifies-the-ppar-%C3%AE-pathway-leading-to-disruption-of-microbial-and-physiological-ecosystem-in-murine-small-intestine
#20
Julie Tomas, Céline Mulet, Azadeh Saffarian, Jean-Baptiste Cavin, Robert Ducroc, Béatrice Regnault, Chek Kun Tan, Kalina Duszka, Rémy Burcelin, Walter Wahli, Philippe J Sansonetti, Thierry Pédron
Diet is among the most important factors contributing to intestinal homeostasis, and basic functions performed by the small intestine need to be tightly preserved to maintain health. Little is known about the direct impact of high-fat (HF) diet on small-intestinal mucosal defenses and spatial distribution of the microbiota during the early phase of its administration. We observed that only 30 d after HF diet initiation, the intervillous zone of the ileum-which is usually described as free of bacteria-became occupied by a dense microbiota...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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