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Sodium cotransporter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339773/effects-of-sodium-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-and-parathyroid-hormone-fragment-on-inorganic-p-absorption-and-type-iib-sodium-phosphate-cotransporter-expression-in-ligated-duodenal-loops-of-broilers
#1
X D Liao, H Q Suo, L Lu, Y X Hu, L Y Zhang, X G Luo
Three experiments were conducted with 22-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers to study the effects of Na+, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] and parathyroid hormone fragment [PTH (1-34)] on inorganic P absorption and Type IIb sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaP-IIb) mRNA and protein expression levels in ligated duodenal loops. The duodenal loops were perfused with solutions (pH = 6) containing zero, 50, or 150 mmol/L of Na+ as NaCl in Exp. 1, containing zero, 30, or 300 pmol/L of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in Exp. 2, or containing zero, 65, or 650 pmol/L of PTH (1-34) in Exp...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332871/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition-promise-of-a-dynamic-duo
#2
Ildiko Lingvay
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews evidence supporting sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor combination therapy for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature focusing on single-pill or fixed-dose combinations of SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors available in the United States. RESULTS: SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors have complementary mechanisms of action that address several of the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities present in T2DM without overlapping toxicities...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325783/renal-handling-of-ketones-in-response-to-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibition-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Ele Ferrannini, Simona Baldi, Silvia Frascerra, Brenno Astiarraga, Elisabetta Barsotti, Aldo Clerico, Elza Muscelli
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacologically induced glycosuria elicits adaptive responses in glucose homeostasis and hormone release, including decrements in plasma glucose and insulin levels, increments in glucagon release, enhanced lipolysis, and stimulation of ketogenesis, resulting in an increase in ketonemia. We aimed at assessing the renal response to these changes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured fasting and postmeal urinary excretion of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), lactate, and sodium in 66 previously reported patients with type 2 diabetes and preserved renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL · min(-1) · 1...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324025/clinical-and-genetic-features-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-renal-glycosuria
#4
Siqian Gong, Jiandong Guo, Xueyao Han, Meng Li, Lingli Zhou, Xiaoling Cai, Yu Zhu, Yingying Luo, Simin Zhang, Xianghai Zhou, Yumin Ma, Linong Ji
Context: A sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, which increases urinary glucose excretion, was recently reported to decrease blood glucose levels and deaths among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and established cardiovascular disease. Mutations in SLC5A2 and HNF1A are associated with renal glycosuria, but their contributions to renal glycosuria in patients with T2DM are not well understood. Objective: To assess the clinical features of T2DM patients with renal glycosuria and those with low urinary glucose excretion (LUGE) and identify variants in the coding regions of SLC5A2 and HNF1A in patients with renal glycosuria and T2DM...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322073/sglt2-inhibitor-dpp-4-inhibitor-combination-therapy-complementary-mechanisms-of-action-for-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Jayant Dey
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with multiple underlying pathophysiologic defects. Monotherapy alone cannot maintain glycemic control and leads to treatment failure. Ideally, a combination of glucose-lowering agents should have complementary mechanisms of action that address multiple pathophysiologic pathways, can be used at all stages of the disease, and be generally well tolerated with no increased risk of hypoglycemia, cardiovascular events, or weight gain. The combination should also provide conveniences for patients, such as oral dosing, single-pill formulations, and once-daily administration, potentially translating to improved adherence...
March 21, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320010/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-improves-complications-of-lipodystrophy-a-case-report
#6
Yohei Kawana, Junta Imai, Shojiro Sawada, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306656/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-expanding-oral-treatment-options-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303514/euglycemic-ketosis-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-on-sglt2-inhibitor-therapy-an-emerging-problem-and-solutions-offered-by-diabetes-technology
#8
A Pfützner, D Klonoff, L Heinemann, N Ejskjaer, J Pickup
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an infrequent but life-threatening acute complication of diabetes, affecting predominantly patients with type 1 diabetes, children, and pregnant women, where ketosis is usually associated with marked hyperglycemia. Recently, an increasing number of cases have been reported of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor treatment in routine practice. There is a minor, but not negligible diabetic ketoacidosis risk associated with this drug class, which was not seen in randomized clinical trials...
March 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302903/differential-effects-of-dapagliflozin-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-at-varying-degrees-of-renal-function
#9
Sergei Petrykiv, C David Sjöström, Peter J Greasley, John Xu, Frederik Persson, Hiddo J L Heerspink
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with dapagliflozin decreases hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body weight, BP, and albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio). Dapagliflozin also modestly increases hematocrit, likely related to osmotic diuresis/natriuresis. Prior studies suggest that the HbA1c-lowering effects of dapagliflozin attenuate at lower eGFR. However, effects on other cardiovascular risk factors at different eGFR levels are incompletely understood...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302211/-sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-deficiency-manifesting-as-cholestatic-jaundice-in-early-infancy-a-complicated-case-study
#10
Yuan-Zong Song, Mei Deng
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) deficiency is caused by SLC10A1 mutations impairing the NTCP function to uptake plasma bile salts into the hepatocyte. Thus far, patients with NTCP deficiency were rarely reported. The patient in this paper was a 5-month-19-day male infant with the complaint of jaundiced skin and sclera for 5.5 months as well as abnormal liver function revealed over 4 months. His jaundice was noticed on the second day after birth, and remained visible till his age of 1 month and 13 days, when a liver function test unveiled markedly elevated total, direct and indirect bilirubin as well as total bile acids (TBA)...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292575/the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-what-to-expect-from-new-oral-hypoglycemic-agents
#11
REVIEW
Luca Di Lullo, Michela Mangano, Claudio Ronco, Vincenzo Barbera, Antonio De Pascalis, Antonio Bellasi, Domenico Russo, Biagio Di Iorio, Mario Cozzolino
Worldwide, an estimated 200 million people have chronic kidney disease (CKD), whose most common causes include hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. About 40% of patients with diabetes develop CKD and intensive blood glucose control through pharmacological intervention can delay CKD progression. Standard therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus include metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, and insulin. While these drugs have an important role in the management of type 2 diabetes, only the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone can be used across the spectrum of CKD (stages 2-5) and without dose adjustment...
March 6, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291655/the-cardiovascular-safety-trials-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-glp-1-agonists-and-sglt2-inhibitors
#12
REVIEW
Matthew H Secrest, Jacob A Udell, Kristian B Filion
In this paper, we review the results of large, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trials mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration to examine the cardiovascular safety of newly-approved antihyperglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes. The cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors remain controversial: while these drugs did not reduce or increase the risk of primary, pre-specified composite cardiovascular outcomes, one DPP-4 inhibitor (saxagliptin) increased the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in the overall population; another (alogliptin) demonstrated inconsistent effects on heart failure hospitalization across subgroups of patients, and a third (sitagliptin) demonstrated no effect on heart failure...
April 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289184/renal-tubular-ubiquitin-protein-ligase-nedd4-2-is-required-for-renal-adaptation-during-long-term-potassium-depletion
#13
Lama Al-Qusairi, Denis Basquin, Ankita Roy, Renuga Devi Rajaram, Marc P Maillard, Arohan R Subramanya, Olivier Staub
Adaptation of the organism to potassium (K(+)) deficiency requires precise coordination among organs involved in K(+) homeostasis, including muscle, liver, and kidney. How the latter performs functional and molecular changes to ensure K(+) retention is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-2, which negatively regulates the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), and with no-lysine-kinase 1 (WNK1). After dietary K(+) restriction for 2 weeks, compared with control littermates, inducible renal tubular NEDD4-2 knockout (Nedd4L(Pax8/LC1) ) mice exhibited severe hypokalemia and urinary K(+) wasting...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284707/efficacy-and-safety-of-dapagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-concomitant-heart-failure
#14
Mikhail Kosiborod, Ingrid Gause-Nilsson, John Xu, Christian Sonesson, Eva Johnsson
AIM: We investigated the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF). METHODS: Data for patients randomized to dapagliflozin 10mg or placebo with a history of HF were pooled from five clinical trials. HbA1c, weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP; two studies) were examined up to 52weeks using longitudinal repeated-measures models. Composite cardiovascular outcomes, hospitalizations for HF (HHF), and adverse events (AEs) were also assessed...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277831/dapagliflozin-potential-beneficial-effects-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-renal-and-cardiovascular-complications-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Paola Fioretto, Angelo Avogaro
Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, a significant contributor to cardiovascular (CV) disease, responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Strategies to slow or prevent the onset and progression of diabetic kidney disease are critical for effectively managing T2DM and reducing CV risk. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective antidiabetic agents, which may provide nephroprotective and CV protective effects...
March 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276972/pharmacotherapy-of-treatment-resistant-type-2-diabetes
#16
André J Scheen
Despite type 2 diabetes (T2D) management offers a variety of pharmacological interventions targeting different defects, numerous patients remain with persistent hyperglycaemia responsible for severe complications. Unlike resistant hypertension, treatment resistant T2D is not a classical concept although it is a rather common observation in clinical practice. Areas covered: This article proposes a definition for 'treatment resistant diabetes', analyses the causes of poor glucose control despite standard therapy, briefly considers the alternative approaches to glucose-lowering pharmacotherapy and finally describes how to overcome poor glycaemic control, using innovative oral or injectable combination therapies...
March 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274929/hydrochlorothiazide-treatment-increases-the-abundance-of-the-nacl-cotransporter-in-urinary-extracellular-vesicles-of-essential-hypertensive-patients
#17
Ganesh Pathare, Omar A Z Tutakhel, Mark C V D Wel, Luke M Shelton, Jaap Deinum, Jacques W Lenders, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels
The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC), located apically in distal convoluted tubule epithelia, regulates the fine-tuning of renal sodium excretion. Three isoforms of NCC are generated through alternative splicing of the transcript, of which the third isoform has been the most extensively investigated in pathophysiological conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different anti-hypertensive treatments on the abundance and phosphorylation of all three NCC isoforms in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) of essential hypertensive patients...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272190/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-expanding-oral-treatment-options-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Emily Ashjian, Jeffrey Tingen
The number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to increase in the United States. Glycemic control among patients with diabetes is important to prevent future complications, including microvascular and macrovascular disease. A novel class of medications, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, presents an additional oral treatment option for patients with T2DM.
April 16, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270062/antidiabetic-drugs-and-the-kidney
#19
Moses Elisaf, Eleftheria Tzavela, Nikolaos Karanatsis, Vasilis Tsimichodimos
OBJECTIVE: Nephropathy is among the most common and most devastating complications of diabetes mellitus. Recent data suggest that there is a multifaceted interaction between the kidney and antidiabetic drugs. Thus, the deterioration of renal function may result in important changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of glucose-lowering compounds. Additionally, drugs that exert their antidiabetic properties through the inhibition of proximal glucose reabsorption are now available whereas accumulating evidence suggests that some of these drugs may exert renoprotective properties that are independent of their effect on carbohydrate metabolism...
March 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262472/the-role-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Oren Steen, Ronald M Goldenberg
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGTL2) inhibitors are a novel class of antihyperglycemic agents that work in an insulin-independent manner by promoting urinary glucose excretion. In addition to efficacious glucose lowering, they exert beneficial effects on blood pressure and weight while avoiding hypoglycemia unless combined with insulin or insulin secretagogues. This review explores the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, their effects on glycated hemoglobin, weight, blood pressure and hypoglycemia, potential adverse effects, renal considerations and cardiovascular outcomes...
March 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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