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antibiótics stewardship

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089415/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-the-federal-bureau-of-prisons-approaches-from-the-national-and-local-levels
#1
Michael J Long, Brian N LaPlant, Justin C McCormick
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of national and local antimicrobial stewardship measures on overall antibiotic prescribing in the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). SETTING: Care was delivered to more than 160,000 inmates in 122 BOP facilities in the United States and Puerto Rico. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: Medical centers and health services clinics staffed by in-house medical staff, consultants, and specialists. Staffs include a variety of disciplines, including physicians, pharmacists, dentists, nurses, infection control personnel, therapists, health services administrators, and institution executive staff...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088587/late-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-arab-states-in-the-gulf-region-two-year-prospective-study
#2
Majeda S Hammoud, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Sameer Y Al-Abdi, Hussain Bozaid, Anwar Khan, Laila M AlMuhairi, Moghis Ur Rehman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of Late-Onset Sepsis (LOS) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Arab states in the gulf region and describe the main causative organisms and their antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Observational prospective cohort study was conducted over two-year period in five NICUs in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. LOS was defined as the growth of a single potentially pathogenic organism from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in infants >3days of age with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with infection...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079629/duration-of-pneumonia-therapy-and-the-role-of-biomarkers
#3
Katerina Kaziani, Adamantia Sotiriou, George Dimopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide phenomenon that is threatening public health. Lower respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity that contribute to antibiotic consumption and thus the emergence of multidrug-resistant microbial strains. The goal of shortening antibiotic regimens' duration in common bacterial infections has been prioritized by antimicrobial stewardship programs as an action against this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Data coming from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews support the shortening of antimicrobial regimens in community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077673/outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-opat-in-asia-missing-an-opportunity
#4
Dale Fisher, Jessica Michaels, Ryota Hase, Jing Zhang, Sushila Kataria, Benedict Sim, Joseph Kay-Yan Tsang, James Pollard, Monica Chan, Subramanian Swaminathan
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare facilities internationally have grown outpatient parenteral antibiotic administration services for the last few decades. The literature contains publications from dozens of countries describing systematized processes with specialist oversight and their levels of service provision and outcomes. Such descriptions are absent in the majority of Asian countries. We sought to elucidate the extent and nature of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in Asia and to consider the ramifications and opportunities for improvement METHODS: Utilizing colleagues and their personal networks, we surveyed healthcare facilities across 17 countries in Asia to ascertain the current means (if any) of providing OPAT...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077203/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-older-adults-systematic-review-of-efforts-to-reduce-occurrence-and-improve-outcomes
#5
Leisa L Marshall, Samuel Peasah, Gregg A Stevens
OBJECTIVE: Provide a systematic review of the primary literature on efforts to reduce Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occurrence and improve outcomes in older adults. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for research studies using search terms CDI, CDI prevention, reduction, control, management, geriatric, elderly, adults 65 years of age and older. The MeSH categories Aged and Aged, 80 and older, were used...
January 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077201/last-year-s-big-story-antibiotic-stewardship
#6
H Edward Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074531/antibiotic-use-during-infectious-episodes-in-the-first-6-months-of-anticancer-treatment-a-swedish-cohort-study-of-children-aged-7-16-years
#7
M Af Sandeberg, E Johansson, L Wettergren, O Björk, O Hertting, A Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing cancer therapy are at risk for infectious complications that require hospitalization and antimicrobial therapy. Host factors such as age and underlying disease may predict the risk of severe infections in these children. To describe the increased morbidity due to infections in children with cancer, we characterized the antibiotic use during the infectious complications in a national cohort of children 7-16 years of age with cancer. PROCEDURE: Data on infectious complications were prospectively collected from the medical records of all newly diagnosed children with cancer, aged 7-16 years, in Sweden between 2004 and 2006...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073117/antibiotic-stewardship-in-paediatric-inpatients-and-c-difficile-associated-disease
#8
A Simon, S Schmid, L von Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065331/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-kansas-results-from-a-statewide-survey
#9
Carrie Poteete, Joseph M Scaletta
BACKGROUND: The availability of effective antibiotics is considered one of the most important developments in medicine. However, many organisms that were once susceptible to common antibiotics are becoming resistant. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are considered to be vital for combating the emergence of resistance. To understand current antimicrobial stewardship practices in Kansas, the authors designed a 36-question survey. Results of this survey will be used to develop a coordinated, public health strategy for improving current practices...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064452/in-vitro-data-support-the-investigation-of-vinegar-as-an-antimicrobial-agent-for-pd-associated-pseudomonas-exit-site-infections
#10
Christine F Carson, Oliver Ash, Aron Chakera
Peritoneal dialysis exit site infections caused by Pseudomonas spp. are difficult to treat and can lead to peritonitis and/or modality failure. Effective alternative or adjunct non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents could improve treatment as well as reduce the use of antibiotics and contribute to a reduction in antibiotic selection pressure and the further development of antibiotic resistance. Vinegar is popularly promoted as a topical antimicrobial agent and has been recommended as an adjunct treatment for Pseudomonas exit site infections in PD patients...
February 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063000/evaluation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-the-rapid-identification-of-bacteria-and-resistance-determinants-in-positive-blood-cultures
#11
J Rödel, J A Bohnert, S Stoll, L Wassill, B Edel, M Karrasch, B Löffler, W Pfister
The use of molecular assays to rapidly identify pathogens and resistance genes directly from positive blood cultures (BCs) contribute to shortening the time required for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. In this work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been examined for their potential use in BC diagnosis. Three different assays were applied. The commercially available eazyplex® MRSA test detects Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, mecA, and mecC. Two in-house assays [Gram-positive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN)] have been developed for the detection of streptococci, enterococci, vanA, vanB, Pseudomonas spp...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054236/antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-escherichia-coli-urinary-isolates-and-comparison-with-antibiotic-consumption-data-over-10%C3%A2-years-2005-2014
#12
P J Stapleton, D J Lundon, R McWade, N Scanlon, M M Hannan, F O'Kelly, M Lynch
INTRODUCTION: Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTI). Reviews of antibiotic resistance of this organism can inform choice of empiric treatment of UTI and other infections and strategies for combating antimicrobial resistance. We reviewed laboratory and hospital pharmacy records to assess trends in non-susceptibility rates and the effect of antimicrobial stewardship interventions. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of isolates of E...
January 4, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050392/paediatric-prescription-analysis-in-a-primary-health-care-institution
#13
Jinish Jose, Denny Devassykutty
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric prescription analysis was done by vari-ous studies in tertiary care centers but not much published data, at primary care level. The Medical Council of India introduced new prescription format and also antibiotic stewardship program was launched by Government of Kerala in the year 2015. So in these contexts this study was conducted. AIM: To analyse the patterns of prescriptions and drug dis-pensing in pediatric patients using WHO core drug use indicators and parameters in the prescription format prescribed by Medical Council of India...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027333/personalized-prescription-feedback-using-routinely-collected-data-to-reduce-antibiotic-use-in-primary-care-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Lars G Hemkens, Ramon Saccilotto, Selene Leon Reyes, Dominik Glinz, Thomas Zumbrunn, Oliver Grolimund, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz, Andreas Widmer, Andreas Zeller, Heiner C Bucher
Importance: Feedback interventions using routinely collected health data might reduce antibiotic use nationwide without requiring the substantial resources and structural efforts of other antibiotic stewardship programs. Objective: To determine if quarterly antibiotic prescription feedback over 2 years reduces antibiotic use when implemented in a complex health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pragmatic randomized trial using routinely collected claims data on 2900 primary care physicians with the highest antibiotic prescription rates in Switzerland...
December 27, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010959/urine-culture-guided-antibiotic-interventions-a-pharmacist-driven-antimicrobial-stewardship-effort-in-the-emergency-department
#15
Xi Zhang, Nicole Rowan, Bethann Mangel Pflugeisen, Sanjin Alajbegovic
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are overprescribed for abnormal urine tests including asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), contributing to rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Pharmacists reviewed urine cultures daily from emergency department (ED) encounters to assess antibiotic appropriateness. We studied antibiotic prescribing practices and assessed compliance to national guidelines, correlations with urine analysis (UA) components, and opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship in the ED. METHODS: This quality improvement project (QIP) was a prospective cohort study at a community hospital ED, with data collected from finalized urine cultures resulting October 30, 2014 through January 5, 2015...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005063/impact-of-neonatal-early-onset-sepsis-calculator-on-antibiotic-use-within-two-tertiary-healthcare-centers
#16
S Warren, M Garcia, C Hankins
OBJECTIVE: A recently described neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) calculator has the potential to reduce newborn antibiotic exposure but real world data from its use remains sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of applying the calculator to infants treated for EOS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of infants ⩾34 weeks gestational age who received antibiotics at birth. Subjects were compared according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2010 guideline criteria versus the Kaiser Permanente neonatal EOS calculator recommendations...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004323/rapid-mrsa-pcr-on-respiratory-specimens-from-ventilated-patients-with-suspected-pneumonia-a-tool-to-facilitate-antimicrobial-stewardship
#17
S E Trevino, M A Pence, J Marschall, M H Kollef, H M Babcock, C-A D Burnham
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of pneumonia in ventilated patients. Our objective was to evaluate the GeneXpert MRSA/SA SSTI Assay (Xpert MRSA/SA) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) for use in lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens for rapid MRSA detection and to determine the potentially saved antibiotic-days if a culture-based identification method was replaced by this assay. Remnant LRT samples from ventilated patients submitted to the microbiology laboratory for routine culture were tested using conventional culture and Xpert MRSA/SA...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002979/antibiotic-stewardship-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
Diego Viasus, Milly Vecino-Moreno, Juan M De La Hoz, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As with other infectious diseases, in recent years there has been a marked increase in resistance to the antibiotics commonly used against the pathogens that cause CAP. Antimicrobial stewardship denotes coordinated interventions to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotics by encouraging the selection of optimal drug regimens. Areas covered: Several elements can be applied to antibiotic stewardship strategies for CAP in order to maintain or improve patient outcomes...
December 27, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999061/from-guidelines-to-practice-a-pharmacist-driven-prospective-audit-and-feedback-improvement-model-for-peri-operative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-34-south-african-hospitals
#19
Adrian J Brink, Angeliki P Messina, Charles Feldman, Guy A Richards, Dena van den Bergh
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on the implementation of process measures to facilitate adherence to peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) guidelines in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To implement an improvement model for PAP utilizing existing resources, in order to achieve a reduction in surgical site infections (SSIs) across a heterogeneous group of 34 urban and rural South African hospitals. METHODS: A pharmacist-driven, prospective audit and feedback strategy involving change management and improvement principles was utilized...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999049/improving-feedback-of-surveillance-data-on-antimicrobial-consumption-resistance-and-stewardship-in-england-putting-the-data-at-your-fingertips
#20
Alan P Johnson, Berit Muller-Pebody, Emma Budd, Diane Ashiru-Oredope, David Ladenheim, Doris Hain, Russell Hope, Alex Bhattacharya, Suzanne Elgohari, Rebecca Guy, Katherine Henderson, Richard Puleston, Graeme Rooney, Simon Thelwall, Edgar Wellington, Theresa Lamagni, Susan Hopkins
The provision of better access to and use of surveillance data is a key component of the UK 5 Year Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Strategy Since April 2016, PHE has made data on practice (infection prevention and control; antimicrobial stewardship) and outcome (prevalence of AMR, antibiotic use and healthcare-associated infections) available through Fingertips, a publicly accessible web tool (https://fingertips.phe.org.uk/profile/amr-local-indicators). Fingertips provides access to a wide range of public health data presented as thematic profiles, with the above data being available through the 'AMR local indicators' profile...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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