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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152000/bumetanide-increases-cl-dependent-short-circuit-current-in-late-distal-colon-evidence-for-the-presence-of-active-electrogenic-cl-absorption
#1
Lieqi Tang, Xiefan Fang, Steven P Winesett, Catherine Y Cheng, Henry J Binder, Scott A Rivkees, Sam X Cheng
Mammalian colonic epithelia consist of cells that are capable of both absorbing and secreting Cl-. The present studies employing Ussing chamber technique identified two opposing short-circuit current (Isc) responses to basolateral bumetanide in rat distal colon. Apart from the transepithelial Cl--secretory Isc in early distal colon that was inhibited by bumetanide, bumetanide also stimulated Isc in late distal colon that had not previously been identified. Since bumetanide inhibits basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) in crypt cells and basolateral K+-Cl- cotransporter (KCC) in surface epithelium, we proposed this stimulatory Isc could represent a KCC-mediated Cl- absorptive current...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066142/participation-of-central-gabaa-receptors-in-the-trigeminal-processing-of-mechanical-allodynia-in-rats
#2
Min Ji Kim, Young Hong Park, Kui Ye Yang, Jin Sook Ju, Yong Chul Bae, Seong Kyu Han, Dong Kuk Ahn
Here we investigated the central processing mechanisms of mechanical allodynia and found a direct excitatory link with low-threshold input to nociceptive neurons. Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-280 g. Subcutaneous injection of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) (1 ng/10 µL) was used to produce mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Intracisternal administration of bicuculline, a gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, produced mechanical allodynia in the orofacial area under normal conditions...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057537/the-chloride-co-transporters-nkcc1-and-kcc2-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae
#3
Muhammad Saad Yousuf, Kasia Zubkow, Gustavo Tenorio, Bradley Kerr
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) often complain of neuropathic pain. According to the Gate Control Theory of Pain, spinal networks of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are important in modulating nociceptive inputs from the periphery. Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) and K+-Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) generally dictate the tone of GABA/glycine inhibition by regulating intracellular chloride concentrations. In this study, we investigated the role of NKCC1 and KCC2 in neuropathic pain observed in the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used model to study the pathophysiology of MS...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932986/role-of-quercetin-in-modulating-chloride-transport-in-the-intestine
#4
Bo Yu, Yu Jiang, Lingling Jin, Tonghui Ma, Hong Yang
Epithelial chloride channels provide the pathways for fluid secretion in the intestine. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are the main chloride channels in the luminal membrane of enterocytes. These transmembrane proteins play important roles in many physiological processes. In this study, we have identified a flavonoid quercetin as a modulator of CaCC chloride channel activity. Fluorescence quenching assay showed that quercetin activated Cl(-) transport in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 ~37 μM...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903841/influence-of-a-moderate-intensity-exercise-program-on-early-nk-cell-immune-recovery-in-pediatric-patients-after-reduced-intensity-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Carolina Chamorro-Viña, Jaime Valentín, Lucía Fernández, Marta González-Vicent, Margarita Pérez-Ruiz, Alejandro Lucía, S Nicole Culos-Reed, Miguel Ángel Díaz, Antonio Pérez-Martínez
INTRODUCTION: After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), NK cell reconstitution, which is crucial for positive outcomes, is dominated by the CD56(bright) subset with low NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) activity. Moderate exercise has been described as a potent NK cell stimulus in adults with cancer. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a moderate-intensity exercise program on NK cell recovery early after HSCT and the feasibility of this intervention...
November 30, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881573/intestinal-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-2-plays-a-crucial-role-in-hyperosmotic-transitions-of-a-euryhaline-teleost
#6
Andrew J Esbaugh, Brett Cutler
Euryhaline fishes, such as the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), must quickly transition between hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic physiological strategies. When freshwater individuals transition to seawater they are exposed to increased diffusive water loss and ion gain. To maintain osmoregulatory balance these animals must drink and absorb seawater through the intestine, followed by ion excretion at the gills. The ability of fishes to transition between strategies can limit the magnitude of osmotic shock that can be tolerated...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881572/the-roles-of-the-na-k-atpase-nkcc-and-k-channels-in-regulating-local-sweating-and-cutaneous-blood-flow-during-exercise-in-humans-in%C3%A2-vivo
#7
Jeffrey C Louie, Naoto Fujii, Robert D Meade, Glen P Kenny
Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been shown to regulate the sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise; however, similar studies have not been conducted to assess the roles of the Na-K-2Cl co-transporter (NKCC) and K(+) channels. Additionally, it remains to be determined if these mechanisms underpinning the heat loss responses differ with exercise intensity. Eleven young (24 ± 4 years) males performed three 30-min semirecumbent cycling bouts at low (30% VO2peak), moderate (50% VO2peak), and high (70% VO2peak) intensity, respectively, each separated by 20-min recovery periods...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821737/quasimodo-mediates-daily-and-acute-light-effects-on-drosophila-clock-neuron-excitability
#8
Edgar Buhl, Adam Bradlaugh, Maite Ogueta, Ko-Fan Chen, Ralf Stanewsky, James J L Hodge
We have characterized a light-input pathway regulating Drosophila clock neuron excitability. The molecular clock drives rhythmic electrical excitability of clock neurons, and we show that the recently discovered light-input factor Quasimodo (Qsm) regulates this variation, presumably via an Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and the Shaw K(+) channel (dKV3.1). Because of light-dependent degradation of the clock protein Timeless (Tim), constant illumination (LL) leads to a breakdown of molecular and behavioral rhythms...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742704/na-k-cl-cotransporter-nkcc-maintains-the-chloride-gradient-to-sustain-pacemaker-activity-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#9
Mei Hong Zhu, Tae Sik Sung, Masaaki Kurahashi, Lauren E O'Kane, Kate O'Driscoll, Sang Don Koh, Kenton M Sanders
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) generate electrical slow waves by coordinated openings of ANO1 channels, a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (CaCC) conductance. Efflux of Cl(-) during slow waves must be significant, as there is high current density during slow-wave currents and slow waves are of sufficient magnitude to depolarize the syncytium of smooth muscle cells and PDGFRα(+) cells to which they are electrically coupled. We investigated how the driving force for Cl(-) current is maintained in ICC. We found robust expression of Slc12a2 (which encodes an Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, NKCC1) and immunohistochemical confirmation that NKCC1 is expressed in ICC...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591837/molecular-characterization-of-a-cdna-encoding-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-in-the-gill-of-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-during-the-molt-cycle-implication-of-its-function-in-osmoregulation
#10
Bin-Peng Xu, Dan-Dan Tu, Mao-Cang Yan, Miao-An Shu, Qing-Jun Shao
Although iono-regulatory processes are critical for survival of crustaceans during the molt cycle, the mechanisms involved are still not clear. The Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC), a SLC12A family protein that transports Na(+), K(+) and 2Cl(-) into cells, is essential for cell ionic and osmotic regulation. To better understand the role of NKCC in the molt osmoregulation, we cloned and characterized a NKCC gene from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain (designated as SpNKCC). The predicted SpNKCC protein is well conserved, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this protein was clustered with crustacean NKCC...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421237/volume-regulation-of-intestinal-cells-of-echinoderms-putative-role-of-ion-transporters-na-k-atpase-and-nkcc
#11
Giovanna C Castellano, Marta M Souza, Carolina A Freire
Echinoderms are exclusively marine osmoconformer invertebrates. Some species occupy the challenging intertidal region. Upon salinity changes, the extracellular osmotic concentration of these animals also varies, exposing tissues and cells to osmotic challenges. Cells and tissues may then respond with volume regulation mechanisms, which involve transport of ions and water into and/or out of the cells, through ion transporters, such as the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and NKCC. The goal of this study was to relate the cell volume regulation capacity of echinoderm intestinal cells Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and NKCC activities, in three echinoderm species: Holothuria grisea, Arbacia lixula, and Echinometra lucunter...
November 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27407091/trajectories-of-stress-depressive-symptoms-and-immunity-in-cancer-survivors-diagnosis-to-5-years
#12
Barbara L Andersen, Neha Godiwala Goyal, Travis D Westbrook, Brenden Bishop, William E Carson
PURPOSE: Five-year disease endpoint trajectories are available for every cancer site. In contrast, there are few longitudinal, biobehavioral studies of survivors extending beyond the first or second year following diagnosis. This gap is addressed with stress, depressive symptom, and immunity data from breast cancer patients followed continuously for 5 years. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Women (N = 113) diagnosed and surgically treated for breast cancer and awaiting adjuvant therapy completed self-report measures of stress and depressive symptoms and provided blood for immune assays [natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and T-cell blastogenesis]...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403199/effect-of-tongxie-yaofang-on-cl-and-hco3-transport-in-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats
#13
Xiaofang Lu, Shengsheng Zhang, Cheng Yang, Zhengfang Wang, Luqing Zhao, Zhenyu Wu, Jing Xie
TongXie-YaoFang (TXYF) can effectively alleviate the symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) patients. However, the curative mechanism has not been fully clarified. The study was designed to investigate the effect of TXYF on the colonic ion transport induced by serotonin (5-HT) in D-IBS rats. A method of multiple stress (neonatal maternal separation (NMS) combined with restraint stress (RS)) was used to induce the D-IBS model. The model rats were randomly divided into two groups: NMS + RS group and TXYF-formula group, and the normal control (no handling) rats were classified as NH group...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278804/effects-of-salinity-acclimation-and-eyestalk-ablation-on-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-gene-expression-in-the-gill-of-portunus-trituberculatus-a-molecular-correlate-for-salt-tolerant-trait
#14
Jianjian Lv, Dening Zhang, Ping Liu, Jian Li
The Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) is an important gene in ion transport. In order to elucidate its function, and regulatory mechanisms, in salinity acclimation, the complete cDNA sequence of NKCC (4218 bp) from Portunus trituberculatus (PtNKCC) was first cloned and characterized. It was found to encode 1055 amino acids containing conserved AA-permease and SLC12 motifs. Results show that PtNKCC is expressed to the greatest extent in gills. High salinity stress exposure led to significant increases (9...
September 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239784/microtubule-dependent-changes-in-morphology-and-localization-of-chloride-transport-proteins-in-gill-mitochondria-rich-cells-of-the-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus
#15
Wen-Kai Yang, Yu-Ching Wu, Cheng-Hao Tang, Tsung-Han Lee
The tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) is a euryhaline fish exhibiting adaptive changes in cell size, phenotype, and ionoregulatory functions upon salinity challenge. Na(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) and Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) are localized in the apical and basolateral membranes of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells of the gills. These cells are responsible for chloride absorption (NCC) and secretion (NKCC), respectively, thus, the switch of gill NCC and NKCC expression is a crucial regulatory mechanism for salinity adaptation in tilapia...
August 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191193/isolation-purification-and-partial-characterization-of-a-membrane-bound-cl-hco3-activated-atpase-complex-from-rat-brain-with-sensitivity-to-gabaaergic-ligands
#16
Sergey A Menzikov
This study describes the isolation and purification of a protein complex with [Formula: see text]-ATPase activity and sensitivity to GABAAergic ligands from rat brain plasma membranes. The ATPase complex was enriched using size-exclusion, affinity, and ion-exchange chromatography. The fractions obtained at each purification step were subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), which revealed four subunits with molecular mass ∼48, 52, 56, and 59 kDa; these were retained at all stages of the purification process...
February 7, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175664/effects-of-postoperative-pain-management-on-immune-function-after-laparoscopic-resection-of-colorectal-cancer-a-randomized-study
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
So Yeon Kim, Nam Kyu Kim, Seung Hyuk Baik, Byung Soh Min, Hyuk Hur, Jinae Lee, Hyun-Young Noh, Jong Ho Lee, Bon-Neyo Koo
There has been a rising interest in the possible association between perioperative opioid use and postoperative outcomes in cancer patients. Continuous surgical wound infiltration with local anesthetics is a nonopioid analgesic technique that can be used as a postoperative pain management alternative to opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an opioid-based analgesic regimen versus a local anesthetic wound infiltration-based analgesic regimen on immune modulation and short-term cancer recurrence or metastasis in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127933/characterization-of-rat-meibomian-gland-ion-and-fluid-transport
#18
Dongfang Yu, Richard M Davis, Megumi Aita, Kimberlie A Burns, Phillip W Clapp, Rodney C Gilmore, Michael Chua, Wanda K O'Neal, Richard Schlegel, Scott H Randell, Richard C Boucher
PURPOSE: We establish novel primary rat meibomian gland (MG) cell culture systems and explore the ion transport activities of the rat MG. METHODS: Freshly excised rat MG tissues were characterized as follows: (1) mRNA expression of selected epithelial ion channels/transporters were measured by RT-PCR, (2) localization of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNAs was performed by in situ hybridization, and (3) protein expression and localization of βENaC, the Na+/K+/Cl- cotransporter (NKCC), and the Na+/K+ ATPase were evaluated by immunofluorescence...
April 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088517/the-search-for-nkcc1-selective-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-structure-function-relationship-of-bumetanide-and-various-bumetanide-derivatives-in-inhibiting-the-human-cation-chloride-cotransporter-nkcc1a
#19
Kasper Lykke, Kathrin Töllner, Peter W Feit, Thomas Erker, Nanna MacAulay, Wolfgang Löscher
The Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 plays a major role in the regulation of intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration. Abnormal functionality of NKCC1 has been implicated in several brain disorders, including epilepsy. Bumetanide is the only available selective NKCC1 inhibitor, but also inhibits NKCC2, which can cause severe adverse effects during treatment of brain disorders. A NKCC1-selective bumetanide derivative would therefore be a desirable option. In the present study, we used the Xenopus oocyte heterologous expression system to compare the effects of bumetanide and several derivatives on the two major human splice variants of NKCCs, hNKCC1A and hNKCC2A...
June 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033913/the-effects-of-ryanodine-receptor-ryr1-mutation-on-natural-killer-cell-cytotoxicity-plasma-cytokines-and-stress-hormones-during-acute-intermittent-exercise-in-pigs
#20
Z M Ciepielewski, W Stojek, A Borman, D Myślińska, P Pałczyńska, M Kamyczek
Stress susceptibility has been mapped to a single recessive gene, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene or halothane (Hal) gene. Homozygous (Hal(nn)), mutated pigs are sensitive to halothane and susceptible to Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS). Previous studies have shown that stress-susceptible RYR1 gene mutated homozygotes in response to restraint stress showed an increase in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) accompanied by more pronounced stress-related hormone and anti-inflammatory cytokine changes. In order to determine the relationship of a RYR1 gene mutation with NKCC, plasma cytokines and stress-related hormones following a different stress model - exercise - 36 male pigs (representing different genotypes according to RYR1 gene mutation: NN, homozygous dominant; Nn, heterozygous; nn, homozygous recessive) were submitted to an intermittent treadmill walking...
April 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
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