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Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732066/inhibition-of-pulmonary-%C3%AE-carotene-15-15-oxygenase-expression-by-glucocorticoid-involves-ppar%C3%AE
#1
Xiaoming Gong, Raju Marisiddaiah, Lewis P Rubin
β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. A balance between the actions of retinoids and glucocorticoids (GCs) promotes normal lung development and, in particular, alveolarization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729181/expression-of-cyp4v2-in-human-thp1-macrophages-and-its-transcriptional-regulation-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma
#2
Myeongjin Yi, Jae-Gook Shin, Su-Jun Lee
Because macrophages respond to a variety of pathological and pharmacological reagents, understanding the role of P450s in macrophages is important for therapeutic intervention. There has been a lack of research on CYP4 in macrophages, but fatty acid accumulation and lipid trafficking in macrophages have been suggested to be a main cause of atherosclerosis. All human CYP4 genes (n=12) were screened in THP1 macrophages by gene-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only CYP4V2 exhibited strong expression of both mRNA and protein...
July 17, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727849/associations-between-pparg-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-essential-hypertension
#3
Gaojun Cai, Xinyong Zhang, Weijin Weng, Ganwei Shi, Sheliang Xue, Bifeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of essential hypertension (EH). It has been suggested that polymorphisms of PPARG are associated with the risk of EH. However, findings to date remain controversial. To elucidate the associations between the PPARG Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms and EH risk, a meta-analysis was carried out. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), VIP and Wanfang databases was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727095/bta-mir-130a-regulates-the-biosynthesis-of-bovine-milk-fat-by-targeting-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma
#4
W C Yang, W L Guo, L S Zan, Y N Wang, K Q Tang
Milk fat determines the quality of milk and is also a main targeted trait in dairy cow breeding. Recent studies have revealed important regulatory roles of microRNAs (miRNA) in milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland. However, the role of miRNA in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the overexpression of miR-130a significantly decreased cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and suppressed lipid droplet formation, whereas the inhibition of miR-130a resulted in greater lipid droplet formation and TAG accumulation in BMEC...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724855/decreased-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-is-the-main-cause-of-fatty-liver-induced-by-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-deficiency-in-mice
#5
Takero Nakajima, Yang Yang, Yu Lu, Yuji Kamijo, Yosuke Yamada, Kozo Nakamura, Masahiro Koyama, Shohei Yamaguchi, Eiko Sugiyama, Naoki Tanaka, Toshifumi Aoyama
Insufficient intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) causes fatty liver. The mechanism responsible is primarily related to increased lipogenesis and decreased FA degradation based on rodent studies. However, these studies were limited by the fact that the typical PUFA-deficient diets contained insufficient amounts of long-chain FA, the PUFA-containing diets were primarily composed of n-3 PUFA-enriched oil, and the intake of PUFA was excessive compared with the physiological requirement. To address these issues, mice were fed a PUFA-deficient diet containing long-chain FA at a standard fed level and then were orally fed a n-3/n-6-balanced PUFA-containing oil [PUFA (+)] or a PUFA-deficient oil [PUFA (-)] at physiological relevant levels (0...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724797/increasing-the-level-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-in-podocytes-results-in-collapsing-glomerulopathy
#6
Szu-Yuan Li, Jihwan Park, Chengxiang Qiu, Seung Hyeok Han, Matthew B Palmer, Zoltan Arany, Katalin Susztak
Inherited and acquired mitochondrial defects have been associated with podocyte dysfunction and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) is one of the main transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We hypothesized that increasing PGC1α expression in podocytes could protect from CKD. We found that PGC1α and mitochondrial transcript levels are lower in podocytes of patients and mouse models with diabetic kidney disease (DKD)...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723673/energy-metabolism-in-glioblastoma-stem-cells-ppar%C3%AE-a-metabolic-adaptor-to-intratumoral-microenvironment
#7
Alessia Fidoamore, Loredana Cristiano, Chiara Laezza, Renato Galzio, Elisabetta Benedetti, Benedetta Cinque, Andrea Antonosante, Michele d'Angelo, Vanessa Castelli, Maria Grazia Cifone, Rodolfo Ippoliti, Antonio Giordano, Annamaria Cimini
Glioblastoma (GB), the most-common cancer in the adult brain, despite surgery and radio/ chemotherapy, is to date almost incurable. Many hypoxic tumors, including GB, show metabolic reprogramming to sustain uncontrolled proliferation, hypoxic conditions and angiogenesis. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors (PPAR), particularly the α isotype, have been involved in the control of energetic metabolism. Herein, we characterized patient-derived GB neurospheres focusing on their energetic metabolism and PPARα expression...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723637/increasing-ucp2-expression-and-decreasing-nox1-4-expression-maintain-chondrocyte-phenotype-by-reducing-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#8
Yansong Miao, Yuefu Dong, Ping Huang, Xiang Zhao, Zhenyu Huang, Jufang Yao, He Li, Qingrong Xu
The aim of this study is to demonstrate that improving the mitochondrial function can inhibite the loss of chondrocyte phenotype by regulating the expression of uncoupling protein 2(UCP2) and NADPH oxidase1/4(NOX1/4) to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species(ROS). The effects of mitochondrial biogenesis "master regular" peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM), UCP2, and NOX1/4 on chondrocyte phenotype was examined. It was found that when the chondrocyte phenotype was lost, PGC-1α, UCP2, and TFAM expression decreased, while NOX1/4 expression increased...
July 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720328/design-synthesis-molecular-modeling-and-anti-hyperglycemic-evaluation-of-quinazolin-4-3h-one-derivatives-as-potential-ppar%C3%AE-and-sur-agonists
#9
Mohamed K Ibrahim, Ibrahim H Eissa, Mohamed S Alesawy, Ahmed M Metwaly, Mohamed M Radwan, Mahmoud A ElSohly
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) play crucial roles in management of type-2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a series of novel quinazoline-4(3H)-one-sulfonylurea hybrids were designed and synthesized as dual PPARγ and SUR agonists. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activities against STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats. Four compounds (19a, 19d, 19f and 25g) demonstrated potent activities with reduction in blood glucose levels of 40...
July 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720051/plasma-and-amniotic-fluid-ppar%C3%AE-is-involved-in-the-lipid-metabolism-of-maternal-fetal-interface-cells
#10
Yan Cheng, Shuangping Liu, Ru Lin, Jue Wang, Ting Peng, Qingying Zhang, Haidong Cheng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was at detecting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to investigate whether PPARγ regulates the lipid metabolism of maternal-fetal interface cells. METHODS: We detected the expression of PPARγ in the maternal plasma, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid of two groups of women with GDM or normal pregnancy using ELISA and western blot. Establish the cell models of the indirect coculture model and the separate culture model using BeWo cells and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719892/cinnamaldehyde-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-by-inducing-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#11
Jiacheng Zuo, Dandan Zhao, Na Yu, Xin Fang, Qianqian Mu, Yue Ma, Fangfang Mo, Rui Wu, Rufeng Ma, Lili Wang, Ruyuan Zhu, Haixia Liu, Dongwei Zhang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity has become a major health concern with few effective medications. Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether CA shows anti-obesity activity remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential anti-obesity effects of CA on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice fed an HFD for 12 weeks were supplemented with CA (40 mg/kg/day) via gavage for an additional 8 weeks...
July 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#12
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718381/histological-and-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-the-similarity-and-difference-between-ovarian-endometriomas-and-deep-infiltrating-endometriosis
#13
Xishi Liu, Qi Zhang, Sun-Wei Guo
Ovarian endometrioma (OMA) and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) have long been recognized to have different histology and, as such, postulated to be 2 separate disease entities. Few studies, however, have attempted to elucidate the causes for their differences. Making use of ectopic endometrial tissue samples from 25 and 20 women with OMA and DIE, respectively, and control endometrial tissue samples from 25 women without endometriosis, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of a group of carefully chosen markers for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT), smooth muscle metaplasia (SMM), fibrosis, vascularity, hormonal receptors, and proteins involved in epigenetic modifications...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717866/mir-30a-positively-regulates-the-inflammatory-response-of-microglia-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#14
Xue Fang, Dingya Sun, Zhihong Wang, Zhongwang Yu, Weili Liu, Yingyan Pu, Dan Wang, Aijun Huang, Mingdong Liu, Zhenghua Xiang, Cheng He, Li Cao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a classical inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are the main resident immune cells in the CNS and are closely associated with the pathogenesis of MS. In the present study, we found that miR-30a was highly expressed in jellyfish-like microglia in chronic active lesions of MS patients, as well as in the microglia of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) at the chronic phase. In vitro, the conditioned supernatant of mouse microglia overexpressing miR-30a promoted the apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and inhibited OPC differentiation...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716732/lysophosphatidic-acid-signaling-regulates-the-klf9-ppar%C3%AE-axis-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#15
Tamotsu Tsukahara, Shuhei Yamagishi, Yoshikazu Matsuda, Hisao Haniu
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid signaling molecule that plays several significant roles in the nervous system during development and injury. In this study, we differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into neurons as an in vitro model to examine the specific effects of LPA. We demonstrated that LPA activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a ligand-activated nuclear receptor, as well as its cognate receptor LPA1 on human iPSC-derived neurons to enhance proliferation and neurite outgrowth...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716729/study-of-new-interactions-of-glitazone-s-stereoisomers-and-the-endogenous-ligand-15d-pgj2-on-six-different-ppar-gamma-proteins
#16
Samuel Álvarez-Almazán, Martiniano Bello, Feliciano Tamay-Cach, Marlet Martínez-Archundia, Diana Alemán-González-Duhart, José Correa-Basurto, Jessica Elena Mendieta-Wejebe
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Glitazones or thiazolidinediones (TZD) are drugs that act as insulin-sensitizing agents whose molecular target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The euglycemic action of TZD has been linked with the induction of type 4 glucose transporter. However, it has been shown that the effect of TZD depends on the specific stereoisomer that interacts with PPARγ. Therefore, this work is focused on exploring the interactions and geometry adopted by glitazone's stereoisomers and one endogenous ligand on different conformations of the six crystals of the PPARγ protein using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations accompanied by the MMGBSA approach...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716464/modulating-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-pioglitazone-combination-on-insulin-resistance-through-toll-like-receptor-4-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Salma M Eraky, Noha Abdel-Rahman, Laila A Eissa
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) plays important roles in innate immunity. Changes in the reduction-oxidation balance of tissues can lead to a pro-inflammatory state and insulin resistance. An action thought to be mediated by TLRs. Omega-3 fatty acids and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists as pioglitazone are used for decreasing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of combining omega -3 fatty acid with pioglitazone on type 2 diabetes, and the modifying effects on TLR-4...
June 17, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715885/the-effects-of-exercise-and-cold-exposure-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-and-white-adipose-tissue
#18
Nana Chung, Jonghoon Park, Kiwon Lim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise or/and cold exposure regulate mitochondria biogenesis-related gene expression in soleus and inguinal adipose tissue of mice. METHODS: Forty ICR 5-week old male mice were divided into four groups: thermoneutrality-untrained (23 ± 1 °C in room temperature, n=10), cold-water immersion (24 ± 1 °C, n=10), exercise in neutral temperature (34 ± 1 °C, n=10), and exercise in cold temperature (24 ± 1 °C, n=10)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714135/yap-suppresses-gluconeogenic-gene-expression-via-pgc1%C3%AE
#19
Yue Hu, Dong-Ju Shin, Hui Pan, Zhiqiang Lin, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Fernando D Camargo, Ji Miao, Sudha B Biddinger
Cell growth and proliferation are tightly coupled to metabolism, and dissecting the signaling molecules which link these processes is an important step towards understanding development, regeneration and cancer. The transcriptional regulator Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) is a key regulator of liver size, development and function. We now show that YAP can also suppress gluconeogenic gene expression. Yap deletion in primary hepatocytes potentiates the gluconeogenic gene response to glucagon and dexamethasone, whereas constitutively active YAP suppresses it...
July 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714032/atf3-promotes-migration-and-m1-m2-polarization-of-macrophages-by-activating-tenascin%C3%A2-c-via-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-pathway
#20
Hao Sha, Dianzhong Zhang, Yunfei Zhang, Yanhua Wen, Yucai Wang
There are different polarization states of macrophages, including the classically activated M1 phenotype and the alternatively activated M2 phenotype. These have different functions in the inflammation process. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a key transcriptional regulator that inhibits the inflammatory response. However, the effects of ATF3 on migration and anti‑inflammatory control mechanisms of macrophages have not been thoroughly investigated. The present study investigated the effect of ATF3 on macrophage migration and M1/M2 polarization...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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