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Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805944/suppression-of-acute-and-anticipatory-nausea-by-peripherally-restricted-faah-inhibitor-in-animal-models-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-cb1-receptors
#1
Erin M Rock, Guillermo Moreno-Sanz, Cheryl L Limebeer, Gavin N Petrie, Roberto Angelini, Daniele Piomelli, Linda A Parker
To evaluate the ability of the peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB937 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) to suppress acute and anticipatory nausea in rats, and to examine the pharmacological mechanism of such an effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We investigated the potential of URB937 to reduce the establishment of lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping (a model of acute nausea) and to reduce the expression of contextually elicited conditioned gaping (a model of anticipatory nausea) in rats...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805685/re-adaption-on-earth-after-spaceflights-affects-the-mouse-liver-proteome
#2
Viktoria Anselm, Svetlana Novikova, Victor Zgoda
Harsh environmental conditions including microgravity and radiation during prolonged spaceflights are known to alter hepatic metabolism. Our studies have focused on the analysis of possible changes in metabolic pathways in the livers of mice from spaceflight project "Bion-M 1". Mice experienced 30 days of spaceflight with and without an additional re-adaption period of seven days compared to control mice on Earth. To investigate mice livers we have performed proteomic profiling utilizing shotgun mass spectrometry followed by label-free quantification...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805446/epigallocatechin-gallate-as-an-anti-obesity-therapeutic-compound-an-in-silico-approach-for-structure-based-drug-designing
#3
Muhammad Shahid Javaid, Noreen Latief, Bushra Ijaz, Usman Ali Ashfaq
Epigallocatechin gallate is a polyphenol of tea plants. Other than tea its trace amounts are found in apple skin, onions and plums. It has anti-adipogenic and anti-oxidant potential. It was investigated that epigallocatechin gallate stopped the adipogenic differentiation of mice mesenchymal stem cells but its underlying mechanism is not well understood. Different proteins and transcription factors responsible for differentiation of adipocytes could be its targets. This study was designed to determine the potential target of epigallocatechin gallate in human...
August 14, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804442/mesozeaxanthin-protects-the-liver-and-reduces-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-an-insulin-resistant-rodent-model
#4
Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Fatih Akdemir, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Ismet Yilmaz, Shakir Ali, Jayant Deshpande, Vijaya Juturu
Background: Mesozeaxanthin (MZ) is a macular carotenoid which has been reported to have a number of pharmacological properties, including the antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic property, and has been stated to decrease the hepatocyte lipid content. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effect of MZ on cardio-metabolic health risk (CMHR) and its probable mechanisms of action in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Design: Rats were randomly divided into four groups consisting of (i) Control, (ii) MZ, (iii) HFD, and (iv) HFD+MZ...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804438/green-tea-extract-induces-genes-related-to-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-limits-weight-gain-in-high-energy-diet-fed-rat
#5
Li-Han Chen, Yi-Wen Chien, Chung-Tiang Liang, Ching-Hung Chan, Meng-Han Fan, Hui-Yu Huang
Background: A wealth of research has reported on the anti-obesity effects of green tea extract (GTE). Although browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported to attenuate obesity, no study has disclosed the effects of GTE on browning in Sprague Dawley rats. Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of GTE on anti-obesity and browning, and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: Four groups of rats (n=10/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle or GTE by oral gavage at 77...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803762/apigenin-protects-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-by-regulating-hepatic-cyp2e1-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-ppar%C3%AE-mediated-lipogenic-gene-expression
#6
Feng Wang, Jin-Cheng Liu, Rui-Jun Zhou, Xi Zhao, Mei Liu, Hua Ye, Mei-Lin Xie
Alcohol is a major cause of liver injury, and there are currently no ideal pharmacological reagents that can prevent or reverse this disease. Apigenin is one of the most common flavonoids present in numerous plants and has many beneficial effects. But whether or not apigenin may protect against alcohol-induced liver injury remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect and potential mechanisms. The experimental mice were given 56% erguotou wine or simultaneously given apigenin 150-300 mg/kg by gavage for 30 days...
August 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803067/ppargc1a-is-upregulated-and-facilitates-lung-cancer-metastasis
#7
Jin-Dong Li, Qing-Chuan Feng, Yu Qi, Guanghui Cui, Song Zhao
Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of lung cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to determine reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to explore epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers that regulate EMT process in three patients with advanced lung cancer disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARGC1A) was uniformly the topmost overexpressed gene in all three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient samples...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801346/pan-ppar-agonist-iva337-is-effective-in-experimental-lung-fibrosis-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Jerome Avouac, Irena Konstantinova, Christophe Guignabert, Sonia Pezet, Jeremy Sadoine, Thomas Guilbert, Anne Cauvet, Ly Tu, Jean-Michel Luccarini, Jean-Louis Junien, Pierre Broqua, Yannick Allanore
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antifibrotic effects of the pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist IVA337 in preclinical mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and related pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: IVA337 has been evaluated in the mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and in Fra-2 transgenic mice, this latter being characterised by non-specific interstitial pneumonia and severe vascular remodelling of pulmonary arteries leading to PH...
August 11, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801055/therapy-with-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-or-conditioned-medium-reverse-cardiac-alterations-in-a-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-model
#9
P S Daltro, B C Barreto, P G Silva, P Chenaud Neto, P H F Sousa Filho, D Santana Neta, G B Carvalho, D N Silva, B D Paredes, A C de Alcantara, L A R Freitas, R D Couto, R R Santos, B S F Souza, M B P Soares, S G Macambira
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with numerous cardiac complications, including arrhythmias, cardiac fibrosis, remodeling and heart failure. Here we evaluated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their conditioned medium (CM) to treat cardiac complications in a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: After obesity induction and HFD withdrawal, obese mice were treated with MSCs, CM or vehicle. Cardiac function was assessed using electrocardiography, echocardiography and treadmill test...
August 8, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799756/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-propolis-extract-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-by-inhibiting-jnk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-pathways-in-diabetic-mice-and-hepg2-cells-models
#10
Jia-Rui Nie, Ya-Ning Chang, Yujia Li, Yingjun Zhou, Jiawen Qin, Zhen Sun, Haibin Li
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), extracted from propolis, was evaluated the ameliorative effects on insulin resistance and identified the mechanisms, using noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model mice and insulin resistance (IR) model cells. After 5-week of CAPE supplementation, insulin sensitivity, hyperlipidemia, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) levels were improved in mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and the expressions of tumour necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) mRNA in tissues were markedly down-regulated from CAPE-treated mice...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799755/polypharmacology-of-n6-3-iodobenzyl-adenosine-5-n-methyluronamide-ib-meca-and-related-a3-adenosine-receptor-ligands-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-%C3%AE-partial-agonist-and-ppar-%C3%AE-antagonist-activity-suggests-their-anti-diabetic-potential
#11
Jinha Yu, Seyeon Ahn, Hee Jin Kim, Moonyoung Lee, Sungjin Ahn, Jungmin Kim, Sun Hee Jin, Eunyoung Lee, Gyudong Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong, Kenneth A Jacobson, Lak Shin Jeong, Minsoo Noh
A3 adenosine receptor (AR) ligands including A3 AR agonist, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide 1a (IB-MECA) were examined for adiponectin production in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). In this model, 1a significantly increased adiponectin production, which is associated with improved insulin sensitivity. However, A3 AR antagonists also promoted adiponectin production in hBM-MSCs, indicating that the A3 AR pathway may not be directly involved in the adiponectin promoting activity...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798156/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-and-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor-combination-therapy-has-antifibrotic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-mdx-mice-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#12
Yasunori Nio, Masayuki Tanaka, Yoshihiko Hirozane, Yo Muraki, Mitsugi Okawara, Masatoshi Hazama, Takanori Matsuo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscular dystrophy. Patients experience DMD in their 20s from cardiac or respiratory failure related to progressive muscle wasting. Currently, the only treatments for the symptoms of DMD are available. Muscle fibrosis, a DMD feature, leads to reduced muscle function and muscle mass, and hampers pharmaceutical therapeutic efficacy. Although antifibrotic agents may be useful, none is currently approved. Phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 inhibitors have exhibited antifibrotic effects in human and animal models...
August 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798125/microbiota-activated-ppar-%C3%AE-signaling-inhibits-dysbiotic-enterobacteriaceae-expansion
#13
Mariana X Byndloss, Erin E Olsan, Fabian Rivera-Chávez, Connor R Tiffany, Stephanie A Cevallos, Kristen L Lokken, Teresa P Torres, Austin J Byndloss, Franziska Faber, Yandong Gao, Yael Litvak, Christopher A Lopez, Gege Xu, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Renée M Tsolis, Alexander Revzin, Carlito B Lebrilla, Andreas J Bäumler
Perturbation of the gut-associated microbial community may underlie many human illnesses, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are poorly understood. We found that the depletion of butyrate-producing microbes by antibiotic treatment reduced epithelial signaling through the intracellular butyrate sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). Nitrate levels increased in the colonic lumen because epithelial expression of Nos2, the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase, was elevated in the absence of PPAR-γ signaling...
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797150/-expression-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-in-placenta-and-their-correlations-with-the-prognosis-of-pre-eclampsia
#14
Y Li, W L Chen, L Liu, H Gu
Objective: To examine the mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP-4) in placenta, and to investigate their correlation with the prognosis of pre-eclampsia. Methods: The data of 177 women who delivered from January 2013 to December 2015 in Chinese People's Liberation Army No.94 Hospital were collected. Among them, 60 cases were term pregnancy and not in labor (TN); 46 cases were term pregnancy with preeclampsia and not in labor (TPE); 42 cases were preterm pregnancy and not in labor (PN); 29 cases were preterm pregnancy with pre-eclampsia and not in labor (PPE)...
July 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796154/the-ability-of-exercise-associated-oxidative-stress-to-trigger-redox-sensitive-signalling-responses
#15
REVIEW
Richard Webb, Michael G Hughes, Andrew W Thomas, Keith Morris
In this review, we discuss exercise as an oxidative stressor, and elucidate the mechanisms and downstream consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the mitochondria of contracting skeletal myocytes; also, their diffusion across the myocyte membrane allows their transport to neighbouring muscle tissue and to other regions of the body. Although very intense exercise can induce oxidative damage within myocytes, the magnitudes of moderate-intensity exercise-associated increases in ROS are quite modest (~two-fold increases in intracellular and extracellular ROS concentrations during exercise), and so the effects of such increases are likely to involve redox-sensitive signalling effects rather than oxidative damage...
August 10, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795454/the-tcf7l2-pgc1%C3%AE-axis-connects-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-metabolic-shift-with-stem-cell-commitment-to-hepatic-differentiation
#16
Anaïs Wanet, Marino Caruso, Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner, Mehdi Najar, Antoine Fattaccioli, Catherine Demazy, Jonathan Evraerts, Hoda El-Kehdy, Guillaume Pourcher, Etienne Sokal, Thierry Arnould, Nicki Tiffin, Mustapha Najimi, Patricia Renard
Increasing evidence supports that modifications in the mitochondrial content, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity, and cell metabolism influence the fate of stem cells. However, the regulators involved in the crosstalk between mitochondria and stem cell fate remain poorly characterized. Here, we identified a transcriptional regulatory axis, composed of TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7 like 2, a downstream effector of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, repressed during differentiation) and PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha, the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, induced during differentiation), coupling the loss of pluripotency and early commitment to differentiation, to the initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic shift toward OXPHOS...
August 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790817/emerging-pharmaceutical-therapies-for-copd
#17
REVIEW
Sowmya P Lakshmi, Aravind T Reddy, Raju C Reddy
COPD, for which cigarette smoking is the major risk factor, remains a worldwide burden. Current therapies provide only limited short-term benefit and fail to halt progression. A variety of potential therapeutic targets are currently being investigated, including COPD-related proinflammatory mediators and signaling pathways. Other investigational compounds target specific aspects or complications of COPD such as mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary hypertension. Although many candidate therapies have shown no significant effects, other emerging therapies have improved lung function, pulmonary hypertension, glucocorticoid sensitivity, and/or the frequency of exacerbations...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790326/intestinal-toxicity-of-the-type-b-trichothecene-mycotoxin-fusarenon-x-whole-transcriptome-profiling-reveals-new-signaling-pathways
#18
Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Juliana Rubira Gerez, Anne-Marie Cossalter, Manon Neves, Joëlle Laffitte, Claire Naylies, Yannick Lippi, Martine Kolf-Clauw, Ana Paula L Bracarense, Philippe Pinton, Isabelle P Oswald
The few data available on fusarenon-X (FX) do not support the derivation of health-based guidance values, although preliminary results suggest higher toxicity than other regulated trichothecenes. Using histo-morphological analysis and whole transcriptome profiling, this study was designed to obtain a global view of the intestinal alterations induced by FX. Deoxynivalenol (DON) served as a benchmark. FX induced more severe histological alterations than DON. Inflammation was the hallmark of the molecular toxicity of both mycotoxins...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789975/peripheral-neuropeptide-y-differentially-influences-adipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-chicks-from-lines-selected-for-low-or-high-body-weight
#19
Lingbin Liu, Guoqing Wang, Yang Xiao, Steven L Shipp, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates appetite and promotes lipid deposition. We demonstrated a differential sensitivity in the food intake response to central NPY in chicks from lines selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight, but have not reported whether such differences exist in the periphery. At 5days, LWS and HWS chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 60, or 120μg/kg BW NPY and subcutaneous adipose tissue and plasma were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h (n=12). NPY injection increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity at 1 and 3h and reduced plasma NEFAs at 1 and 12h...
August 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783701/ppar-%C3%AE-promotes-type-2-immune-responses-in-allergy-and-nematode-infection
#20
Ting Chen, Christopher A Tibbitt, Xiaogang Feng, Julian M Stark, Leona Rohrbeck, Lisa Rausch, Saikiran K Sedimbi, Mikael C I Karlsson, Bart N Lambrecht, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam, Rudi W Hendriks, Benedict J Chambers, Susanne Nylén, Jonathan M Coquet
A hallmark of immunity to worm infections and many allergies is a strong type 2 immune response. This is characterized by the production of cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 by adaptive T helper 2 (TH2) cells and/or type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is typically regarded as an anti-inflammatory factor. We report that TH2 cells express high levels of PPAR-γ in response to the allergen house dust mite and after infection with the parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus Mice lacking PPAR-γ in T cells failed to effectively differentiate into IL-5- and IL-13-secreting cells and, hence, did not develop TH2 cell-associated pathologies, including goblet cell metaplasia and eosinophilia, in response to allergen challenge...
March 10, 2017: Science Immunology
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