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Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647730/qiliqiangxin-attenuates-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction-in-ovariectomized-mice-via-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#1
Shutong Shen, Huimin Jiang, Yihua Bei, Jialiang Zhang, Haifeng Zhang, Hongsheng Zhu, Chenlin Zhang, Wenming Yao, Cong Wei, Hongcai Shang, Xinli Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medication Qiliqiangxin (QLQX) on adverse cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) in bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) female mice. METHODS: Eight-week old female C57BL/6 mice were operated to ligate the left anterior descending coronary artery seven days after bilateral ovariectomy and were orally administered either QLQX or vehicle. 21 days after ligation, echocardiography was performed to evaluate the heart function of all mice...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647405/docosahexaenoic-acid-promotes-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-via-ppar-%C3%AE-signalling-and-prevents-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-dependent-maturational-arrest
#2
A Bernardo, M L Giammarco, C De Nuccio, M A Ajmone-Cat, S Visentin, R De Simone, L Minghetti
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid known to be neuroprotective in several models of human diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The protective effects of DHA are largely attributed to its ability to interfere with the activity of transcription factors controlling immune and inflammatory responses, including the agonist-dependent transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). In this study, we used primary oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cultures from neonatal rat brain to investigate whether DHA could influence OP maturation and directly promote myelination, as previously reported for selective PPAR-γ agonists...
June 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647365/conjugated-linoleic-acid-prevents-age-induced-bone-loss-in-mice-by-regulating-both-osteoblastogenesis-and-adipogenesis
#3
Guanlin Lin, Huan Wang, Jun Dai, Xiao Li, Ming Guan, Shutao Gao, Qing Ding, Huaixi Wang, Huang Fang
Osteoporosis (OP) can increase the risk of bone fracture and other complications, which is a major clinical problem. Previous researches have revealed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can promote the bone formation. But the mechanisms are not clear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CLA acts on bone formation might be via mTOR Complex1 (mTORC 1) pathway by in vitro and vivo assays. We studied the effect of CLA mix on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts differentiation into osteoblasts, and bone formation under osteoporotic conditions...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646487/immunotoxic-effects-of-thymus-in-mice-following-exposure-to-nanoparticulate-tio2
#4
Fashui Hong, Yaoming Zhou, Yingjun Zhou, Ling Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been extensively used in industry, medicine, and daily life, and have shown potential toxic effects for animals or humans. We noted that the effects of TiO2 NPs on the immune system and its mechanism of action in animals or humans have not been elucidated. Thus, mice were exposed to the TiO2 NPs (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 9 consecutive months. Exposure to TiO2 NPs was accumulated in the thymus, leading to a decrease in body weight and increases in the weight of the thymus or thymus indices...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646024/metabolic-reprogramming-via-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-failure-from-metabolomics-to-epigenetics
#5
Junco Shibayama Warren, Shin-Ichi Oka, Daniela Zablocki, Junichi Sadoshima
Studies using -omics-based approaches have advanced our knowledge of metabolic remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Metabolomic analysis of the failing heart has revealed global changes in mitochondrial substrate metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) plays a critical role in synergistic regulation of cardiac metabolism through transcriptional control. Metabolic reprogramming via PPARα signaling in heart failure ultimately propagates into myocardial energetics. However, emerging evidence suggests that the expression level of PPARα per se does not always explain the energetic state in the heart...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645467/citreoviridin-induces-triglyceride-accumulation-in-hepatocytes-through-inhibiting-ppar-%C3%AE-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#6
Chang Feng, Dandan Li, Liping Jiang, Xiaofang Liu, Qiujuan Li, Chengyan Geng, Xiance Sun, Guang Yang, Xiaofeng Yao, Min Chen
Citreoviridin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillum citreonigrum, Aspergillus terreus and Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum. CIT occurs naturally in moldy rice and corn. CIT is associated with the development of atherosclerosis in the general population. Alteration in hepatic lipid metabolism is a pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis. However the effect and the underlying mechanism of CIT on hepatic lipid metabolism are largely unknown. In this study, we reported that CIT induced triglyceride accumulation in mice liver and human liver HepG2 cells as shown in oil red O staining...
June 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645193/irf6-regulates-alternative-activation-by-suppressing-ppar%C3%AE-in-male-murine-macrophages
#7
Chuan Li, Wei Ying, Zheping Huang, Tyler Brehm, Andrew Morin, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Aberrant pro-inflammatory and suppressed anti-inflammatory (alternative) macrophage activation underlies the chronic inflammation associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. This study demonstrates a novel role for Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) in regulating macrophage alternative activation (M2) by suppressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression, a critical regulator of alternative macrophage polarization. The data demonstrate suppression of IRF6 in both M2 macrophages and obese adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)...
June 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643888/combination-of-citrus-polymethoxyflavones-green-tea-polyphenols-and-lychee-extracts-suppresses-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#8
Min-Hsiung Pan, Guliang Yang, Shiming Li, Ming-Yi Li, Mei-Ling Tsai, Jia-Ching Wu, Vladimir Badmaev, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
SCOPE: SlimTrym(®) is a formulated product composed of citrus polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), green tea extract and lychee extract. We investigated the effect of dietary SlimTrym(®) on diet-induced obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 0.1% or 0.5% SlimTrym(®) for sixteen weeks. Dietary SlimTrym(®) significantly reduced weight gain and relative perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric fat weight as well as the size of adipocyte in HFD-fed mice...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642237/mediator-1-is-atherosclerosis-protective-by-regulating-macrophage-polarization
#9
Liang Bai, Zhao Li, Qianwei Li, Hua Guan, Sihai Zhao, Ruihan Liu, Rong Wang, Jin Zhang, Yuzhi Jia, Jianglin Fan, Nanping Wang, Janardan K Reddy, John Y-J Shyy, Enqi Liu
OBJECTIVE: MED1 (mediator 1) interacts with transcription factors to regulate transcriptional machinery. The role of MED1 in macrophage biology and the relevant disease state remains to be investigated. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To study the molecular mechanism by which MED1 regulates the M1/M2 phenotype switch of macrophage and the effect on atherosclerosis, we generated MED1/apolipoprotein E (ApoE) double-deficient (MED1(ΔMac)/ApoE(-)(/-)) mice and found that atherosclerosis was greater in MED1(ΔMac)/ApoE(-/-) mice than in MED1(fl/fl)/ApoE(-/-) littermates...
June 22, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641522/advances-on-ppar%C3%AE-research-in-the-emerging-era-of-precision-medicine
#10
Pinyi Lu, Zhongming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. It regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity, and cellular growth and differentiation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers that function by activating PPARs, with a high specificity for PPARγ. Due to their ability to preserve pancreatic beta cell function and reduce insulin resistance, TZDs have become one of the most prescribed classes of medications for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and initial use in 1997...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640194/moringa-leaves-prevent-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-inflammation-in-guinea-pigs-by-reducing-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-lipid-metabolism
#11
Manal Mused Almatrafi, Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Gregory H Norris, Christopher N Blesso, Maria Luz Fernandez
To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639951/metabolic-abnormalities-and-oxidative-stress-in-lupus
#12
Yaima L Lightfoot, Luz P Blanco, Mariana J Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Upon antigen exposure, immune cells rely on cell-specific metabolic pathways to mount an efficient immune response. In autoimmunity, failure in critical metabolic checkpoints may lead to immune cell hyperactivation and tissue damage. Oxidative stress in autoimmune patients can also contribute to immune dysregulation and injury to the host. Recent insights into the immune cell metabolism signatures, specifically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the consequences of heightened oxidative stress in patients, are discussed herein...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638404/puerarin-protects-against-cardiac-fibrosis-associated-with-the-inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad2-mediated-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#13
Ya-Ge Jin, Yuan Yuan, Qing-Qing Wu, Ning Zhang, Di Fan, Yan Che, Zhao-Peng Wang, Yang Xiao, Sha-Sha Wang, Qi-Zhu Tang
BACKGROUND: Puerarin is a kind of flavonoids and is extracted from Chinese herb Kudzu root. Puerarin is widely used as an adjuvant therapy in Chinese clinics. But little is known about its effects on regulating cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: Mice were subjected to transverse aorta constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks; meanwhile puerarin was given 1 week after TAC. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed by pathological staining. The mRNA and protein changes of CD31 and vimentin in both animal and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) models were detected...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637651/pivotal-role-of-o-glcnac-modification-in-cold-induced-thermogenesis-by-brown-adipose-tissue-through-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#14
Natsuko Ohashi, Katsutaro Morino, Shogo Ida, Osamu Sekine, Mengistu Lemecha, Shinji Kume, Shi-Young Park, Cheol Soo Choi, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
Adipose tissues considerably influence metabolic homeostasis, and both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) play significant roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. O-GlcNAc modification is characterized by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt), subsequently modulating various cellular processes. However, little is known about the role of O-GlcNAc modification in adipose tissues. Here, we report the critical role of O-GlcNAc modification in cold-induced thermogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637104/-treatment-options-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
REVIEW
Won Kim
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has sharply increased over the past several decades in Korea. In most cases of NAFLD, metabolic stress and cellular apoptosis are often driven by metabolic abnormality, eventually leading to inflammation and fibrosis . Along with a dramatic surge in the obesity epidemic, 10-20% of NAFLD patients ultimately progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a precursor to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as multi-organ systemic diseases...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636803/atorvastatin-attenuates-testosterone-induced-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-rats-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-and-cyclo-oxygenase-2
#16
Ismail O Ishola, Habeeb K Tijani, Olufunke O Dosumu, Charles C Anunobi, Tolulope O Oshodi
Diabetes and obesity have been reported to alter sex steroid hormone metabolism. In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the protective effect of atorvastatin (ATR) in combination with celecoxib (CEL) or pioglitazone (PIO) on testosterone-induced BPH in rats. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 9 groups (n=8) and orally treated as follows for 28 consecutive days; Group 1: vehicle (10 ml/kg), group 2: vehicle (10 ml/kg), groups 3 - 5: ATR (0.5, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, respectively); group 6: CEL (20 mg/kg); Group 7: PIO (20 mg/kg); Groups 8-9: ATR 0...
June 21, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630415/integrating-genome-and-transcriptome-profiling-for-elucidating-the-mechanism-of-muscle-growth-and-lipid-deposition-in-pekin-ducks
#17
Liyuan Wang, Xiangxiang Li, Jun Ma, Yawen Zhang, Hao Zhang
Muscle growth and lipid deposition are co-ordinately regulated processes. Cherry Valley Pekin duck is a lean-type duck breed with high growth rate, whereas the native Pekin duck of China has high lipid deposition. Phenotypic analysis showed that native Pekin ducks have smaller fibre diameter and larger density in the breast muscle at 3 weeks of age and higher intramuscular fat content at 6 weeks of age than those in Cherry Valley Pekin ducks. We detected 17 positively selected genes (PSGs) by comparing genes mainly involved with muscle organ development, muscle contraction, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signalling pathway, and fatty acid metabolism...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630133/dual-regulation-of-gluconeogenesis-by-insulin-and-glucose-in-the-proximal-tubules-of-the-kidney
#18
Motohiro Sasaki, Takayoshi Sasako, Naoto Kubota, Yoshitaka Sakurai, Iseki Takamoto, Tetsuya Kubota, Reiko Inagi, George Seki, Moritaka Goto, Kohjiro Ueki, Masaomi Nangaku, Takahito Jomori, Takashi Kadowaki
Growing attention has been focused on the roles of the proximal tubules (PTs) of the kidney in glucose metabolism, including the mechanism of regulation of gluconeogenesis. Here, we found that PT-specific IRS1/2 double-knockout mice, established by using the newly generated sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2)-Cre transgenic mice, exhibited impaired insulin signaling and upregulated gluconeogenic gene expression and renal gluconeogenesis, resulting in systemic insulin resistance. On the other hand, in streptozotocin-treated mice, although insulin action was impaired in the PTs, the gluconeogenic gene expression was unexpectedly downregulated in the renal cortex, which was restored by administration of an SGLT1/2 inhibitor...
June 19, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627661/altered-expression-of-ppar%C3%A2-%C3%AE-and-trpc-in-neonatal-rats-with-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension
#19
Yanna Du, Jianhua Fu, Li Yao, Lin Qiao, Na Liu, Yujiao Xing, Xindong Xue
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a life‑threatening disease that is commonly observed in the neonatal intensive care unit. PPHN is pathologically characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling and, in particular, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation. Decreased expression levels of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ), which is a member of the nuclear receptor hormone superfamily, in combination with elevated expressions of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) and TRPC6 contributes to the PASMC proliferation and excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling in adult pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627583/deoxyactein-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-against-methylglyoxal-induced-oxidative-cell-damage-by-the-upregulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#20
Kwang Sik Suh, Eun Mi Choi, Woon-Won Jung, Yu Jin Kim, Soo Min Hong, So Yong Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon
Methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the major precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are considered to be one of the causes of diabetes and its complications. The root and rhizomes of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) have long been used medicinally, and deoxyactein is one of its major constituents. In the present study, the protective effects of deoxyactein against MG-induced oxidative cell damage were investigated in insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. We found that deoxyactein protected the pancreatic β-cells against MG-induced cell death...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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