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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060373/small-round-blue-cell-tumors-of-the-sinonasal-tract-a-differential-diagnosis-approach
#1
Lester Dr Thompson
One of the most challenging diagnostic categories within tumors of the sinonasal tract is the small round blue cell tumors. Biopsies are usually small and limited, resulting in considerable diagnostic difficulty for practicing surgical pathologists. These tumors share several overlapping histologic and immunophenotypic findings while also showing considerable variation within and between cases. Specific tumor site of origin, imaging findings, and clinical findings must be combined with the histology and pertinent ancillary studies if the correct diagnosis is to be reached...
January 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060369/virus-associated-neoplasms-of-the-nasopharynx-and-sinonasal-tract-diagnostic-problems
#2
John Kc Chan
A significant fraction of nasopharyngeal and sinonasal tumors are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human papillomavirus (HPV). Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma harbor EBV in practically all cases, although a small proportion of cases of the former harbor HPV. Sinonasal inverted papillomas harbor HPV in about 25% of cases. Sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas harbor transcriptionally active HPV in about 20% of cases, and limited data suggest that this subset has a better prognosis than the HPV-negative subset...
January 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059857/risk-for-cancer-among-people-living-with-aids-1997-2012-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-aids-cancer-linkage-study
#3
Luana F Tanaka, Maria R D O Latorre, Eliana B Gutierrez, Maria P Curado, Guenter Froeschl, Christian Heumann, Karl-Heinz Herbinger
Previous studies have reported an increased risk for certain types of cancer in the HIV-infected population. The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cancer in people with AIDS (PWA) in comparison with the general population in São Paulo (Brazil), between 1997 and 2012. A population-based registry linkage study was carried out to assess the risk for cancer, using a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) approach. A total of 480 102 person-years, of which 337 941 (70.4%) person-years were men, were included in the analysis...
January 4, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047577/th-cd-201-08-flexible-dosimeter-bands-for-whole-body-dosimetry
#4
T Kim, B Fahimian, G Pratx
PURPOSE: The two commonly used radiotherapy techniques are total body irradiation (TBI) and the total skin irradiation (TSI). In order to ensure the accuracy of the prescription beams, the dose received throughout the entire body must be checked using dosimetry. However, the available number of data points is limited as the dosimeters are manually placed on the patient. We developed a flexible and wearable dosimeter that can collect 1D continuous dose information around the peripheral of the patients' body, including areas obscured from the beam path...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035700/cutaneous-extranodal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-mimicking-cellulitis-in-a-hiv-positive-patient-without-lymphopenia
#5
Neeta Malviya, Yevgeniya Byekova, Travis Vandergriff, Melissa Mauskar
We present the case of a 28-year-old male with a history of HIV with a 1-month history of a steadily enlarging, firm painful lesion on the right posterior shoulder. The patient was initially treated for cellulitis given his clinical picture. Histopathologic examination revealed an angiocentric and dermal proliferation of markedly atypical lymphoid cells with numerous mitoses and apoptotic bodies along with broad zones of necrosis. Biopsy revealed the presentation to be consistent with NK/T-cell lymphoma. The cutaneous lesions from NK/T-cell lymphoma can often be initially mistaken for cellulitis, therefore this malignancy should be included on the differential in a patient HIV/AIDS...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025076/unusual-extramedullary-hematopoietic-neoplasms-in-lymph-nodes
#6
Vanessa D Dayton, Sarah J Williams, Robert W McKenna, Michael A Linden
Myeloid, plasma cell, and lymphoblastic neoplasms are expected findings in bone marrow but are much less commonly diagnosed as primary processes in lymph nodes. The objective of this review is to aid pathologists in recognizing common hematopoietic neoplasms in the unusual setting of initial presentation in lymph nodes. Review of historical background and evolution of testing strategies is presented in order to improve understanding of the need for accurate diagnosis and classification using current nomenclature...
December 23, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999885/multidetector-ct-enterography-of-focal-small-bowel-lesions-a-radiological-pathological-correlation
#7
REVIEW
Farnoosh Sokhandon, Sayf Al-Katib, Lawrence Bahoura, Alexander Copelan, Daniel George, Dominic Scola
Focal small bowel lesions present a diagnostic challenge for both the radiologist and gastroenterologist. Both the detection and characterization of small bowel masses have greatly improved with the advent of multidetector CT enterography (MD-CTE). As such, MD-CTE is increasingly utilized in the workup of occult gastrointestinal bleeding. In this article, we review the spectrum of focal small bowel masses with pathologic correlation. Adenocarcinoma, the most common primary small bowel malignancy, presents as a focal irregular mass occasionally with circumferential extension leading to obstruction...
December 20, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999330/dysregulated-microrna-expression-profiles-and-potential-cellular-circulating-and-polymorphic-biomarkers-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#8
REVIEW
Gabrielle Bradshaw, Heidi G Sutherland, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
A large number of studies have focused on identifying molecular biomarkers, including microRNAs (miRNAs) to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of the most common subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma. NHL is difficult to diagnose and treat with many cases becoming resistant to chemotherapy, hence the need to identify improved biomarkers to aid in both diagnosis and treatment modalities. This review summarises more recent research on the dysregulated miRNA expression profiles found in NHL, as well as the regulatory role and biomarker potential of cellular and circulating miRNAs found in tissue and serum, respectively...
December 17, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997883/human-immunodeficiency-virus-lymphadenitis-patterns-on-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology
#9
Mona Agnihotri, Leena Naik, Sachin Chaudhari, Kanchan Kothari
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to study the microscopic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) lymphadenitis on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and correlate them with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of known HIV-positive patients who underwent lymph node FNAC over a period of 5 years (2009-2013) was undertaken. The cytology slides were retrieved and reviewed. Out of 317 cases, 38 (11.7%) were diagnosed as HIV lymphadenitis...
December 21, 2016: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987203/acr-appropriateness-criteria%C3%A2-recurrent-hodgkin-lymphoma
#10
REVIEW
Karen M Winkfield, Ranjana H Advani, Leslie K Ballas, Bouthaina S Dabaja, Sughosh Dhakal, Christopher R Flowers, Chul Soo Ha, Bradford S Hoppe, David B Mansur, Nancy P Mendenhall, Monika L Metzger, John P Plastaras, Kenneth B Roberts, Ronald Shapiro, Sonali M Smith, Stephanie A Terezakis, Anas Younes, Louis S Constine
This topic addresses the management of recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma. While autologous stem cell transplantation may be appropriate for select cases of recurrent disease following comprehensive combined-modality therapy, other options exist for patients treated with lower-dose therapy for early-stage disease. Additionally, innovative targeted therapies provide newer salvage options to consider. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria® are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel...
December 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980783/plasmodium-chabaudi-infection-induces-aid-expression-in-transitional-and-marginal-zone-b-cells
#11
Joel R Wilmore, Alexander C Maue, Rosemary Rochford
INTRODUCTION: Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus and repeated malaria infections. A defining feature of eBL is the translocation of the c-myc oncogene to the control of the immunoglobulin promoter. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been shown to be critical for this translocation. Malaria infection induces AID in germinal center B cells, but whether malaria infection more broadly affects AID activation in extrafollicular B cells is unknown...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979587/deciphering-lymphoma-pathogenesis-via-state-of-the-art-mass-spectrometry-based-quantitative-proteomics
#12
REVIEW
Konstantina Psatha, Laxmikanth Kollipara, Chrysanthi Voutyraki, Peter Divanach, Albert Sickmann, George Z Rassidakis, Elias Drakos, Michalis Aivaliotis
Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics specifically applied to comprehend the pathogenesis of lymphoma has incremental value in deciphering the heterogeneity in complex deregulated molecular mechanisms/pathways of the lymphoma entities, implementing the current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Essential global, targeted and functional differential proteomics analyses although still evolving, have been successfully implemented to shed light on lymphoma pathogenesis to discover and explore the role of potential lymphoma biomarkers and drug targets...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973535/the-influence-of-programmed-cell-death-in-myeloid-cells-on-host-resilience-to-infection-with-legionella-pneumophila-or-streptococcus-pyogenes
#13
Pia Gamradt, Yun Xu, Nina Gratz, Kellyanne Duncan, Lester Kobzik, Sandra Högler, Pavel Kovarik, Thomas Decker, Amanda M Jamieson
Pathogen clearance and host resilience/tolerance to infection are both important factors in surviving an infection. Cells of the myeloid lineage play important roles in both of these processes. Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells all have important roles in initiation of the immune response and clearance of bacterial pathogens. If these cells are not properly regulated they can result in excessive inflammation and immunopathology leading to decreased host resilience. Programmed cell death (PCD) is one possible mechanism that myeloid cells may use to prevent excessive inflammation...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965075/the-diagnostic-value-and-safety-of-stereotactic-biopsy-in-aids-patients-with-intracranial-lesions-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Jibo Zhang, Xuemeng Liu, Kai Fu, Chengshi Xu, Rui Gong, Li Liu, Tao Guo, Hui Zhou, Xinyu Zhao, Jincao Chen, Jie Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value and safety of stereotactic biopsy in AIDS patients with intracranial lesions via meta-analysis. METHODS: Relevant cohort studies were identified through a literature search in PubMed, Embase and Ovid from 1985 to October 1, 2016. Appropriate studies were identified per search criteria. Systematic review and meta-analysis were used to assess the diagnosis success rate, changed management rate, clinical improvement rate, mortality rate, morbidity rate, haemorrhage rate, haemorrhage in morbidity rate and final histological diagnosis results...
December 10, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942480/diagnostic-imaging-of-benign-and-malignant-neck-masses-in-children-a-pictorial-review
#15
REVIEW
Ruth Elizabeth Brown, Srikrishna Harave
Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942222/ctgf-enhances-resistance-to-5-fu-mediating-cell-apoptosis-through-fak-mek-erk-signal-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Kai Yang, Kai Gao, Gui Hu, Yanguang Wen, Changwei Lin, Xiaorong Li
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among both males and females; the chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of a doctors' first lines of defense against CRC. However, therapeutic failures are common because of the emergence of drug resistance. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted protein that binds to integrins, and regulates the invasiveness and metastasis of certain carcinoma cells. Here, we found that CTGF was upregulated in drug-resistant phenotype of human CRC cells...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924834/activation-induced-deaminase-mutational-signature-overlaps-with-cpg-methylation-sites-in-follicular-lymphoma-and-other-cancers
#17
Igor B Rogozin, Artem G Lada, Alexander Goncearenco, Michael R Green, Subhajyoti De, German Nudelman, Anna R Panchenko, Eugene V Koonin, Youri I Pavlov
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an uncurable cancer characterized by progressive severity of relapses. We analyzed sequence context specificity of mutations in the B cells from a large cohort of FL patients. We revealed substantial excess of mutations within a novel hybrid nucleotide motif: the signature of somatic hypermutation (SHM) enzyme, Activation Induced Deaminase (AID), which overlaps the CpG methylation site. This finding implies that in FL the SHM machinery acts at genomic sites containing methylated cytosine...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910030/recurrent-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#18
Edmond S K Ma
Characteristic chromosomal translocations are found to be associated with subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), for example t(8;14)(q24;q32) and Burkitt lymphoma, t(14;18)(q32;q21) and follicular lymphoma, and t(11;14)(q13;q32) in mantle cell lymphoma. Only few recurrent cytogenetic aberrations have been identified in the T-cell NHL and the best known is the ALK gene translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Since lymph node or other tissue is seldom submitted for conventional cytogenetics study, alternative approaches for translocation detection are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907928/cytomorphological-analysis-of-lymph-node-lesions-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-cd4-count-correlation-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Sadia Siddiqa Nasser, Rashmi K Patil, Shreekanth K Kittur
OBJECTIVES: To study the cytomorphological spectrum of lymph node lesions in HIV-positive patients and correlate the cytological findings with the CD4 count. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 23 months' duration which included 110 HIV-positive cases proved according to the guidelines of the National AIDS Control Organisation. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done on clinically palpable lymph nodes. Special stains and culture were done wherever necessary...
December 2, 2016: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896941/patient-reported-neuropathic-pain-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-patients
#20
Melissa A Acquazzino, Eva C Igler, Mahua Dasgupta, Pippa Simpson, Meghen B Browning, Amanda M Brandow
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain, a known complication of cancer and its treatments, negatively impacts quality of life. There are limited data using screening tools to aid in the diagnosis of neuropathic pain in cancer patients. Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of adolescent and young adult cancer patients reporting neuropathic pain on a patient-completed, neuropathic pain screening tool. PROCEDURES: This prospective, cohort study enrolled patients 14-39 years of age who were receiving therapy for primary cancer diagnosis, cancer relapse, or had recently completed treatment...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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