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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922334/common-malignant-brain-tumors-can-18f-fdg-pet-ct-aid-in-differentiation
#1
Nilendu C Purandare, Ameya Puranik, Sneha Shah, Archi Agrawal, Tejpal Gupta, Aliasgar Moiyadi, Prakash Shetty, Epari Shridhar, Rakesh Jalali, Venkatesh Rangarajan
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evalute the metabolic characteristics of common malignant space-occupying lesions (SOL) of the brain and to determine the utility of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT in differentiating between the common types of malignant brain SOL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with brain SOL who were referred for an F-FDG PET/CT scan by a multidisciplinary team were included in this retrospective study. The metabolic characteristics of the brain lesions in the form of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) along with tumor-to-background activity ratios were determined and differences were compared using nonparametric statistical tests...
September 15, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920509/diagnosis-of-hyponatremia-and-increased-risk-of-a-subsequent-cancer-diagnosis-results-from-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Louise Holland-Bill, Christian Fynbo Christiansen, Dóra Körmendiné Farkas, Frede Donskov, Jens Otto L Jørgensen, Henrik Toft Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia has recently been associated with subsequent cancer risk. This population-based nationwide study assessed whether the diagnosis of hyponatremia can predict a cancer diagnosis within most common cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using Danish medical registries, we identified 16,220 patients with a first-time diagnosis of hyponatremia, without a cancer diagnosis, from January 2006 through November 2013. We quantified the relative risk of a subsequent cancer diagnosis by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), comparing observed cancer incidence among patients diagnosed with hyponatremia to that expected, based on national cancer incidence during that period...
September 18, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900786/the-pattern-of-secondary-cancers-in-patients-with-kaposi-sarcoma-in-the-united-states
#3
Vivek Kumar, Mohit Garg, Neha Chaudhary, Parita Soni, Charalampos S Floudas, Chiemeziem Nwanyanwu, Abhinav Chandra
PURPOSE: In the U.S., Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs mostly in HIV-infected patients, who are also at increased risk of developing secondary cancers. The trends in secondary cancer risk are unclear in the HAART era. METHODS: We extracted data from the SEER database on patients diagnosed with KS between 1981 and 2013, stratified into the pre-HAART (1981-1995) and HAART (1996-2013) eras. We compared the risk of secondary cancer in KS patients and the general population, and estimated the absolute risk...
September 12, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874563/epigenetic-control-via-allosteric-regulation-of-mammalian-protein-arginine-methyltransferases
#4
Kanishk Jain, Cyrus Y Jin, Steven G Clarke
Arginine methylation on histones is a central player in epigenetics and in gene activation and repression. Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) activity has been implicated in stem cell pluripotency, cancer metastasis, and tumorigenesis. The expression of one of the nine mammalian PRMTs, PRMT5, affects the levels of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) at Arg-3 on histone H4, leading to the repression of genes which are related to disease progression in lymphoma and leukemia. Another PRMT, PRMT7, also affects SDMA levels at the same site despite its unique monomethylating activity and the lack of any evidence for PRMT7-catalyzed histone H4 Arg-3 methylation...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860565/interleukin-6-dependent-growth-in-a-newly-established-plasmablastic-lymphoma-cell-line-and-its-therapeutic-targets
#5
Sohtaro Mine, Tsunekazu Hishima, Akihiko Suganuma, Hitomi Fukumoto, Yuko Sato, Michiyo Kataoka, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Makoto Kuroda, Tadaki Suzuki, Hideki Hasegawa, Masashi Fukayama, Harutaka Katano
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare, highly aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with plasma-cell differentiation occurring typically in immune-suppressed patients such as those with AIDS. This study reports the establishment and characterization of a new cell line, PBL-1, derived from a patient with AIDS-associated PBL. Morphological assessment of PBL-1 indicated plasma-cell differentiation with a CD20(-) CD38(+) CD138(+) immunophenotype and IgH/c-myc translocation. The cell line harbours Epstein-Barr virus, but a 52...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837714/change-in-pattern-of-secondary-cancers-after-kaposi-sarcoma-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Fahad Mukhtar, Mmadili Ilozumba, Ovie Utuama, Oguz Cimenler
Importance: Studies performed in the 1980s and early 1990s have shown that people who develop Kaposi sarcoma (KS) are at higher risk of developing other cancers. The demographics of those affected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and KS have changed, and individuals with HIV/AIDS and KS now live longer. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that the secondary cancers developing in patients with KS have changed in recent years and to assess the risk of secondary cancers after KS in different periods...
August 24, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815721/rgd-peptide-based-target-drug-delivery-of-doxorubicin-nanomedicine
#7
Yuan Sun, Chen Kang, Fei Liu, You Zhou, Lei Luo, Hongzhi Qiao
Preclinical Research Doxorubicin (DOX) is commonly used for the treatment of breast cancer and lymphoma. However, its clinical use has been severely limited due to cardiotoxicity, requiring the development of safer and more efficient pharmaceutical formulations of DOX. Advances in nanotechnology have provided new ways to administer chemotherapeutic drugs like DOX are conveyed into the body and to tumor sites. These Nanotechnology approaches have aided in the selective accumulation of DOX into tumor sites via the enhanced permeability and retention...
August 16, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803888/cancer-risk-in-hiv-infected-people-in-the-usa-from-1996-to-2012-a-population-based-registry-linkage-study
#8
Raúl U Hernández-Ramírez, Meredith S Shiels, Robert Dubrow, Eric A Engels
BACKGROUND: Monitoring cancer risk among HIV-infected people in the modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) era is essential given their elevated risk for many cancers and prolonged survival with immunosuppression, ART exposure, and ageing. We aimed to examine cancer risk in HIV-infected people in the USA as compared with that in the general population. METHODS: We did a registry-linkage study with data from population-based HIV and cancer registries in the USA (the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study)...
August 10, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792782/emerging-antibody-drug-conjugates-for-treating-lymphoid-malignancies
#9
Anna Wolska-Washer, Pawel Robak, Piotr Smolewski, Tadeusz Robak
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) attached to biologically active drugs through specialized chemical linkers. They deliver and release cytotoxic agents at the tumor site, reducing the likelihood of systemic exposure and therefore toxicity. These agents should improve the potency of chemotherapy by increasing the accumulation of cytotoxic the drug within or near the neoplastic cells with reduced systemic effects. Areas covered: A literature review was conducted of the MEDLINE database PubMed for articles in English examining Mabs, B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors and immunomodulating drugs...
August 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776339/trends-in-malignancies-among-korean-patients-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-the-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-era
#10
Shinwon Lee, Sun Hee Lee, Jeong Eun Lee, Jin Suk Kang, Seung Geun Lee, Joo Seop Chung, Ihm Soo Kwak
Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the life span of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDS (PWHA) has been extended significantly. Therefore, the importance of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs), as well as AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) has increased. There is little information concerning the epidemiology of malignancies in PWHA in Korea. A descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. PWHA who visited Pusan National University Hospital from January 2000 to October 2014 were included...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747447/long-term-aids-related-pcnsl-outcomes-with-hd-mtx-and-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Antoine Moulignier, Cédric Lamirel, Hervé Picard, Marie-Gisèle Lebrette, Corinne Amiel, Mohammed Hamidi, Marc Polivka, Jacqueline Mikol, Isabelle Cochereau, Gilles Pialoux
OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics and outcomes of patients with AIDS-related primary CNS lymphoma (AR-PCNSL) in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era systematically treated with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed (intention-to-treat analysis) 51 consecutive patients with AR-PCNSL (median age 39 years) who were diagnosed from 1996 to 2014 and treated with a median of 6 (range 1-15) infusions of HD-MTX (3 g/m(2)) combined with cART...
August 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724724/brct-domain-protein-brit1-influences-class-switch-recombination
#12
Wei-Feng Yen, Ashutosh Chaudhry, Bharat Vaidyanathan, William T Yewdell, Joseph N Pucella, Rahul Sharma, Yulong Liang, Kaiyi Li, Alexander Y Rudensky, Jayanta Chaudhuri
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) serve as obligatory intermediates for Ig heavy chain (Igh) class switch recombination (CSR). The mechanisms by which DSBs are resolved to promote long-range DNA end-joining while suppressing genomic instability inherently associated with DSBs are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we use a targeted short-hairpin RNA screen in a B-cell lymphoma line to identify the BRCT-domain protein BRIT1 as an effector of CSR. We show that conditional genetic deletion of BRIT1 in mice leads to a marked increase in unrepaired Igh breaks and a significant reduction in CSR in ex vivo activated splenic B cells...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715488/microrna-dependent-and-independent-deregulation-of-long-non-coding-rnas-by-an-oncogenic-herpesvirus
#13
Sunantha Sethuraman, Lauren Appleby Gay, Vaibhav Jain, Irina Haecker, Rolf Renne
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly prevalent cancer in AIDS patients, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of KS and other cancers like Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL). In KS and PEL, all tumors harbor latent KSHV episomes and express latency-associated viral proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs). The exact molecular mechanisms by which latent KSHV drives tumorigenesis are not completely understood. Recent developments have highlighted the importance of aberrant long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in cancer...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707393/malaria-epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-the-pathogenesis-of-burkitt-s-lymphoma
#14
Anthony R Mawson, Suvankar Majumdar
A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR, Path Global Health 2013;107(3):122-9)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701833/anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-a-great-mimic-on-cytology
#15
Mona A Agnihotri, Kanchan S Kothari, Leena P Naik, Sharada Patil
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a T-cell lymphoma, accounting for <5% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cutaneous involvement can be primary or secondary arising in systemic ALCL. The diagnostic feature in both is the presence of pleomorphic, CD30 positive hallmark cells. We present a case of ALCL in a 19-year-old male presenting as an ulcerated scalp swelling. Clinical impression was actinomycosis or scrofuloderma. Cytology smears showed large dispersed pleomorphic cells with hyperlobated nuclei and multinucleated giant cells...
July 2017: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694706/abnormalities-in-alternative-splicing-of-angiogenesis-related-genes-and-their-role-in-hiv-related-cancers
#16
REVIEW
Nonkululeko N Mthembu, Zukile Mbita, Rodney Hull, Zodwa Dlamini
Alternative splicing of mRNA leads to an increase in proteome biodiversity by allowing the generation of multiple mRNAs, coding for multiple protein isoforms of various structural and functional properties from a single primary pre-mRNA transcript. The protein isoforms produced are tightly regulated in normal development but are mostly deregulated in various cancers. In HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, there is an increase in aberrant alternative splicing, resulting in an increase in HIV/AIDS-related cancers, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cervical cancer...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685876/eus-fna-of-the-merkel-cell-carcinoma-metastasis-to-the-pancreas-cytomorphology-and-immunocytochemistry-on-direct-cytological-smears
#17
T Stoos-Veic, M Tadic, G Aralica, V Milicic, C Tomasovic-Loncaric
OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) metastatic to the pancreas diagnosed with endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and to add the case of concomitant chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and MCC to the literature. The aim is to alert the cytopathologists once more to the problems of differential diagnosis of pancreatic metastasis of MCC and to describe the possibilities of ancillary methods performed on direct cytological smears...
July 6, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667038/post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-presented-in-a-form-of-primary-effusion-lymphoma-with-t-8-14
#18
Sadia Sultana, Suhair Al Salihi, Nidhi Tandon, Jesse Jaso, Nghia D Nguyen, Songlin Zhang, Jing Liu
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are emergent complications of organ transplantation occurring in 2% to 10% of transplanted patients. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are considered the most important factors for the development of these heterogeneous disorders. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder predominantly described in patients with advanced AIDS and it is almost universally associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). In rare case, PEL also occurs in HHV8-negative patient, in the setting of hepatitis B and C virus infection...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652923/jc-virus-granule-cell-neuronopathy-onset-two-months-after-chemotherapy-for-low-grade-lymphoma
#19
Kathryn B Holroyd, Elias S Sotirchos, Scott R DeBoer, Kelly A Mills, Scott D Newsome
BACKGROUND: Granule cell neuronopathy (GCN) is a rare disease caused by the JC virus, leading to degeneration of cerebellar granule cell neurons. Primarily described in patients with AIDS, it has also been diagnosed in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases and after long-term treatment with immune-suppressing medications such as natalizumab. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69 year old woman presented with progressive ataxia which began 2 months after initiation of treatment for follicular low-grade B cell lymphoma with rituximab/bendamustine, and progressed for 2 years prior to admission...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632297/n%C3%A3-lbiopsi-%C3%A3-r-inte-b%C3%A3-sta-metod-f%C3%A3-r-att-diagnostisera-lymfom-den-%C3%A3-kade-anv%C3%A3-ndningen-kan-ge-allvarliga-konsekvenser-f%C3%A3-r-diagnostik-forskning-och-behandlingsutveckling
#20
Rose-Marie Amini, Christer Sundström
Core needle biopsies for lymphoma diagnosis seriously affect diagnostics, treatment development and research Core needle biopsies (CNBs) are widely used in clinical diagnostic labs to aid in the diagnosis of malignant lymphomas and in latter years their use is increasing. CNBs provide a rapid method for obtaining tumour material and may be beneficial when the affected lymph nodes are located deep in the abdominal cavity or mediastinum and surgical excisional biopsies may be difficult to perform. However, according to the Swedish Haematopathology Quality and Standardization Committee, CNBs are insufficient for lymphoma diagnostic purposes and the guidelines state that material from surgical excisional biopsies are mandatory in order to obtain a robust histopathological evaluation of the lymph node architecture, cellular composition and growth pattern...
June 16, 2017: Läkartidningen
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