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Genitourinary malignancies

Prashant Kumar, Rishi Nayyar, Amlesh Seth, Deepti Gupta
The exstrophy-epispadias complex represents a spectrum of genitourinary malformations ranging from simple glanular epispadias to an overwhelming multisystem defect, cloacal exstrophy. Neonatal total reconstruction of bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex is the treatment of choice. An adult patient presenting with untreated exstrophy is very rare. Malignant transformation, commonly adenocarcinoma, in such cases is a known complication due to mucosal metaplasia of urothelium. Management in such cases necessitates a radical surgical procedure that often results in a massive defect in the anterior abdominal wall...
January 14, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Yun Liu, Xia Wu, Guokun Wang, Shisong Hu, Yuandong Zhang, Shenglong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the genitourinary tract. We employed the GSE13507 data set from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database in order to identify key genes related to tumorigenesis, progression, and prognosis in BC patients. METHODS: The data set used in this study included 10 normal bladder mucosae tissue samples and 165 primary BC tissue samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the 2 types of samples were identified by GEO2R...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Daisy Atwell, Dinesh D Vignarajah, Bryan A Chan, Nicole Buddle, Peter M Manders, Katrina West, Marcel Knesl, Jeremy Long, Myo Min
INTRODUCTION: The multidisciplinary team meeting (MDTM) approach is accepted as standard of care to optimise treatment for patients diagnosed with cancer. This retrospective audit reviews the proportion of patients whose care is being discussed at cancer MDTMs within the Sunshine Coast Hospital and Health Service (SCHHS). METHODS: Patients included were those diagnosed with cancer within the SCHHS between 2010 and 2015, and subsequently referred to a public MDTM for discussion...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Ming-Dow Tsay, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Shian-Shiang Wang, Wen-Chen Wang, Ya-Yi Chou, Chen-Ho Shih, Shun-Fa Yang, Ying-Erh Chou
OBJECTIVES: Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), a major malignancy of the genitourinary tract, is induced through carcinogenic etiological factors. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is one of the major isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and is involved in various pathophysiologic and physiologic processes. In this study, eNOS single-nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated to evaluate UCC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of eNOS in 431 patients with UCC and 862 controls without cancer were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
January 2, 2019: Urologic Oncology
Olivia H Chang, Marie Fidela R Paraiso
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause is defined as the collection of signs and symptoms of the genitourinary tract from menopause, previously known as vulvovaginal atrophy. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved select hormonal and non-hormonal treatment for vaginal atrophy, including systemic estrogen, vaginal estrogen, estrogen receptor modulators and dehydroepiandrosterone. These medications can increase the risk of thromboembolic disease and malignancy; furthermore, the cost of the medications have been increasing...
December 23, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
H Sasaki, H Nakamura, H Ono, S Yoshino, Y Sakurai, N Yoza, T Iwata, K Matsumura, Y Satoh, N Aoki, W Usuba, T Nishi, Y Katsuoka, R Nakazawa
BACKGROUND: The levels of corneal donation are insufficient to meet the demand for corneal transplantation in Japan. To overcome this problem, we started to routinely mention the possibility of corneal donation to the families of patients who died in our hospital's Urology Department in February 2008. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of this approach. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients who died in the Department of Urology, St...
December 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
A I Glukhov, N V Polotdykova, S A Gordeev, A Z Vinarov, K A Polyakovsky, L M Rapoport, D G Tsarichenko, D V Enikeev, P V Glybochko
In the Russian Federation, a proportion of bladder cancer in the overall structure of malignant tumors is about 2.8% and among oncological diseases of genitourinary system its incidence is second only to prostate cancer. Bladder cancer ranks as ninth most prevalent in males and as eighteens in females. The most important issue is to determine a recurrence rate of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, which can reach 80%. In this regard, currently, all over the world much more attention is paid to studying and creation of early detection, including non-invasive, which will be reliable in the early stages...
December 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Rano Matta, Christopher R Chapple, Margit Fisch, Axel Heidenreich, Sender Herschorn, Ronald T Kodama, Bridget F Koontz, Declan G Murphy, Paul L Nguyen, Robert K Nam
CONTEXT: Radiotherapy used for treating localized prostate cancer is effective at prolonging cancer-specific and overall survival. Still, acute and late pelvic toxicities are a concern, with gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) sequelae being most common as well as other pelvic complications. OBJECTIVE: To present a critical review of the literature regarding the incidence and risk factors of pelvic toxicity following primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer and to provide a narrative review regarding its management...
December 17, 2018: European Urology
L Gao, F-M Xu, W-J Shi, S Zhang, Y-L Lu, D-K Zhao, Y-F Long, R-B Teng, B Ge
OBJECTIVE: Bladder cancer is the most prevalent genitourinary malignant disorder worldwide. We aimed to observe effects of high-glucose on bladder cancer proliferation and explore the associated mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human bladder cancer cell line, T24, was divided into Blank, Control (Ctrl), 10 mmol/l, 20 mmol/l and 30 mmol/l group. T24 cell proliferation was evaluated by using multiple table tournament (MTT) assay and colony formation analysis, respectively...
December 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Luis Beltran, Amar S Ahmad, Holly Sandu, Sakunthala Kudahetti, Geraldine Soosay, Henrik Møller, Jack Cuzick, Daniel M Berney
There are few studies into the rate and causes of histopathologic false-positive diagnosis of prostate cancer. Only 2 of these, including a previous one from our group, incorporate survival data. In addition, in none of the previous studies had immunohistochemistry (IHC) been originally requested on any of the misdiagnosed cases. Diagnostic biopsies (n=1080) and transurethral resection of prostate specimens (n=314) from 1394 men with clinically localized prostate cancer diagnosed in the United Kingdom but treated conservatively between 1990 and 2003 were reviewed by a panel of 3 genitourinary pathologists...
December 7, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Harley A Williams, Nahid Punjani, Obaidullah Khan, Nicholas E Power
INTRODUCTION: Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SmCC) is a rare and aggressive genitourinary malignancy. The paucity of clinical trials and outcome data provide no standard treatment guidelines. Accordingly, patient prognosis is poor. Our goal was to present the first comprehensive in-depth analysis of SmCC in a tertiary Canadian centre. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed with primary SmCC at the London Regional Cancer Program between January 1990 and 2016...
December 3, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Ricardo Leão, Ardalan E Ahmad, Robert J Hamilton
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) represent the most common solid tumors among men aged 15 to 34 years. Fortunately, recent advances have made testicular cancer a highly curable disease. Despite the high cure rates, there are still several areas in testis cancer care where treatment decisions are controversial and guided only with clinical factors and historic serum tumor markers. Unfortunately, unlike other genitourinary malignancies, modern research techniques have not been widely tested or applied to germ cell tumors, perhaps as a result of excellent prognosis in this cohort of young men...
October 23, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
M Leon-Ruiz, D A Perez-Martinez, J Benito-Leon
INTRODUCTION: Genitourinary cancers constitute a heterogeneous and increasingly frequent group of malignant tumors that have the potential to derive directly, or indirectly from the treatment applied, in a series of neurological complications that negatively impact on the quality of life of the patients who suffer them. AIMS: To report the most relevant data on the main neurological complications of genitourinary cancers. DEVELOPMENT: We conducted a PubMed search for articles, latest books, leading clinical practice guidelines, and scientific societies, regarding the appearance of such complications...
December 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Tsung-Yu Huang, Chien-Hui Hung, Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Kuo-Ti Peng, Ming-Szu Hung, Li-Ju Lai, Hui-Ju Chuang, Wan-Ling Tai, Yu-Pei Ku, Ting-Shu Wu
BACKGROUND: Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) is rare but fatal if not diagnosed early. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes of GUTB in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 57 patients who were diagnosed as GUTB from January 2002 to December 2016, over a 15-year period. Demographic data and clinical manifestations were recorded for analysis. RESULTS: There were 37 males and 20 females with a median age of 71 years...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Nazi Aghaalikhani, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Pejman Shadpour, Abdolamir Allameh, Marzieh Mahmoodi
Bladder cancer is one of the most prevalent genitourinary cancers responsible for about 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. Currently, several treatments, such as endoscopic and open surgery, appended by local or systemic immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are used to treat this malignancy. However, the differences in treatment outcome among patients suffering from bladder cancer are considered as one of the important challenges. In recent years, cancer stem cells, representing a population of undifferentiated cells with stem-cell like properties, have been eyed as a major culprit for the high recurrence rate in superficial papillary bladder cancer...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Vivek Verma, Tanja Sprave, Waqar Haque, Charles B Simone, Joe Y Chang, James W Welsh, Charles R Thomas
BACKGROUND: Escalating healthcare costs are necessitating the practice of value-based oncology. It is crucial to critically evaluate the economic impact of influential but expensive therapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). To date, no systematic assessment of the cost-effectiveness (CE) of ICIs has been performed. METHODS: PRISMA-guided systematic searches of the PubMed database were conducted. Studies of head/neck (n = 3), lung (n = 5), genitourinary (n = 4), and melanoma (n = 8) malignancies treated with ICIs were evaluated...
November 23, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
D A Husmann
INTRODUCTION: The long-term survival of a patient with childhood cancer now exceeds 80%. Unfortunately, as survivorship improves, the long-term consequences of the treatments used have become manifest. Specifically, the finding that development of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN) is the leading cause of late mortality is concerning. In cancer survivors who are at high risk for developing an SMN, cancer screening protocols have well-documented survivorship benefits. Regrettably, 50% of these high-risk patients are non-compliant with these protocols, with studies revealing that inadequate patient compliance is in part because of insufficient knowledge of the physician regarding its need...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Clara Hwang
Pathologic variables play an important role in prognostication in urologic malignancies. Histologic subtype, histologic grade, and anatomic extent of disease (pathologic tumor and nodal staging) influence treatment decisions in both the adjuvant and metastatic settings. This article discusses treatment paradigms for the most common urologic malignancies, followed by the evidence base to support the relationship between pathologic assessment and decision making by the medical oncologist.
December 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
Bryce Shawn Hatfield, Mark Cameron Mochel, Steven Christopher Smith
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the genitourinary (GU) tract often pose considerable diagnostic challenges due to their wide morphologic spectrum, relative rarity, and unexpected incidence at GU sites. Soft tissue tumors arise throughout the GU tract, whether from adventitia surrounding or connective tissues within the kidneys, urinary bladder, and male and female genital organs. This selected article focuses on a subset of these lesions, ranging from benign to malignant and encompassing a range of patterns of mesenchymal differentiation, where recent scholarship has lent greater insight into their clinical, molecular, or diagnostic features...
December 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
Jan Laco, Ondřej Daum, Iva Zambo, Ondrej Ondič, Marián Švajdler
In this article, indications and pitfalls in frozen section diagnosis in selected organs and systems are discussed. The main indications for frozen section examination of head and neck and genitourinary system lesions are to evaluate the resection margin and the metastatic involvement of lymph nodes. Recently, intraoperative consultation has been introduced for identification of patients who might benefit from testis-sparing surgery. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration has greatly diminished the need for frozen section evaluation of thyroid lesions...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
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