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Genitourinary malignancies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924801/scrotum-melanoma-evolution-over-one-year-in-this-unusual-location
#1
Leopoldo José Marzullo Zucchet, Miguel Ángel Bonillo García, Laura Lorenzo Soriano, Enrique Broseta Rico
Genitourinary melanoma accounts for 0.1-0.2% of melanoma, the scrotum being its rarest location. We report about an 85-year-old patient who was referred to our outpatient clinic due to the presence of a scrotum black papule for 20 months. Wide local excision was performed, and histology revealed a malignant melanoma. Chest and abdominal CT revealed metastatic disease, so chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy were administered. We describe the evolution over 1 year in this unusual location, as well as complications and the currently available therapeutic options to cure this disease...
December 8, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878359/long-noncoding-rna-gas5-inhibits-malignant-proliferation-and-chemotherapy-resistance-to-doxorubicin-in-bladder-transitional-cell-carcinoma
#2
Hui Zhang, Yan Guo, Yongsheng Song, Chao Shang
PURPOSE: Bladder cancer is the most general malignant cancer in genitourinary system, more than 90% of BCs are bladder transitional cell carcinomas (BTCC). This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) gene and its regulatory effects of malignant proliferation and chemotherapy resistance to doxorubicin in BTCC cells. METHODS: The expression of GAS5 was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was used to determine the relationship between GAS5 expression and clinical features and the prognostic value of GAS5 for disease free survival...
November 22, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870705/clinical-study-on-female-genital-tract-rhabdomyosarcoma-in-childhood-changes-during-20-years-in-one-center
#3
Jie Yang, Jiaxin Yang, Mei Yu, Zhen Yuan, Dongyan Cao, Shen Keng
OBJECTIVE: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare tumor in girls. We intend to analyze the clinical feature, therapeutic effect, and prognosis of pediatric and adolescent RMS of the female genitourinary tract. METHODS: Pediatric or adolescent patients with female genital tract RMS in 1 tertiary hospital from 1995 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The medical records were collected, including general information, tumor primary site, stage, histology, treatments, adverse effects, and survival outcomes...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857266/my-personal-journey-with-ovarian-cancer-treatment-caring-and-chemotherapy-tips
#4
Kim A Decker
Six years ago, I was diagnosed with stage IIIA ovarian low malignant cell potential cancer. It was the most shocking situation I have ever experienced. I didn't realize I had any symptoms, except occasional back pain, which I attributed to starting a new workout program. I had scheduled an abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan for recurrent microscopic hematuria, which my internist wanted to check. I was told I would hear the results in two days. Two hours after my CT scan, while I was eating ice cream and watching television, an on-call genitourinary doctor (who I did not personally know) called to tell me the good news-that I had kidney stones, thus the microscopic hematuria...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842445/cabozantinib-in-genitourinary-malignancies
#5
Tian Zhang, Se Eun Park, Cierra Hong, Daniel J George
Cabozantinib inhibits a variety of cellular receptors including VEGFR1-3, MET, AXL, RET, FLT3 and KIT. These signaling pathways have been shown to be important in genitourinary malignancies. Along its clinical development, it has shown most activity in advanced renal cell carcinoma; the METEOR study compared cabozantinib to everolimus and showed clinically and statistically significant improvements in both progression-free survival and overall survival. Herein, we review the development of cabozantinib in the genitourinary malignancies of renal cell carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma and urothelial carcinoma...
November 15, 2016: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806309/targeted-ultra-deep-sequencing-unveils-a-lack-of-driver-gene-mutations-linking-non-hereditary-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-and-highly-prevalent-second-primary-malignancies-random-or-nonrandom-that-is-the-question
#6
Bo-Ru Lai, Yu-Tung Wu, Yung-Chia Kuo, Hung-Chih Hsu, Jen-Shi Chen, Tse-Ching Chen, Ren-Chin Wu, Cheng-Tang Chiu, Chun-Nan Yeh, Ta-Sen Yeh
The association of non-hereditary (sporadic) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and second primary malignancies is known to be nonrandom, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, 136 of 749 (18.1%) patients with sporadic GISTs were found to have additional associated cancers, with gastrointestinal and genitourinary/gynecologic/breast cancers being the most prevalent. Gene mutations in GISTs and their associated colorectal cancers (CRCs) (n=9) were analyzed using a panel of 409 cancer-related genes, while a separate group of 40 sporadic CRCs not associated with GISTs served as controls...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802414/solitary-fibrous-tumour-of-the-genitourinary-tract-a-clinicopathological-study-of-11-cases-and-their-association-with-the-nab2-stat6-fusion-gene
#7
Erik Kouba, Novae B Simper, Shaoxiong Chen, Sean R Williamson, David J Grignon, John N Eble, Gregory T MacLennan, Rodolfo Montironi, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Adeboye O Osunkoya, Shaobo Zhang, Mingsheng Wang, Lisha Wang, Thu Tran, Robert E Emerson, Lee Ann Baldrige, M Francesca Monn, Konstantinos Linos, Liang Cheng
AIMS: To characterise clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes of the genitourinary tract solitary fibrous tumours, incorporating NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion status. METHODS: The presence of the molecular hallmark NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion and for the defining fusion partner product STAT6 was assessed in 11 cases of the genitourinary tract solitary fibrous tumours. NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion analysis was performed using a break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) probe using a probe cocktail with Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones for STAT6 and NAB2...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798414/rare-urologic-tumors
#8
Barrett McCormick, Aaron Dahmen, Ali Antar, Adam Baumgarten, Jasreman Dhillon, Philippe E Spiess
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of genitourinary malignancy is likely to encompass a large portion of most of the urologist's practice. The challenge for the modern urologist is not only in understanding the management of commonly seen genitourinary malignancies, but also in recognizing unusual variants and their differences in management. This is evermore important as new technologies have refined the ability to identify rare entities. This review presents a brief overview of the various genitourinary malignancy subtypes seen within urology...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781412/causes-of-false-negative-for-high-grade-urothelial-carcinoma-in-urine-cytology
#9
Paul J Lee, Christopher L Owens, Marie Y Lithgow, Zhong Jiang, Andrew H Fischer
INTRODUCTION: The Paris System for classifying urine cytology emphasizes identification of high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). The causes of false-negative urine cytologies (UC) within this system are not well described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 660 cases between 2005 and 2013 with both UC and subsequent cystoscopic biopsies. UC were classified as either Negative for HGUC or "Abnormal" ("Atypical", "Suspicious", and "Malignant"). Apparent false-negative cases were reviewed in a nonblinded fashion by two cytopathologists and two subspecialized genitourinary pathologists...
December 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774755/fine-needle-aspiration-biopsy-of-prostate-synovial-sarcoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Sara Maleki, Antonio Cajigas, Jason Moss, K H Ramesh, Samer Khader
We describe a case of synovial sarcoma originating from prostate gland. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) for SYT rearrangement on the cell block. Synovial sarcoma is a high grade soft tissue malignancy with exceedingly rare involvement of genitourinary tract. However this entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis when dealing with aspiration biopsies of particularly deep seated lesions with spindle cell or small round blue cell cytomorphology. Diagn...
October 24, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766477/risk-of-second-primary-malignancies-in-lung-cancer-survivors-the-influence-of-different-treatments
#11
Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Chia-Jen Liu, Yuh-Min Chen, Teh-Ying Chou, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Sang-Hue Yen, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jin-Hwang Liu, Yu-Wen Hu
BACKGROUND: Currently, no large study addressing the relationship between lung cancer patients with different therapies and second primary malignancies (SPMs) is available. METHODS: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a population-based cohort study. Patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer between 1997 and 2005 were enrolled and followed up until Dec. 31, 2011. The endpoint of the study was SPM occurrence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancers were calculated to compare the cancer incidence of the study cohort to that of the general population...
October 20, 2016: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746882/primary-retroperitoneal-melanoma-presented-in-a-rare-extracutaneous-site-for-malignant-melanoma
#12
Mohamed Alsharedi, Nadim Bou Zgheib, Yousef Khelfa, Ali Raufi, Nabiha Elmsherghi, Yehuda Lebowicz
Malignant melanoma, as the name implies, is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, found in the skin, eyes, meningeal lining and the mucosal epithelium of the aero-digestive and genitourinary tracts. Malignant melanoma is typically skin malignancy, which rarely presents at extracutaneous site. Here we present a rare case of primary retroperitoneal melanoma and review the findings in comparison with other cases described in literature.
September 5, 2016: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734016/pneumonia-and-pleural-empyema-due-to-a-mixed-lactobacillus-spp-infection-as-a-possible-early-esophageal-carcinoma-signature
#13
Eleftheria Chaini, Nikolaos D Chainis, Anastasios Ioannidis, Maria Magana, Chryssoula Nikolaou, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Melina-Vassiliki Liakata, Panagiotis Katopodis, Leonidas Papastavrou, George P Tegos, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou
Lactobacilli are human commensals found in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. Although generally conceived as non-pathogenic microorganisms, the existence of several reports implicating them in certain severe pathological entities renders this species as opportunistic pathogens. The case of a 58-year-old woman with mixed Lactobacillus infection is described. The patient was admitted in an outpatient clinic with community acquired pneumonia, and on the third day of hospitalization she presented rapid pneumonia deterioration...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720562/pediatric-renal-and-genitourinary-tract-tumors-and-the-contributions-of-dr-louis-pepper-dehner-therewith
#14
Jason A Jarzembowski
Dr. Louis "Pepper" Dehner is an internationally renowned surgical pathologist, especially in the subspecialty of pediatric pathology. Although his clinical and academic expertise are broad, with over 400 published articles, some of his most intriguing contributions have been in the area of pediatric renal and genitourinary pathology. This review focuses on the entities in these following organ systems where he has focused his efforts: malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma, Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, and the DICER1-related lesions cystic nephroma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix, and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor...
August 31, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719830/pulmonary-artery-invasion-caused-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
James Benjamin Gleason, Basheer Tashtoush, Jinesh Mehta, Edward Savage, Felipe Martinez, Atul C Mehta
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis refers to Mycobacterium tuberculosis involving organs other than the lungs (eg, pleura, lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, abdomen, skin, joints and bones, or meninges). In non-HIV-endemic areas, where reactivation is the predominant mechanism of tuberculosis, pleural involvement occurs in 4% of cases. We present an extremely rare case of a 62-year-old immunocompetent patient with pleural tuberculosis confirmed by surgical pleural biopsies, who presented with a large mediastinal mass and evidence of pulmonary artery invasion on CT scanning and endobronchial ultrasonography imaging, highlighting a unique and malignant-like character of the disease...
October 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717431/minimal-invasive-management-of-lymph-nodes
#16
S Horenblas, S Minhas
Penile cancer is a rare genitourinary malignancy. Lymph node involvement is the single most important factor determining survival in these patients, and those patients with occult disease are difficult to identify on conventional cross-sectional imaging. Until recently, lymph node sampling (eg, lymphadenectomy) has been the diagnostic modality of choice in the detection of micrometastasis. More recently, several novel molecular and minimally invasive diagnostic techniques have been developed, which have been demonstrated to decrease the false-negative and -positive results of conventional imaging and lymphadenectomy...
November 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683119/silencing-of-profilin-1-suppresses-cell-adhesion-and-tumor-growth-via-predicted-alterations-in-integrin-and-ca2-signaling-in-t24m-based-bladder-cancer-models
#17
Maria Frantzi, Zoi Klimou, Manousos Makridakis, Jerome Zoidakis, Agnieszka Latosinska, Daniel M Borràs, Bart Janssen, Ioanna Giannopoulou, Vasiliki Lygirou, Andreas C Lazaris, Nicholas P Anagnou, Harald Mischak, Maria G Roubelakis, Antonia Vlahou
Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most common malignancy of the genitourinary system, characterized by the highest recurrence rate of all cancers. Treatment options are limited; thus a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is needed to guide the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. Profilins are actin binding proteins with attributed pleiotropic functions to cytoskeletal remodeling, cell adhesion, motility, even transcriptional regulation, not fully characterized yet. Earlier studies from our laboratory revealed that decreased tissue levels of Profilin-1 (PFN1) are correlated with BC progression to muscle invasive disease...
September 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661019/gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-gists-and-second-malignancies-a-novel-sentinel-tumor-a-monoinstitutional-strobe-compliant-observational-analysis
#18
Maria Grazia Rodriquenz, Sabrina Rossi, Riccardo Ricci, Maurizio Martini, Mario Larocca, Angelo Dipasquale, Michela Quirino, Giovanni Schinzari, Michele Basso, Ettore D'Argento, Antonia Strippoli, Carlo Barone, Alessandra Cassano
Several evidences showed that patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) develop additional malignancies. However, thorough incidence of second tumors remains uncertain as the possibility of a common molecular pathogenesis.A retrospective series of 128 patients with histologically proven GIST treated at our institution was evaluated. Molecular analysis of KIT and PDGFR-α genes was performed in all patients. Following the involvement of KRAS mutation in many tumors' pathogenesis, analysis of KRAS was performed in patients with also second neoplasms...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631511/mechanical-implantation-of-urothelium-into-periureteral-soft-tissue-a-series-of-4-cases-mimicking-high-stage-urothelial-carcinoma
#19
Sara E Wobker, Manju Aron, Jonathan I Epstein
In the upper genitourinary tract of the ureter and renal pelvis, any invasion of urothelial carcinoma (UC) beyond the thin muscularis is considered pT3 disease, which may prompt adjuvant chemotherapy. Ureteroscopy is commonly used in the workup of these lesions to obtain tissue biopsies and cytology specimens, or to place stents for the relief of obstructive symptoms. The current study describes 4 cases in which the presence of small nests of urothelium in periureteral and peripelvic soft tissue was noted after ureteroscopic instrumentation, mimicking high-stage UC...
November 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610010/endoscopic-and-non-endoscopic-approaches-for-the-management-of-radiation-induced-rectal-bleeding
#20
REVIEW
Joseph Paul Weiner, Andrew Thomas Wong, David Schwartz, Manuel Martinez, Ayse Aytaman, David Schreiber
Pelvic radiation is a commonly utilized treatment for malignancy of the genitourinary and lower gastrointestinal tract. Radiation proctitis and the resultant clinical picture varies from asymptomatic to potentially life threatening. Similarly, treatment options also vary greatly, from medical therapy to surgical intervention. Commonly utilized medical therapy includes sucralfate enemas, antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives, probiotics, antioxidants, short-chain fatty acids, formalin instillation and fractionated hyperbaric oxygen...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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