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Genitourinary malignancies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325359/immunohistochemistry-in-the-workup-of-prostate-biopsies-frequency-variation-and-appropriateness-of-use-among-pathologists-practicing-at-an-academic-center
#1
Sameer Al Diffalha, Mohanad Shaar, Güliz A Barkan, Eva M Wojcik, Maria M Picken, Stefan E Pambuccian
OBJECTIVES: We studied the frequency, inter-pathologist variation, appropriateness and utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on prostate biopsies (PB) to determine the significance of foci of suspicious glands/atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP). METHODS: We calculated the rate of IHC use and diagnostic rate of ASAP and adenocarcinoma in PB from 01/01/2008 to 06/30/2015 for individual pathologists working in a tertiary academic institution, and correlated them with the pathologists' experience, subspecialization and PB volume with the aim of determining the interpathologist variation and appropriateness of use of IHC according to recently published recommendations, and the usefulness of IHC to resolve foci of ASAP as either benign or adenocarcinoma...
April 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323334/the-emerging-role-of-homologous-recombination-repair-and-parp-inhibitors-in-genitourinary-malignancies
#2
REVIEW
Kalen J Rimar, Phuoc T Tran, Richard S Matulewicz, Maha Hussain, Joshua J Meeks
As cells age and are exposed to genotoxic stress, preservation of the genomic code requires multiple DNA repair pathways to remove single-strand or double-strand breaks. Loss of function somatic genomic aberrations or germline deficiency in genes involved in DNA repair can result in acute cell death or, after a latency period, cellular transformation. Therapeutic exploitation of DNA repair by inhibition of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]) ribose polymerases (PARP), a family of enzymes involved in the repair of single-strand and in some cases double-strand breaks, has become a novel cancer treatment...
March 21, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301211/clinical-and-imaging-features-of-noncutaneous-melanoma
#3
Vincenzo K Wong, Meghan G Lubner, Christine O Menias, Vincent M Mellnick, Tabassum A Kennedy, Sanjeev Bhalla, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to summarize the epidemiologic characteristics, clinical aspects, and radiologic appearance of as well as the management considerations and differential diagnoses for noncutaneous primary melanomas occurring at specific anatomic sites. Primary ocular, sinonasal, meningeal, biliary, adrenal, alimentary tract, and genitourinary melanomas are highlighted. CONCLUSION: Noncutaneous primary melanomas are a complex group of malignancies with biologic findings that are unique when compared with findings for cutaneous melanomas...
March 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300036/-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-genitourinary-tumor-the-challenge-of-controlling-and-monitoring-an-non-frequent-oncological-disease
#4
Luis Rico, Francisco Miguel López, Gonzalo Vitagliano, Ameri Carlos
OBJECTIVE: The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a neoplasia with intermediate biological potential, infrequent, with an unpredictable clinical prognosis and a low recurrence rate after an effective treatment. We report two cases of IMT with genitourinary localization, being this entit's publications infrequent. Both presented with little symptomatology, leading to multiple differential diagnosis. The surgical treatment was chosen and pathologic result confirmed the diagnosis...
March 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295519/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-associated-with-nonsyndromic-cryptorchidism-in-mexican-patients
#5
M Chávez-Saldaña, R M Vigueras-Villaseñor, E Yokoyama-Rebollar, D A Landero-Huerta, J C Rojas-Castañeda, L Taja-Chayeb, J O Cuevas-Alpuche, E Zambrano
Cryptorchidism is a frequent genitourinary malformation considered as an important risk factor for infertility and testicular malignancy. The aetiology of cryptorchidism is multifactorial in which certain SNPs, capable of inhibiting the development of the gubernaculum, are implicated. We analysed 16 SNPs by allelic discrimination and automated sequencing in 85 patients and 99 healthy people, with the objective to identify the association between these variants and isolated cryptorchidism. In two different patients with unilateral cryptorchidism, we found the variants rs121912556 and p...
March 10, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287942/fdg-pet-ct-pitfalls-in-gynecologic-and-genitourinary-oncologic-imaging
#6
Amish Lakhani, Sairah R Khan, Nishat Bharwani, Victoria Stewart, Andrea G Rockall, Sameer Khan, Tara D Barwick
The role of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with fluorodeoxyglucose ( FDG fluorodeoxyglucose ) is now established in the assessment of many gynecologic and genitourinary malignant tumors. FDG fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT has been widely adopted for staging assessments in patients with suspected advanced disease, in cases of suspected disease recurrence, and for determining prognosis in a number of malignancies. A number of pitfalls are commonly encountered when reviewing FDG fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scans in gynecologic and genitourinary cases; these pitfalls can be classified into those that yield potential false-positive or false-negative results...
March 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254473/precision-surgery-and-genitourinary-cancers
#7
R Autorino, F Porpiglia, P Dasgupta, J Rassweiler, J W Catto, L J Hampton, E Lima, V Mirone, I H Derweesh, F M J Debruyne
The landscape of the surgical management of urologic malignancies has dramatically changed over the past 20 years. On one side, better diagnostic and prognostic tools allowed better patient selection and more reliable surgical planning. On the other hand, the implementation of minimally invasive techniques and technologies, such as robot-assisted laparoscopy surgery and image-guided surgery, allowed minimizing surgical morbidity. Ultimately, these advances have translated into a more tailored approach to the management of urologic cancer patients...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247736/-cancer-and-genitourinary-tuberculosis-literature-review-and-clinical-observations
#8
D P Kholtobin, D P Kulchavenya, B T Khomyakov
Tuberculosis has been regarded as a counter-regulatory process to cancer. The development of tumors in the kidney that is affected by tuberculosis is considered as extremely rare, almost impossible case. The analysis of the literature on combined/sequential damage of urogenital organs by tuberculosis and cancer, and own clinical observation were performed. The case history of 72-year-old patient who sought medical advice for violation of urination is described. Previously he suffered from tuberculosis of the lungs and prostate cancer, and he was healed...
August 2016: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216941/isolated-urachal-malakoplakia-mimicking-malignancy
#9
Saisriharsha Pakalapati, Sanjay Parachuri, Venkateshwara Rao Kakarla, Mahesh Babu Byrappa
Malakoplakia is an unusual inflammatory disease with uncertain pathogenesis affecting any organ in the body, but predominantly genitourinary tract, with specific predilection to the bladder. We report a rare case of isolated malakoplakia of the urachus in a 29-year-old male patient who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms without any hematuria. Investigations revealed sterile pyuria with no bacterial growth in urine. Radiological investigations revealed a mass in the urachal region. The patient underwent cystoscopy with biopsy followed by pelvic lymph node dissection and partial cystectomy with excision of the urachal mass...
January 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214126/pulmonary-nodules-in-african-migrants-caused-by-chronic-schistosomiasis
#10
REVIEW
Federico Gobbi, Dora Buonfrate, Andrea Angheben, Anna Beltrame, Matteo Bassetti, Luca Bertolaccini, Giuseppe Bogina, Simone Caia, Silvia Duranti, Maria Gobbo, Valentina Marchese, Stefania Marocco, Maria Merelli, Geraldo Monteiro, Alberto Terzi, Zeno Bisoffi
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that can cause mainly hepatic and genitourinary damage, depending on the species. Involvement of the lungs has been commonly described in acute infection (Katayama syndrome) and chronic infection (pulmonary hypertension). Although rarely reported in the scientific literature, cases of lung nodules due to chronic schistosome infection are also possible and are probably more frequent than commonly thought. Here we report seven cases of African migrants who were diagnosed with chronic schistosomiasis and pulmonary nodules due to deposition of schistosome eggs, and we compare our findings to the case reports found in the scientific literature...
February 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207006/papillary-transitional-cell-bladder-carcinoma-and-systematized-epidermal-nevus-syndrome
#11
Adekemi Akingboye, Heather Schultz, Gina A Taylor
Epidermal nevus syndrome (ENS), also known as Solomon syndrome, is a rare neurocutaneous disorder defined by mosaicism. Epidermal nevus syndrome may be associated with a variety of systemic findings, several of which have been described in the literature, including but not limited to central nervous system abnormalities and internal malignancies. There is a paucity of reports of patients with both epidermal nevi and papillary transitional cell bladder carcinoma in the literature. We present a rare case of systematized epidermal nevi associated with development of papillary transitional cell bladder carcinoma in a young woman...
January 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197024/nanotechnology-in-urology
#12
REVIEW
Sudhindra Jayasimha
INTRODUCTION: Nanotechnology has revolutionized our approach to medical diagnostics as well as therapeutics and has spanned an entirely new branch of research. This review addresses the potential applications of Nanotechnology in Urology. This article is based on the Dr. Sitharaman Best Essay award of the Urological Society of India for 2016. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed for all relevant articles using the terms, "nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanoscaffolds, and nanofibers...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197023/genitourinary-sarcoidosis-an-essential-review-for-the-practicing-clinician
#13
REVIEW
Norman L Block, Bruce R Kava
INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease that commonly involves the lungs, but may also present with extrapulmonary manifestations. Genitourinary (GU) tract involvement has been traditionally thought to be rare, but that view may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease due to the often, silent presentation thereof. METHODS: The literature pertaining to sarcoidosis from the general systemic point of view, etiology and therapy and with regard to specific organs was reviewed by identifying key words in a PubMed search...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191452/circulating-tumor-cells-in-genitourinary-malignancies-an-evolving-path-to-precision-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Cory M Hugen, Daniel E Zainfeld, Amir Goldkorn
Precision medicine with molecularly directed therapeutics is rapidly expanding in all subspecialties of oncology. Molecular analysis and treatment monitoring require tumor tissue, but resections or biopsies are not always feasible due to tumor location, patient safety, and cost. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer a safe, low-cost, and repeatable tissue source as an alternative to invasive biopsies. "Liquid biopsies" can be collected from a peripheral blood draw and analyzed to isolate, enumerate, and molecularly characterize CTCs...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191298/asymptomatic-epstein-barr-virus-shedding-in-the-urine-of-kidney-transplant-recipients-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Maryam Rahbar, Gholamreza Poormand, Masoud Karkhaneh Mahmoodi, Aboozar Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a wide range of malignancies and complications like post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). To suppress active EBV infection in transplant recipients, who are at a heightened risk of developing PTLD, EBV DNAemia monitoring has been recommended. Quantitative multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (QMRTPCR) offered the advantage of detection of more than one target in the same sample. We present four cases of kidney transplant recipient who were admitted for rising serum creatinine between 9 and 20 months post-transplant with a suspicion of BKV-associated nephropathy...
December 31, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188050/successful-treatment-with-caspofungin-of-candiduria-in-a-child-with-wilms-tumor-review-of-literature
#16
M S Rezai, A Vaezi, H Fakhim, A Soleimani, H Mohammad Jafari, S Mohseni, H Badali
Symptomatic candiduria often occurs in patients with indwelling bladder catheters or immunocompromised host. Isolation of Candida in urine in high-risk patients should primarily be considered as a marker for candidemia. Hematological and genitourinary malignancies are one of the main risk factors associated with Candida urinary tract infections (CUTI). Fluconazole is a choice for initial treatment of CUTI, but it is fluctuate depending on the patient's condition including renal failure, site of urinary infection and Candida species...
February 7, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156502/symptom-distress-and-patterns-of-palliative-care-referral-among-oncology-outpatients
#17
Craig D Blinderman
185 Background: The early implementation of palliative care services is recognized as an important aspect of oncologic care. However, rates of referral to palliative care services among oncology patients are still low, and the decision to refer is frequently at the discretion of the treating oncologist or by patient request. We sought to better identify the patterns of referral to outpatient palliative care, as well as patient symptom burden in an effort to target early and high-yield palliative care interventions...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152755/achieving-the-triple-aim-in-cancer-care-through-a-tri-part-research-collaboration
#18
David Ramirez, Andrew Nguyen, Caroline Hagan, Steven M Asch, Hilda H Agajanian, Richy Agajanian, Arnold Milstein, Douglas W Blayney
52 Background: Curbing rising cancer care costs require models that safely lower expenditures and improve experience and outcomes. We developed a care delivery model integrating lay health workers to address early goals of care and symptoms (JOP 2015). We then created a research-collaboration with a health plan (which paid for care and processed claims), a contracted oncology group (which implemented the model), and a university research center (which designed the intervention and conducted the evaluation) to test effects on patient satisfaction, utilization, and costs...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134462/suicide-in-patients-with-genitourinary-malignancies
#19
REVIEW
M M de Lima, M Tobias-Machado
Genitourinary cancers are significant causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. The present review summarises the current literature on suicide and its risk factors among patients with genitourinary cancers. The review was based on relevant articles published in MEDLINE, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Scopus databases. Patients with prostate cancer represented the most important risk group for suicide, among patients with urogenital cancers. Other risk factors are male gender, older age, white race, advanced disease, living alone and co-existing psychological comorbidities...
January 30, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126222/diffusion-weighted-genitourinary-imaging
#20
REVIEW
Martin H Maurer, Kirsi Hannele Härmä, Harriet Thoeny
This review article aims to provide an overview on of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MR imaging) in the urogenital tract. Compared with conventional cross-sectional imaging methods, the additional value of DW-MR imaging in the detection and further characterization of benign and malignant lesions of the kidneys, bladder, prostate, and pelvic lymph nodes is discussed as well as the role of DW-MR imaging in the evaluation of treatment response.
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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