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Genitourinary malignancies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137468/epidemiology-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-an-iranian-population
#1
Mona MalekZadeh, Sam Alahyari, Saleh Sandoughdaran, Hanieh Zham
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of malignancies most commonly found in the gastrointestinal system. In this study, we examined the epidemiology of NETs in an Iranian population. The incident NET cases diagnosed between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014 were collected from databases of three hospitals in Tehran (Shoada-e-Tajrish Hospital, Imam Hossein Hospital and Pars Hospital).  A total of 291 cases with NET diagnosis were identified. The most common NET location was gastrointestinal (71...
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130549/concomitant-idh-wildtype-glioblastoma-and-idh1-mutant-anaplastic-astrocytoma-in-a-patient-with-constitutional-mismatch-repair-deficiency-syndrome
#2
Francesca Galuppini, Enrico Opocher, Uri Tabori, Isabella Mammi, Melissa Edwards, Britany Campbell, Jacalyn Kelly, Alessandra Viel, Michele Quaia, Francesca Rivieri, Domenico D'Avella, Antonella Arcella, Felice Giangaspero, Matteo Fassan, Marina Paola Gardiman
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare and often under-recognized tumour predisposition syndrome, presenting with both extracranial and malignant brain tumours that occur in children and/or young adults [1]. The genetic defects underlying this disease are biallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes leading to a constitutional DNA repair defect that causes a cancer predisposition syndrome with early onset [2]. This mechanism is different from Lynch syndrome (LS) where a heterozygous germline loss-of-function mutation is observed and the patients are more prone to develop colon and genitourinary cancers as adults [1]...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128599/cutaneous-metastasis-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-masquerading-as-an-infected-sebaceous-cyst
#3
Ranil Johann Boaz, Tanush Vig, Amit Jiwan Tirkey, Nirmal Thampi John, Ramani Manoj Kumar, Nitin Kekre
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the third most common genitourinary malignancy with an estimated 1/3(rd) of cases with metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Though rare, cutaneous metastasis from RCC is more frequent than any other genitourinary malignancy. Metastasis of RCC to skin carries poor prognosis as coexistent visceral spread is the norm. A 38-year-old man presented one year after radical nephrectomy for clear cell carcinoma of the left kidney with a submental lesion that proved to be metastatic...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110729/penile-metastasis-from-rectal-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report
#4
Boubacar Efared, Gabrielle Atsame Ebang, Soufiane Tahirou, Layla Tahiri, Ibrahim Sory Sidibé, Fatimazahra Erregad, Aboubakry Sow, Nawal Hammas, Moulay H Farih, Laila Chbani, Hinde El Fatemi
BACKGROUND: Despite its rich vasculature, the penis is rarely involved by metastasis. Since the first description of penile metastasis in 1870, fewer than 500 cases have been reported in the literature. The pelvic organs are the main source of primary tumors that metastasize to the penis. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 46-year-old Arabic man who presented with erectile dysfunction and painful induration of the penile root. Eight months ago, he had undergone abdomino-perineal resection for rectal adenocarcinoma after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy...
November 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089679/embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-of-the-biliary-tree-a-rare-cause-of-obstructive-jaundice-in-children-which-can-mimic-choledochal-cysts
#5
Dhara J Kinariwala, Andrew Y Wang, Patrick D Melmer, William P McCullough
Jaundice in children is more often due to hepatic disease than obstruction. Differential considerations for obstructive jaundice in children include choledocholithiasis, choledochal cysts and rare neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common soft tissue sarcoma in pediatric patients, typically involves the head and neck, genitourinary system and extremities. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree is a rare entity. We present a 3-year-old boy with abrupt onset obstructive jaundice. Although initial imaging suggested a dilated biliary system with fusiform common bile duct, sludge, and possible cholelithiasis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) diagnosed a common bile duct embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and further imaging showed involvement of the cystic duct...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081406/upregulation-of-long-noncoding-rna-pvt1-predicts-unfavorable-prognosis-in-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Xu Bao, Junyao Duan, Yongji Yan, Xin Ma, Yu Zhang, Hanfeng Wang, Dong Ni, Shengpan Wu, Cheng Peng, Yang Fan, Yu Gao, Xintao Li, Jianwen Chen, Qingshan Du, Fan Zhang, Xu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most malignant genitourinary diseases worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs in the human genome that are involved in RCC initiation and progression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of PVT1 in ccRCC and evaluate its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics and patients' survival. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine PVT1 expression in 129 ccRCC tissue samples and matched adjacent normal tissue samples...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056275/current-and-future-applications-of-novel-immunotherapies-in-urological-oncology-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Berna C Özdemir, Arlene O Siefker-Radtke, Matthew T Campbell, Sumit K Subudhi
CONTEXT: Immunotherapies promote anticancer responses with varying levels of success based on the tumor type. OBJECTIVE: In this narrative review article, we searched the literature regarding immunotherapies in genitourinary malignancies to define the state of the field, explore future applications of immune checkpoint inhibitors, cytokines, vaccines, and cellular therapies in urological oncology and evaluate possible strategies to improve the selection of patients who might benefit from such approaches...
October 19, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054895/lemierre-s-syndrome-variant-of-the-gut
#8
Thomas E Mellor, Natalie Mitchell, Jessica Logan
Infectious suppurative thrombophlebitis of the portal venous system, referred to as pylephlebitis, is a rare complication of intra-abdominal inflammatory processes. Advances in diagnostics and antibiotics have improved survival, but mortality remains remarkably high even in the most recent literature. The majority of patients have concomitant bacteraemia on presentation most commonly with typical gastrointestinal (GI) organisms. On rare occasion, patients have culture positive Fusobacterium, which has recently been associated with occult GI and genitourinary malignancies...
October 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044540/factors-affecting-hospital-length-of-stay-following-pelvic-exenteration-surgery
#9
Ying Guo, Eugene Chang, Mehtap Bozkurt, Minjeong Park, Diane Liu, Jack B Fu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total pelvic exenteration are performed in patients with locally advanced or recurrent pelvic malignances. Many patients have prolong hospital length of stay (LOS), but risk factors are not clearly identified. METHODS: From 2002 through 2012, 100 consecutive patients undergoing pelvic exenteration were retrospectively reviewed. A general linear model was used to examine risk factors for prolonged hospital LOS. RESULTS: Among the 100 patients, 51 had gastrointestinal cancer, 14 had genitourinary cancer, 31 had gynecologic cancer, and 4 had sarcoma...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028078/a-natural-pharma-standard-supplement-formulation-to-control-treatment-related-toxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-genitourinary-cancer-a-preliminary-study
#10
A Ledda, G Belcaro, M Dugall, R Luzzi, M Hosoi, B Feragalli, R Cotellese, V Cosentino, M Cosentino, R Eggenhoffner, M Pellizzato, A Fratter, L Giacomelli
OBJECTIVE: Oncological treatments are associated with toxicities that may decrease compliance to treatment in most genitourinary cancer patients. Supplementation with pharmaceutical-standardized supplement may be a supplementary method to control the side effects after chemo- and radiotherapy and the increased oxidative stress associated to treatments. This registry study evaluated a natural combination of supplements containing curcumin, cordyceps, and astaxanthin (Oncotris™) used as supplementary management in genitourinary cancer patients who had undergone oncological therapy...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024404/removal-of-sacral-nerve-stimulation-devices-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-what-happens-next
#11
Jessica C Lloyd, Bradley C Gill, Javier Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Howard B Goldman
INTRODUCTION: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) devices (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) are not approved to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of sites other than the head. When MRIs are required, devices are often removed prior to imaging. We reviewed the prevalence of device removal for MRI at a large academic institution and the subsequent clinical course of these patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of all SNM explants from 2009-2015 was performed. Cases explanted for MRI were analyzed to collect demographics, clinical characteristics, and postremoval management...
October 11, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993132/screen-failure-rates-in-contemporary-randomized-clinical-phase-ii-iii-therapeutic-trials-in-genitourinary-malignancies
#12
Sarah E Wong, Scott A North, Christopher J Sweeney, Martin R Stockler, Srikala S Sridhar
BACKGROUND: Screen failures, defined as individuals who undergo screening but are not enrolled in a clinical trial, incur significant costs without contributing valuable data to the study. Despite these costs, there are few published data about the rate or reasons for screen failures in advanced genitourinary cancer clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 50 phase II and III trials in advanced genitourinary cancers conducted between 1999 and 2016. RESULTS: Of the 50 trials, only 48% (24 of 50) published screen failure rates: 68% (13 of 19) of those in prostate cancer, 33% (6 of 18) in kidney cancer, and 58% (5 of 13) in bladder cancer...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988782/predictors-of-genitourinary-malignancy-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-microscopic-hematuria
#13
Patrick Samson, Nikhil Waingankar, Paras Shah, Derek Friedman, Louis Kavoussi, Justin Han
OBJECTIVES: To report the incidence of genitourinary malignancy and identify associated risk factors in patients undergoing urologic evaluation for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (AMH) according to the 2012 American Urologic Association guidelines. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective institutional review of patients who underwent evaluation for AMH between 2012 and 2015 was conducted. Covariates analyzed included age, sex, smoking status, history of other malignancy, history of pelvic irradiation, presence of irritative voiding symptoms, use of anticoagulation, number of red blood cells on microscopic urinalysis, and guideline adherence...
October 5, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971750/the-synergy-between-ionizing-radiation-and-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#14
Niranjan J Sathianathen, Suprita Krishna, Badrinath R Konety, Thomas S Griffith
There has been a surge in the use of immunotherapy for genitourinary malignancies. Immunotherapy is an established treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma and nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, but its potential for treating prostate cancer (PCa) remains under investigation. Despite reported survival benefits, no published Phase III PCa trials using immunotherapy only as a treatment has demonstrated direct antitumor effects by reducing prostate-specific antigen levels. Subsequently, the thought of combining immunotherapy with other treatment modalities has gained traction as a way to achieving optimal results...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969069/lncrna-plasmacytoma-variant-translocation-1-is-an-oncogene-in-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma
#15
Zhongyuan Liu, Hui Zhang
Bladder cancer (BC) is the most lethal malignant cancer of the genitourinary system, and bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC) is the most common type of BC. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) is overexpressed in several malignant tumors, including BC. Using a lncRNA array and quantitative real-time PCR, we detected greater expression of PVT1 in BUC tissues and cell lines resistant to doxorubicin (DOX) and cisplatin (DDP) than in DOX- and DDP-sensitive cells. PVT1 knockdown reduced proliferation and invasion by a DOX- and DDP-resistant T24/DR BUC cells, arrested cells in G1 phase, and increased apoptosis...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967057/peri-prostatovesicular-smooth-muscle-tumors-of-undetermined-malignant-potential-a-case-report
#16
Stefano Masciovecchio, Alfonso B Di Pasquale, Guido Ranieri, Gianfranco Romano, Sara Colozzi, Gianluca Cipolloni, Gino Coletti, Giuseppe Calvisi, Luigi Di Clemente
INTRODUCTION: Smooth muscle tumors of undetermined malignant potential (STUMPs) are atypical smooth muscle tumors, most of which derived from uterine tissue. STUMPs of male genitourinary system and of the male pelvic organs are uncommon. CASE DESCRIPTION: In this report, we describe the first case of peri-prostatovesicular STUMP that was treated with laparoscopic excision, in a young asymptomatic man. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, the definitive diagnosis can be made only after surgical resection and accurate histological examination...
September 27, 2017: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966917/advances-on-immunotherapy-in-genitourinary-and-renal-cell-carcinoma
#17
Gregory P Botta, Eric Granowicz, Carrie Costantini
Genitourinary (GU) cancers are a group of epithelial malignancies associated with the organs involved in the excretion of urine. Renal cell, urothelial, and prostatic carcinoma are the overwhelming subtypes diagnosed by oncologists. Each of these was traditionally treated surgically when local and non-invasive. When these carcinomas spread, invade, or metastasize, surgical control lacks in efficacy. Chemotherapeutic regimens have been implemented for decades and have increased overall survival but many patients progress...
February 2017: Translational Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950037/a-review-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-the-management-of-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
Kirollos S Hanna
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the second most common malignancy of the genitourinary system and the sixth most common cancer in the United States. The overall incidence of UC appears to be on the decline, but death rates have remained stable. Stage IV metastatic disease is associated with only a 5% survival rate at 5 years. Gemcitabine and cisplatin combinations or dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin are the preferred regimens for individuals with advance, metastatic disease and a good performance status and organ function...
September 26, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947305/a-review-of-agent-orange-and-its-associated-oncologic-risk-of-genitourinary-cancers
#19
REVIEW
Chrystal Chang, Michael Benson, Mina M Fam
Agent Orange is an herbicide sprayed widely in Vietnam that is linked to a variety of malignancies in as early as 1991.Since then, there has been concern for, and subsequent interest in studying, the potential connection between Agent Orange and other malignancies. In the past 2 decades, there have been significant changes in the opinion of the National Academy of Science regarding Agent Orange and certain genitourinary malignancies. Herein, we review the literature regarding the potential link between Agent Orange and various urological cancers, including prostate, bladder, testicular, and renal cancers...
November 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923625/genitourinary-malignancies-in-transplant-or-dialysis-patients-the-frequency-of-two-newly-described-2016-world-health-organization-histopathologic-types
#20
A Billis, L L L Freitas, L B E Costa, I S Barreto, M A Asato, K S Araujo, D M Losada, A P Herculiani, G V B S Tabosa, B C Zaidan, G L P Oliveira, L Q A Bastos, R M Rocha
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to revise the histopathologic types of neoplasias in the genitourinary tract and determine the frequency of 2 new entities included in the 2016 book of World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. It is not established so far whether these 2 recently described tumors are the most frequent in association with end-stage kidney disease. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, we revised the histopathologic type of 37 genitourinary tumors from 21 patients in dialysis and/or submitted to renal transplantation from 2003 to 2016 aiming to find the frequency of acquired cystic disease-associated renal cell carcinoma and clear cell papillary (tubulopapillary) renal cell carcinoma...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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