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Genitourinary malignancies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758320/neoadjuvant-crizotinib-in-alk-rearranged-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumor-of-the-urinary-bladder-a-case-report
#1
Yoshiyuki Nagumo, Aiko Maejima, Yuta Toyoshima, Motokiyo Komiyama, Kan Yonemori, Akihiko Yoshida, Hiroyuki Fujimoto
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor that involves various organs, but has a predilection for the urinary bladder in the genitourinary tract. Given that approximately half of all IMT cases have anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, the ALK inhibitor crizotinib is suggested as a promising treatment for unresectable cases. No reports on neoadjuvant crizotinib therapy for locally advanced IMT of the bladder are available. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 17-year-old Japanese boy referred to our institution for painful urination and increased urinary frequency...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757570/incidence-and-treatment-of-malignant-tumors-of-the-genitourinary-tract-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#2
Juan Manuel Ochoa-López, Bernardo Gabilondo-Pliego, Sylvain Collura-Merlier, Jaime O Herrera-Cáceres, Mariano Sotomayor de Zavaleta, Francisco Tomás Rodríguez-Covarrubias, Guillermo Feria-Bernal, Fernando Gabilondo-Navarro, Ricardo Alonso Castillejos-Molina
PURPOSE: To provide data of the incidence and management of common urological malignancies in renal transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective database from August 1967 to August 2015. A descriptive analysis of the sample was performed. RESULTS: Among 1256 consecutive RTR a total of 88 patients developed malignancies (7%). There were 18 genitourinary tumors in the 16 patients (20.45% of all malignant neoplasms), incidence of 1...
April 30, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754134/surprising-pathological-and-clinical-manifestations-of-miliary-tuberculosis
#3
Kamonkiat Wirunsawanya, Dennis Thomas Bolger
We report a surprising pathological finding of miliary tuberculosis (TB) in a 49-year-old Chuukese, immunocompetent woman who was initially admitted to the hospital for a 1-month duration of chronic abdominal pain and intermittent fevers. Her clinical symptoms did not improve despite treatment with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Based on the primary abdominal CT findings suggesting advanced ovarian cancer with omental metastatic disease, further workup with omental core biopsy was performed and demonstrated acute neutrophilic necrosis without malignant cells or granulomata...
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745023/interstitial-brachytherapy-for-pediatric-soft-tissue-sarcoma-evolving-practice-over-three-decades-and-long-term-outcomes
#4
Siddhartha Laskar, Avinash Pilar, Nehal Khanna, Ajay Puri, Ashish Gulia, Sajid Qureshi, Girish Chinnaswamy, Tushar Vora, Mukta Ramadwar
PURPOSE: Evaluate long-term clinical outcomes, adverse effects, and evolving practice of interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for pediatric soft tissue sarcomas (STS). METHODS: From September 1984 to December 2014, 105 children (median age 10 years) were included. There were 60 males and 45 females. The majority (74%) had primary lesions. Synovial sarcoma (22%) was the most frequent histology. Treatment included wide local excision and BT with or without external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724431/acral-metastasis-of-the-fingers-report-of-2-cases
#5
A J Baños-Arévalo, N López-Navarro, E Gallego-Domínguez, E Herrera
Cutaneous metastases appear in 0.6% to 10.4% of malignant tumors and account for 2% of all cutaneous tumors. Metastasis to the skin may arise from progression of a known primary tumor or provide the first sign of an unsuspected one. Acral metastases are particularly unusual. Most derive from bone tumors. Clinical signs vary and the lesions generally resemble infection or inflammation, leading to diagnostic delays. When metástasis involves the fingers, the primary tumor is usually lung carcinoma. In contrast, toe involvement usually derives from a tumor in the genitourinary tract...
April 30, 2018: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719329/primary-urethral-carcinoma-a-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-data-analysis-identifying-predictors-of-cancer-specific-survival
#6
Ilija Aleksic, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Michael Daugherty, Piyush K Agarwal, Srinivas Vourganti, Gennady Bratslavsky
Objectives: Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is rare, accounting for <1% of genitourinary malignancies. Current knowledge regarding is founded upon tertiary care centers reporting their experiences. We aim to identify factors predictive of outcomes using a nationwide registry database. Materials and Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 registries database was queried for cases of PUC ranging between 2004 and 2010. To identify PUC cases, ICD-O site code C68...
April 2018: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700209/at-what-cost-to-clinical-trial-enrollment-a-retrospective-study-of-patient-travel-burden-in-cancer-clinical-trials
#7
Hala T Borno, Li Zhang, Adam Siegel, Emily Chang, Charles J Ryan
BACKGROUND: Recent literature suggests that living in a rural setting may be associated with adverse cancer outcomes. This study examines the burden of travel from home to cancer center for clinical trial (CT) enrollees. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients from the University of California San Francisco Clinical Trial Management System database who enrolled in a cancer CT for a breast, genitourinary, or gastrointestinal malignancy between 1993 and 2014 were included...
April 26, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668598/brain-abscess-caused-by-chronic-invasive-actinomycosis-in-the-nasopharynx-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Chi Sang Hwang, Haneul Lee, Min Pyo Hong, Ji Hyung Kim, Kyung-Su Kim
RATIONALE: Actinomycosis is a rare anaerobic, gram-positive bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces, which is part of the normal flora in the oral cavity and respiratory and female genitourinary tracts. The cervicofacial area is the most common site of involvement, and involvement of the central nervous system is rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case involving a 51-year-old woman who developed an actinomycotic brain abscess 15 months after the treatment of noninvasive nasopharyngeal actinomycosis, which recurred as an invasive form...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664839/a-population-based-assessment-of-urologic-procedures-and-operations-after-surgery-or-pelvic-radiation-for-cervical-cancer
#9
Blayne Welk, Christopher Wallis, David DʼSouza, Jacob McGee, Robert K Nam
OBJECTIVE: The treatment of cervical cancer can result in genitourinary morbidity. We measured selected urologic procedures after the treatment of cervical cancer with either surgery or radiation. METHODS: We used administrative data from the province of Ontario Canada to identify adult women who had nonmetastatic cervical cancer and were treated with surgery or radiation between 1994 and 2014. Study outcomes were surgical or procedure codes representing ureteric repair or fistula repair...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630104/early-diagnostic-role-of-psa-combined-mir-155-detection-in-prostate-cancer
#10
T Guo, X-X Wang, H Fu, Y-C Tang, B-Q Meng, C-H Chen
OBJECTIVE: As a kind of malignant tumor in the male genitourinary system, prostate cancer exhibits significantly increased occurrence. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression can be seen in the prostate cancer, prostatitis, and other diseases, therefore, lack of diagnostic specificity. The miR-155 expression is abnormally increased in the tumors. Therefore, this study aims to explore the clinical significance of PSA combined miR-155 detection in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579342/cost-considerations-for-systemic-therapy-for-patients-with-advanced-genitourinary-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
Mark A Henry, Andrew Leung, Christopher P Filson
The rising cost of health care in the United States has been the focus of intense debate within the medical, legal, and legislative arenas, with the cost of cancer care representing an important component. Cost effectiveness is not always easy to define, and there is no standard metric in assessing this measure related to cancer therapies. Significant controversy surrounds exactly what is the appropriate cost per added year of life. This review examines cost, effectiveness, and comparative cost effectiveness of novel systemic therapies for patients with urologic malignancies...
March 26, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573330/clinically-relevant-bleeding-in-cancer-patients-treated-for-venous-thromboembolism-from-the-catch-study
#12
Pieter W Kamphuisen, Agnes Y Y Lee, Guy Meyer, Rupert Bauersachs, Mette S Janas, Mikala F Jarner, Alok A Khorana
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) receiving anticoagulant treatment have increased bleeding risk. OBJECTIVES: We performed a pre-specified secondary analysis of the randomized, open-label, Phase III CATCH trial (NCT01130025) to assess the rate, site and risk factors of clinically relevant bleeding (CRB). PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients with active cancer and acute, symptomatic VTE received either tinzaparin 175 IU/kg once daily or warfarin (target international normalized ratio [INR] 2...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571659/urology-mythbusters-radiation-and-radiophobia
#13
M P Kurtz, R D MacDougall, C P Nelson
In this episode of Mythbusters we critically examine the premise that there is strong biological and epidemiologic evidence that radiation exposure at levels associated with modern genitourinary diagnostic imaging increases the risk of subsequent malignancy, especially in children.
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545442/unusual-case-of-a-rectal-tumour
#14
Maryam Alfa-Wali, Samantha Muktar, Dimitrios Pissas, Ceri Slater
A 48-year-old man presented as an emergency with a 3-week history of rectal bleeding. Examination of his rectum revealed a circumferential tumour, 2 cm from the anal verge. An MRI scan reported a locally infiltrative mid-lower rectal tumour staged as T3d/T4 N2 MX. A colonoscopy revealed appearances of severe proctitis and biopsies did not show any evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. The patient was discussed at the regional colorectal cancer multidisciplinary team meeting with a management plan for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy following repeat biopsies, which were again negative for malignancy...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541472/reversible-intrahepatic-cholestasis-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-an-uncommon-paraneoplastic-syndrome
#15
Munveer S Bhangoo, Brian Cheng, Gregory P Botta, Phataraporn Thorson, Michael P Kosty
As with other genitourinary malignancies, a variety of paraneoplastic syndromes have been revealed to occur in patients with prostate cancer. Stauffer's Syndrome is a well-described clinical syndrome which manifests via intrahepatic cholestasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Less common is intrahepatic cholestasis occurring in association with prostate cancer. The current case report discusses a 67-year-old man presenting with liver failure secondary to intrahepatic cholestasis co-existing with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541223/long-non-coding-rna-hnf1a-as1-promotes-cell-viability-and-migration-in-human-bladder-cancer
#16
Zhihong Feng, Baolong Wang
Bladder cancer is among the most frequent types of genitourinary malignancies and results in high morbidity and mortality. Despite considerable progress in methods of bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment, the detailed underlying molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer remain unclear, and the prognosis of patients remains poor. In the present study, the role of long non-coding (lnc)RNA hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A)-antisense RNA (AS)1 in bladder cancer progression was examined in vitro . HNF1A-AS1 was overexpressed in clinical bladder cancer tissues and cultured bladder cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535424/comprehensive-genomic-profiling-of-neuroendocrine-bladder-cancer-pinpoints-molecular-origin-and-potential-therapeutics
#17
Peiye Shen, Ying Jing, Ruiyun Zhang, Mei-Chun Cai, Pengfei Ma, Haige Chen, Guanglei Zhuang
Neuroendocrine bladder cancer is a relatively rare but often lethal malignancy, with cell of origin, oncogenomic architecture and standard treatment poorly defined. Here we performed comprehensive whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing on a unique cohort of genitourinary neuroendocrine neoplasms, mainly small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. The mutational landscape and signatures of neuroendocrine bladder cancer strikingly resembled those in conventional urothelial carcinoma, along with typically mixed histologies, supporting a common cellular origin...
March 14, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520448/targeting-the-tumor-microenvironment-with-immunotherapy-for-genitourinary-malignancies
#18
REVIEW
Ariel E Marciscano, Ravi A Madan
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in urothelial carcinoma, high-dose interleukin-2 in renal cell carcinoma, and sipuleucel-T in prostate cancer serve as enduring examples that the host immune response can be harnessed to promote effective anti-tumor immunity in genitourinary malignancies. Recently, cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has transformed the prognostic landscape leading to durable responses in a subset of urothelial carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma patients with traditionally poor prognosis...
March 8, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519246/prostate-cancer-involving-bilateral-seminal-vesicles-along-with-bone-and-testicular-metastases-a-case-report
#19
Qingqiang Gao, Jianhuai Chen, Yutian Dai
BACKGROUND: In the past 20 years, the incidence of prostate cancer has risen rapidly. It has been ranked as the third most common malignant tumor of the male genitourinary system. Testicular metastasis is uncommon in prostate cancer. Most cases are incidentally found in the treatment of prostate cancer with orchiectomy. Therefore, we believed it was necessary to report the case of our patient with this disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 69-year-old Han Chinese man with a high total prostate-specific antigen level...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507699/grade-progression-in-urothelial-carcinoma-can-occur-with-high-or-low-mutational-homology-a-first-step-toward-tumor-specific-care-in-initial-low-grade-bladder-cancer
#20
Ralf Kittler, Christine Shiang, Ryan Hutchinson, Rahul K Kollipara, Payal Kapur, Francis Franto, Yair Lotan
Purpose: Low-grade (LG) urothelial carcinomas of the bladder (UCB) are common malignancies that are costly to surveil and rarely progress to life threatening, high-grade (HG) malignancies. It is unknown if the progression of LG to HG is a result of second primary tumors or transformation of existing LG tumors. We examined tumor genetics in patients with grade progression in urothelial carcinoma and compared to patients with no progression. Results: Five patients were identified with progression...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
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