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Genitourinary malignancies

Rachel Sosland, Casey A Kowalik, Josh A Cohn, Doug F Milam, Melissa R Kaufman, Roger R Dmochowski, W Stuart Reynolds
OBJECTIVES: To identify non-clinical factors affecting post-operative complication rates in patients with neurogenic bladder undergoing benign genitourinary (GU) reconstruction. METHODS: Adult patients with neurogenic bladder undergoing benign GU reconstruction between 10/2010 and 11/2015 were included. Patients were excluded if a diversion was performed for malignancy, if patients had a history of radiation or if a new bowel segment was not utilized at the time of the operation...
October 23, 2018: Urology
Natesh Yepuri, Napat Pruekprasert, Rana Naous
Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form that occur at diverse locations in the body such as upper respiratory tract, upper and lower digestive tracts, genitourinary tract, breast and thyroid glands. However, its occurrence in pancreas has been rarely reported. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of pancreas (SCP) is a high-grade epithelial malignancy composed predominantly of spindle cells often having features suggestive of epithelial derivation without features indicative of a specific line of mesenchymal differentiation...
2018: AME case reports
Francesco Barillaro, Marco Camilli, Paolo Dessanti, Nader Gorji, Fabio Chiesa, Alessandro Villa, Alessandro Pastorino, Carlo Aschele, Enrico Conti
Skin melanoma represents one of the most common and lethal solid tumor. It usually develops on the skin but it can occur in any tissues with melanine- containing-cells (extracutaneous malignant melanoma). Only 4-5% of malignant melanomas originate in extracutaneous tissues, and they have an extremely lethal behavior (1). These non-skin malignant melanomas are rare but extremely aggressive. Primary melanoma of the genitourinary tract accounts for less than 0.2% of all melanomas. To date only 28 cases of primary bladder melanoma (PMM) are described...
September 30, 2018: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
J Bedke, V Stühler, T Todenhöfer, A Stenzl
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have significantly improved the systemic therapy of metastatic disease in genitourinary malignancies. With the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval of the antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab directed against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) as well as the PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab, three agents are available for the treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. This article describes the underlying mode of action of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and other ICIs to activate the immune system for effective tumor rejection...
October 22, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Matthew D Ingham, Richard J Lee, Dhara MacDermed, Aria F Olumi
INTRODUCTION: As the transgender patient population continues to increase, urologists and other providers who treat genitourinary malignancies will increasingly encounter cases of prostate cancer in transgender women. Little exists in the current literature to help summarize the challenges and opportunities which face this unique patient population. Similarly, little exists to provide guidance on how we may best diagnose, manage, and follow transgender women diagnosed with prostate cancer...
October 12, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Kirollos S Hanna
Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) is the second most common malignancy of the genitourinary system and is the sixth most common cancer in the USA. Over a decade prior to 2016, the standard of care for early disease consisted of transuretheral resection of the bladder tumor with or without intravesicular chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Systemic chemotherapies such as gemcitabine and cisplatin combinations or dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, cisplatin were reserved for recurrent, muscle-invasive, advanced or metastatic disease...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Francesco Porpiglia, Daniele Amparore, Enrico Checcucci, Riccardo Autorino, Matteo Manfredi, Giada Iannizzi, Cristian Fiori
CONTEXT: Despite the current era of "precision surgery", an unmet need for an optimal surgical planning and navigation still remains for most genitourinary malignancies. In this setting, the 3D virtual reconstruction of 2D cross-sectional imaging has been increasingly adopted to facilitate the surgeon in better understanding the surgical anatomy. OBJECTIVE: To provide a short overview of the most recent evidences on the current applications of 3D virtual and printed reconstructions in urologic surgery...
October 4, 2018: European Urology Focus
Rachel M McQuade, Vanesa Stojanovska, Joel C Bornstein, Kulmira Nurgali
Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin represent the backbone of platinum therapy for several malignancies including head and neck, lung, colorectal, ovarian, breast, and genitourinary cancer. However, the efficacy of platinum-based drugs is often compromised by a plethora of severe toxicities including sensory and enteric neuropathy. Acute and chronic neurotoxicity following platinum chemotherapy is a major constraint, contributing to dose-reductions, treatment delays, and cessation of treatment. Identifying drugs that effectively prevent these toxic complications is imperative to improve the efficacy of anti-cancer treatment and patient quality of life...
September 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Morgan Pantuck, Nicolaos Palaskas, Alexandra Drakaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research Communications
Morgan Pantuck, Nicolaos Palaskas, Alexandra Drakaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research Communications
Qiuxia Yan, Xueming Chen, Huizhen Gong, Pei Qiu, Xing Xiao, Shiying Dang, An Hong, Yi Ma
Prostate cancer is the second-most common malignancy of the male genitourinary system. TNF-α has attracted intense attention as a potential therapeutic agent against various cancers. However, its therapeutic application is restricted by short half life and severe toxic side-effects. In this study, we constructed a stable nanodrug, called TNF-α-derived polypeptide (P16)-conjugated, chitosan (CTS)-modified selenium nanoparticle (SC; SCP), which is composed of SC as a slow-release carrier conjugated to P16. SCP had significant inhibitory effects on multiple types of tumor cells, especially DU145 prostate cancer cells, but not on RWPE-1 normal human prostate epithelial cells...
August 30, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sara Wawrysiuk, Tomasz Rechberger, Konrad Futyma, Paweł Miotła
Candida lusitaniae is a rare opportunistic yeast which is known for its resistance to amphotericin B (AmB). It is responsible for about 19.3% of all infections caused by non- Candida albicans species, and for about 1.7% of all cases of genitourinary candidiasis brought about by the entire spectrum of Candida species . Most commonly it occurs in patients with hematologic malignancies, especially when a patient is receiving chemotherapy. Candida lusitaniae infection usually presents with fungemia; however, only 7...
June 2018: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Zhichao Zhang, Yingfei Liu, Ke Wang, Kun Zhu, Xiaoyan Zheng, Li Wang, Yan Luan, Xinyang Wang, Haixia Lu, Kaijie Wu, Xinlin Chen, Dalin He, Yong Liu
Bladder cancer, the second most common genitourinary malignancy, severely endangers the human health. Rising evidence suggests that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are involve in tumor progression. In this study, we observed that metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) was functionally expressed in normal and cancerous bladder cells and its expression was positively correlated with high bladder cancer grading. We further confirmed that the activation of mGluR4 by VU0155041, an mGluR4-specific agonist, decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration and cell viability, promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in bladder cancer cells, whereas MSOP (group III mGluR antagonist) or mGluR4 knockdown eliminated the effects of mGluR4 activity...
August 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kathryn Stambough, Krista J Childress
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline ovarian conservation and fertility sparing surgery (FSS) in the management of the most common pediatric gynecology malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Management of gynecologic malignancies has evolved to have a greater appreciation for adverse late effects from radical surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. A growing body of literature has led to a paradigm shift toward ovarian conservation and FSS in the management of pediatric ovarian malignancies and genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Giselle M A Dutcher, Mehmet Asim Bilen
The field of genitourinary malignancies has been a showcase for therapeutic cancer vaccine success since the application of intravesicular Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer in the 1970s and enjoyed a renaissance in 2010 with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer. Several vaccine strategies have emerged, such as autologous or allogeneic whole-tumor vaccines, DNA vaccines, use of viral vectors, and peptides as immunostimulatory adjuvants. Despite impressive early trials, vaccine monotherapy has achieved limited success in the clinical world; however, combinations of vaccine and immune checkpoint inhibition or vaccine and cytokine stimulation are expected to move the field forward...
August 12, 2018: Vaccines
Yong-Gang Wang, Jian-Cang Zhou, Kang-Song Wu
Objective This study was performed to explore the characteristics and outcomes of patients with sepsis accompanied by active cancer who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods The baseline characteristics, infection profiles, and outcomes of patients with sepsis were retrospectively analyzed according to the presence of concomitant active cancer. The association between concomitant active cancer and 28-day mortality was explored. Results Of 23,956 patients with sepsis, 1574 (6.6%) had concomitant active cancer...
August 8, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Daniela Gomes Cunha, Gabriella Campos-do-Carmo, Julia Macchione Marujo, Gustavo Costa Verardino
Sweet's syndrome is a rare dermatosis with little-known pathogenesis, associated with some clinical conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, vaccination, medications and neoplasms. Hematologic malignancies are the diseases most related to paraneoplastic Sweet's syndrome, but this clinical entity can also be found occasionally in some solid tumors, including genitourinary tract tumors. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Sweet's syndrome associated with the diagnosis of cervical cancer...
July 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Tatjana Terzic, Anne M Mills, Sarah Zadeh, Kristen A Atkins, Krisztina Z Hanley
GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) immunohistochemistry is primarily used as a marker of breast and urothelial differentiation, particularly in metastatic settings. In the gynecologic tract it also serves a robust marker for mesonephric and trophoblastic tumors. However, expression has also been described in more common malignancies of gynecologic tract including ovarian, endometrial, and cervical carcinomas. Data on the distribution of GATA3 expression in gynecologic malignancies is somewhat limited, particularly across different histologic subtypes of ovarian, endometrial, and cervical carcinomas...
July 27, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Kexin Shen, Hai Luo, Jun Hu, Zhongshi Xie
RATIONALE: Extramammary Peget disease (EMPD) is a rare tumor, which typically occurs in the perianal regions. Perianal Paget disease (PPD) was first reported in 1893, and which has only 180 cases that have been reported in literature. The rarity of the disease means that no large studies have been made, and so the optimal treatment for this disease still remains controversial. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this case, we reported a 65-years-old female patient with PPD. The patient suffered intermittent pruritus in the perianal region for 1 year...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Berna Aytac Vuruskan, Mine Ozsen, Burhan Coskun, Ulviye Yalcinkaya
PURPOSE: In this study we aimed to review urological soft tissue sarcomas of genitourinary tract that were diagnosed in our institution and their prognostic factors for survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical and pathological records of 31 patients who had diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas primarily originating from the genitourinary tract between 2005-2011 were reviewed. RESULTS: The most common site was kidney (17 cases, 54.8%), and most common diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma (11 cases, 35...
June 10, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
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