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Genitourinary malignancies

Morgan Pantuck, Nicolaos Palaskas, Alexandra Drakaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: Cancer Treatment and Research Communications
Morgan Pantuck, Nicolaos Palaskas, Alexandra Drakaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment and Research Communications
Qiuxia Yan, Xueming Chen, Huizhen Gong, Pei Qiu, Xing Xiao, Shiying Dang, An Hong, Yi Ma
Prostate cancer is the second-most common malignancy of the male genitourinary system. TNF-α has attracted intense attention as a potential therapeutic agent against various cancers. However, its therapeutic application is restricted by short half life and severe toxic side-effects. In this study, we constructed a stable nanodrug, called TNF-α-derived polypeptide (P16)-conjugated, chitosan (CTS)-modified selenium nanoparticle (SC; SCP), which is composed of SC as a slow-release carrier conjugated to P16. SCP had significant inhibitory effects on multiple types of tumor cells, especially DU145 prostate cancer cells, but not on RWPE-1 normal human prostate epithelial cells...
August 30, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sara Wawrysiuk, Tomasz Rechberger, Konrad Futyma, Paweł Miotła
Candida lusitaniae is a rare opportunistic yeast which is known for its resistance to amphotericin B (AmB). It is responsible for about 19.3% of all infections caused by non- Candida albicans species, and for about 1.7% of all cases of genitourinary candidiasis brought about by the entire spectrum of Candida species . Most commonly it occurs in patients with hematologic malignancies, especially when a patient is receiving chemotherapy. Candida lusitaniae infection usually presents with fungemia; however, only 7...
June 2018: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Zhichao Zhang, Yingfei Liu, Ke Wang, Kun Zhu, Xiaoyan Zheng, Li Wang, Yan Luan, Xinyang Wang, Haixia Lu, Kaijie Wu, Xinlin Chen, Dalin He, Yong Liu
Bladder cancer, the second most common genitourinary malignancy, severely endangers the human health. Rising evidence suggests that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are involve in tumor progression. In this study, we observed that metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) was functionally expressed in normal and cancerous bladder cells and its expression was positively correlated with high bladder cancer grading. We further confirmed that the activation of mGluR4 by VU0155041, an mGluR4-specific agonist, decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration and cell viability, promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in bladder cancer cells, whereas MSOP (group III mGluR antagonist) or mGluR4 knockdown eliminated the effects of mGluR4 activity...
August 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kathryn Stambough, Krista J Childress
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline ovarian conservation and fertility sparing surgery (FSS) in the management of the most common pediatric gynecology malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Management of gynecologic malignancies has evolved to have a greater appreciation for adverse late effects from radical surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. A growing body of literature has led to a paradigm shift toward ovarian conservation and FSS in the management of pediatric ovarian malignancies and genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Giselle M A Dutcher, Mehmet Asim Bilen
The field of genitourinary malignancies has been a showcase for therapeutic cancer vaccine success since the application of intravesicular Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer in the 1970s and enjoyed a renaissance in 2010 with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer. Several vaccine strategies have emerged, such as autologous or allogeneic whole-tumor vaccines, DNA vaccines, use of viral vectors, and peptides as immunostimulatory adjuvants. Despite impressive early trials, vaccine monotherapy has achieved limited success in the clinical world; however, combinations of vaccine and immune checkpoint inhibition or vaccine and cytokine stimulation are expected to move the field forward...
August 12, 2018: Vaccines
Yong-Gang Wang, Jian-Cang Zhou, Kang-Song Wu
Objective This study was performed to explore the characteristics and outcomes of patients with sepsis accompanied by active cancer who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods The baseline characteristics, infection profiles, and outcomes of patients with sepsis were retrospectively analyzed according to the presence of concomitant active cancer. The association between concomitant active cancer and 28-day mortality was explored. Results Of 23,956 patients with sepsis, 1574 (6.6%) had concomitant active cancer...
August 8, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Daniela Gomes Cunha, Gabriella Campos-do-Carmo, Julia Macchione Marujo, Gustavo Costa Verardino
Sweet's syndrome is a rare dermatosis with little-known pathogenesis, associated with some clinical conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, vaccination, medications and neoplasms. Hematologic malignancies are the diseases most related to paraneoplastic Sweet's syndrome, but this clinical entity can also be found occasionally in some solid tumors, including genitourinary tract tumors. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Sweet's syndrome associated with the diagnosis of cervical cancer...
July 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Tatjana Terzic, Anne M Mills, Sarah Zadeh, Kristen A Atkins, Krisztina Z Hanley
GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) immunohistochemistry is primarily used as a marker of breast and urothelial differentiation, particularly in metastatic settings. In the gynecologic tract it also serves a robust marker for mesonephric and trophoblastic tumors. However, expression has also been described in more common malignancies of gynecologic tract including ovarian, endometrial, and cervical carcinomas. Data on the distribution of GATA3 expression in gynecologic malignancies is somewhat limited, particularly across different histologic subtypes of ovarian, endometrial, and cervical carcinomas...
July 27, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Kexin Shen, Hai Luo, Jun Hu, Zhongshi Xie
RATIONALE: Extramammary Peget disease (EMPD) is a rare tumor, which typically occurs in the perianal regions. Perianal Paget disease (PPD) was first reported in 1893, and which has only 180 cases that have been reported in literature. The rarity of the disease means that no large studies have been made, and so the optimal treatment for this disease still remains controversial. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this case, we reported a 65-years-old female patient with PPD. The patient suffered intermittent pruritus in the perianal region for 1 year...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Berna Aytac Vuruskan, Mine Ozsen, Burhan Coskun, Ulviye Yalcinkaya
PURPOSE: In this study we aimed to review urological soft tissue sarcomas of genitourinary tract that were diagnosed in our institution and their prognostic factors for survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical and pathological records of 31 patients who had diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas primarily originating from the genitourinary tract between 2005-2011 were reviewed. RESULTS: The most common site was kidney (17 cases, 54.8%), and most common diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma (11 cases, 35...
June 10, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
C Grigoriadis, A Tympa, E Terzakis, K Theodoraki, D Hassiakos
AIM: According to the so far published literature, only one case of endometrial cancer in a patient with unicornuate uterus has been reported. This is a case report study, presenting a rare case of complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia in a woman with unicornuate uterus and multiple genitourinary anomalies. CASE REPORT: A 43-year old G1P1 woman presented with episodes of menometrorrhagia and anemia. She had previous surgical history of laparoscopy due to infertility, in which she was diagnosed with unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary left uterine horn and ipsilateral ectopic ovary in the anatomic place of the left kidney...
July 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Sony Bhaskar Mehta, Hariharan Krishnamoorthy, Biju S Pillai
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a rare disease with high malignant potential. It usually affects the skeletal system. Primary extraskeletal involvement of PNET is uncommon with few reported cases. PNET of the genitourinary system requires a very high index of suspicion for the diagnosis since the presentation of these tumors can be varied. We report two cases of PNET with varied presentations, affecting the genitourinary system.
July 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Xin-Ke Zhang, Ping Yang, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Wan-Ming Hu, Yun Cao
PURPOSE: Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUTUC) is a rare genitourinary tumor. Pre-operative lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) is associated with worse outcome in several malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of pre-operative LMR in UUTUC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A historical cohort of 100 UUTUC patients was recruited from January 1990 to June 2011. The counts of peripheral lymphocyte and monocyte were retrieved, and the LMR was calculated by dividing lymphocyte count by monocyte count...
July 23, 2018: Urology Journal
Martin H Maurer, Kirsi Hannele Härmä, Harriet Thoeny
This review article aims to provide an overview on of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MR imaging) in the urogenital tract. Compared with conventional cross-sectional imaging methods, the additional value of DW-MR imaging in the detection and further characterization of benign and malignant lesions of the kidneys, bladder, prostate, and pelvic lymph nodes is discussed as well as the role of DW-MR imaging in the evaluation of treatment response.
August 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
Bimal Bhindi, R Houston Thompson, Christine M Lohse, Ross J Mason, Igor Frank, Brian A Costello, Aaron M Potretzke, Robert P Hartman, Theodora A Potretzke, Stephen A Boorjian, John C Cheville, Bradley C Leibovich
BACKGROUND: While the probability of malignant versus benign histology based on renal tumor size has been described, this alone does not sufficiently inform decision-making in the modern era since indolent malignant tumors can be managed with active surveillance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the probability of aggressive versus indolent histology based on radiographic tumor size. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We evaluated patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy at Mayo Clinic for a pT1-2, pNx/0, M0 solid renal tumor between 1990 and 2010...
July 12, 2018: European Urology
D Barnes, R Rivera, S Gibson, C Craig, J Cragun, B Monk, D Chase
Background: Measuring QoL is essential to the field of gynecologic oncology but there seems to be limited standardized data regarding collecting QoL assessments throughout a patient's cancer treatment especially in non-clinical trial patients. The aim of this study is to explore patient characteristics that may be associated with poor quality of life (QoL) in women with gynecologic cancers at two University of Arizona Cancer Center (UACC) sites. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among English speaking women with gynecologic malignancies at the University of Arizona Cancer Centers in Phoenix and Tucson from April 2012 to July 2015...
2018: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Amandeep S Taggar, Kevin Martell, Siraj Husain, Michael Peacock, Michael Sia, Geoffrey Gotto
INTRODUCTION: Residency experiences and teaching in oncology among urology residents are variable across Canada. We sought to identify how radiation and medical oncology concepts, as they pertain to genitourinary malignancies, are taught to urology residents. METHODS: A total of 190 trainees enrolled in Canadian urology residency training programs were invited to participate in the study from January 2016 to June 2016. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing the training they received...
May 28, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Benjamin M Dropkin, Giovanna A Giannico, Peter A Reisz, David F Penson, Ryan S Hsi
Background: Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign lesion found in the genitourinary tract, often at sites of prior inflammation, and is characterized by tubular, papillary, or tubulopapillary structures. It is thought to arise from distal migration and implantation of renal tubular cells into the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or urethra. These tumors often resemble malignant neoplasms. Morphologic variants include small tubules, signet ring-like pattern, papillary formations, flat pattern, and vessel-like structures...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
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