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Genitourinary malignancies

Munveer S Bhangoo, Brian Cheng, Gregory P Botta, Phataraporn Thorson, Michael P Kosty
As with other genitourinary malignancies, a variety of paraneoplastic syndromes have been revealed to occur in patients with prostate cancer. Stauffer's Syndrome is a well-described clinical syndrome which manifests via intrahepatic cholestasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Less common is intrahepatic cholestasis occurring in association with prostate cancer. The current case report discusses a 67-year-old man presenting with liver failure secondary to intrahepatic cholestasis co-existing with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Zhihong Feng, Baolong Wang
Bladder cancer is among the most frequent types of genitourinary malignancies and results in high morbidity and mortality. Despite considerable progress in methods of bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment, the detailed underlying molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer remain unclear, and the prognosis of patients remains poor. In the present study, the role of long non-coding (lnc)RNA hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A)-antisense RNA (AS)1 in bladder cancer progression was examined in vitro . HNF1A-AS1 was overexpressed in clinical bladder cancer tissues and cultured bladder cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Peiye Shen, Ying Jing, Ruiyun Zhang, Mei-Chun Cai, Pengfei Ma, Haige Chen, Guanglei Zhuang
Neuroendocrine bladder cancer is a relatively rare but often lethal malignancy, with cell of origin, oncogenomic architecture and standard treatment poorly defined. Here we performed comprehensive whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing on a unique cohort of genitourinary neuroendocrine neoplasms, mainly small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. The mutational landscape and signatures of neuroendocrine bladder cancer strikingly resembled those in conventional urothelial carcinoma, along with typically mixed histologies, supporting a common cellular origin...
March 14, 2018: Oncogene
Ariel E Marciscano, Ravi A Madan
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in urothelial carcinoma, high-dose interleukin-2 in renal cell carcinoma, and sipuleucel-T in prostate cancer serve as enduring examples that the host immune response can be harnessed to promote effective anti-tumor immunity in genitourinary malignancies. Recently, cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has transformed the prognostic landscape leading to durable responses in a subset of urothelial carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma patients with traditionally poor prognosis...
March 8, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Qingqiang Gao, Jianhuai Chen, Yutian Dai
BACKGROUND: In the past 20 years, the incidence of prostate cancer has risen rapidly. It has been ranked as the third most common malignant tumor of the male genitourinary system. Testicular metastasis is uncommon in prostate cancer. Most cases are incidentally found in the treatment of prostate cancer with orchiectomy. Therefore, we believed it was necessary to report the case of our patient with this disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 69-year-old Han Chinese man with a high total prostate-specific antigen level...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Ralf Kittler, Christine Shiang, Ryan Hutchinson, Rahul K Kollipara, Payal Kapur, Francis Franto, Yair Lotan
Purpose: Low-grade (LG) urothelial carcinomas of the bladder (UCB) are common malignancies that are costly to surveil and rarely progress to life threatening, high-grade (HG) malignancies. It is unknown if the progression of LG to HG is a result of second primary tumors or transformation of existing LG tumors. We examined tumor genetics in patients with grade progression in urothelial carcinoma and compared to patients with no progression. Results: Five patients were identified with progression...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Danielle Benedict Sacdalan, Josephine Anne Lucero, Dennis Lee Sacdalan
Introduction: Systemic inflammation is associated with prognosis in solid tumors. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker for the general immune response to various stress stimuli. Studies have shown correlation of NLR to outcomes in immune checkpoint blockade, peripheral neutrophil count to intratumor neutrophil population, and NLR to intratumoral levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Studies have shown elevated peripheral blood regulator T cells accompanied by elevated NLR are associated with poor outcomes further highlighting the importance of inflammation in the prognosis of cancer patients...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Briony K Varda, Patricia Cho, Andrew A Wagner, Richard S Lee
BACKGROUND: In adult urologic oncology the use of robotics has become commonplace; in pediatric urology it is rare. Herein, we describe a collaboration between an adult and a pediatric urologist performing robotic surgery for children and young adults with suspicious or cancerous genitourinary (GU) lesions. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical and oncologic outcomes in children and young adults undergoing robotic surgery for suspicious or cancerous lesions of the GU tract; to describe our collaborative model between an adult and pediatric surgeon at a free-standing children's hospital...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Matthew P Sypek, Kathryn B Dansie, Phil Clayton, Angela C Webster, Stephen McDonald
AIM: To understand the differences in how cause of death for patients receiving renal replacement therapy in Australia is recorded in The Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA) compared to the National Death Index (NDI). METHODS: Data linkage was performed between ANZDATA and NDI for all deaths in the period 1980-2013. Cause of death was classified according to ICD-10 chapter. Overall and chapter specific agreement were assessed using the Kappa statistic...
March 1, 2018: Nephrology
Kerry Thomas, Philippe Spiess, Jamie T Caracciolo
Penile cancer is an uncommon primary genitourinary malignancy, the vast majority representing superficial squamous cell carcinomas. However, less common skin cancers, secondary malignancies, mesenchymal neoplasms, and hematopoietic tumors do affect the penis. Medical history, atypical presentation, and deep epicenter of a penile mass may raise question of a nonepithelial neoplasm. We describe and discuss 2 examples of rare deep-seated penile malignancies, leiomyosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma.
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
David B Bekelman, Rachel Johnson-Koenke, Daniel W Bowles, Stacy M Fischer
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer could benefit from early primary (i.e., basic) palliative care. Scalable models of care delivery are needed. OBJECTIVE: Examine the feasibility of a stepped peer navigator and social work intervention developed to improve palliative care outcomes. DESIGN: Single-arm prospective clinical trial. The peer navigator educated patients to advocate for pain and symptom management with their healthcare providers, motivated patients to pursue advance care planning, and discussed the role of hospice...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Shanzhou Huang, Yunhua Tang, Zebin Zhu, Jie Yang, Zhiheng Zhang, Linhe Wang, Chengjun Sun, Yixi Zhang, Qiang Zhao, Maogen Chen, Linwei Wu, Dongping Wang, Weiqiang Ju, Zhiyong Guo, Xiaoshun He
BACKGROUND The inherent challenges of selecting an acceptable donor for the increasing number and acuity of recipients has forced programs to take increased risks, including accepting donors with a cancer history (DWCH). Outcomes of organ transplantation using organs from DWCH must be clarified. We assessed transplant outcomes of recipients of organs from DWCH. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2014 identified 8385 cases of transplants from DWCH...
February 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Brenton G Sherwood, Yu Han, Kenneth G Nepple, Bradley A Erickson
Introduction: We reviewed the safety and effectiveness of our hospital's urologic telemedicine (TM) program that has been utilized for the Iowa prisoner population for over a decade. Methods: A retrospective review of TM visits of male prisoners from 2007 to 2014 was performed. Effectiveness of TM visits was assessed by 1) concordance of TM and in-person diagnoses, 2) compliance with radiologic and medication orders and 3) in-person visits saved with TM. Safety was assessed by analyzing the number of patients in which an ED visit was required after TM visit and missed or delayed cases of malignancy...
January 2018: Urology Practice
Francesco Massari, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Francesca Comito, Marta Cubelli, Chiara Ciccarese, Roberto Iacovelli, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Rodolfo Montironi, Andrea Ardizzoni
Management of advanced urogenital malignancies has profoundly changed in recent years due to the development of novel targeted drugs that have significantly improved patient's clinical outcomes. This process has been made possible mainly thanks to better knowledge of tumor genetic alterations and molecular altered pathways. Despite these remarkable results, several issues such as early detection of the disease as well as the research into early markers of recurrence or disease progression still remain an open challenge for clinical research...
February 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
Ke Jin, Kexi Wang, Huizhong Zhang, Yuejiang Pan, Dexiong Cao, Minghui Wang, Ju Chen, Duoguang Wu, Boshen Chen, Xuan Xie
BACKGROUND: Defining the status of solitary pulmonary lesion (SPL) in patients with history of malignancy is important because primary lung cancer (PLC) or intrapulmonary metastasis might indicate different surgical strategies. The aim of this study is to identify factors related to the status of these lesions and construct a clinical model to estimate the pretest probability of PLC. METHODS: From January 2005 to January 2016, 104 patients with previous malignancy and suitable for surgery were retrospectively studied...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Matthew C Dallos, Charles G Drake
Genitourinary malignancies represent a diverse biologic and immunologic landscape. Recently, checkpoint blockade has transformed the treatment paradigms for bladder and kidney cancer. However, continued progress will be essential in bladder and kidney cancer, given response to inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 (PD-1/PD-L1) axis remains variable and only a minority of patients respond. In contrast with the clinical trial results in bladder and kidney cancer, studies of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in prostate cancer have generally been disappointing...
January 2018: Cancer Journal
Dominique Fuser, Matthew L Hedberg, Louis P Dehner, Farrokh Dehdashti, Barry A Siegel
Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) is a highly aggressive form of dedifferentiated renal cell carcinoma. We report a 62-year-old man who presented with respiratory symptoms and a lung mass on chest computed tomography (CT). The patient underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and was found to have extensive metastatic disease. Based on the history and imaging findings, there were possible primary malignancies, including bronchogenic carcinoma, melanoma, or an aggressive lymphoma...
2018: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
Lu Ji, Bing Zhong, Xi Jiang, Fei Mao, Gang Liu, Bin Song, Cheng-Yuan Wang, Yong Jiao, Jiang-Ping Wang, Zhi-Bin Xu, Xing Li, Bo Zhan
Human bladder cancer is a common genitourinary malignant cancer worldwide. However, new therapeutic strategies are required to overcome its stagnated survival rate. Triterpene glycoside Actein (ACT), extracted from the herb black cohosh, suppresses the growth of human breast cancer cells. Our study attempted to explore the role of ACT in human bladder cancer cell growth and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that ACT significantly impeded the bladder cancer cell proliferation via induction of G2/M cycle arrest...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Jui-Shan Hsu, Chao-Yuan Huang, Kao-Lang Liu, Po-Ming Chow
INTRODUCTION: We provide primary patency rate of metallic ureteral stents in cancer patients and investigate the factors affecting primary patency. METHODS: All cancer patients who had received metallic stents for malignant ureteral obstruction between July 2009 and November 2012 in our institute were included. No patients were excluded. Patient profiles, imaging studies, and laboratory data were collected. Patient profiles included age, gender, body height, body weight, body mass index, cancer types, treatment for cancer, response to cancer treatment, methods of stent insertion, and prior ordinary stents...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Nikita Naik, Michael Lin, Peter Lin
Primary extra nodal lymphomatous involvement of the genitourinary tract is rare and secondary extra-nodal involvement in disseminated disease occurs more frequently. Imaging of metabolic activity with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) facilitates the identification of these extra-nodal sites of disease, particularly in the absence of structural lesions on conventional imaging modalities. Primary extra-nodal lymphoma affecting the genitourinary system is often caused by high-grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) with the most common subtype being Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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