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Genitourinary malignancies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325432/risk-factors-for-primary-failure-of-metallic-ureteral-stents-experience-from-a-tertiary-center
#1
Jui-Shan Hsu, Chao-Yuan Huang, Kao-Lang Liu, Po-Ming Chow
INTRODUCTION: We provide primary patency rate of metallic ureteral stents in cancer patients and investigate the factors affecting primary patency. METHODS: All cancer patients who had received metallic stents for malignant ureteral obstruction between July 2009 and November 2012 in our institute were included. No patients were excluded. Patient profiles, imaging studies, and lab data were collected. Patient profiles included age, gender, body height, body weight, body mass index, cancer types, treatment for cancer, response to cancer treatment, methods of stent insertion, and prior ordinary stents...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322833/primary-genitourinary-lymphoma-on-fdg-pet
#2
Nikita Naik, Michael Lin, Peter Lin
Primary extra nodal lymphomatous involvement of the genitourinary tract is rare and secondary extra-nodal involvement in disseminated disease occurs more frequently. Imaging of metabolic activity with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) facilitates the identification of these extra-nodal sites of disease, particularly in the absence of structural lesions on conventional imaging modalities. Primary extra-nodal lymphoma affecting the genitourinary system is often caused by high-grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) with the most common subtype being Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284359/rare-incidence-of-tumor-lysis-syndrome-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-following-treatment-with-docetaxel
#3
Sharonlin Bhardwaj, Seema Varma
Tumor lysis syndrome is a serious and sometimes lethal complication of cancer treatment that is comprised of a set of metabolic disturbances along with clinical manifestations. Initiating chemotherapy in bulky, rapidly proliferating tumors causes rapid cell turnover that in turn releases metabolites into circulation that give rise to metabolic derangements that can be dangerous. This syndrome is usually seen in high-grade hematological malignancies. Less commonly, tumor lysis syndrome can present in solid tumors and even rarely in genitourinary tumors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277583/wisp1-genetic-variants-as-predictors-of-tumor-development-with-urothelial-cell-carcinoma
#4
Hsiang-Lin Lee, Hui-Ling Chiou, Shian-Shiang Wang, Sheng-Chun Hung, Ming-Chih Chou, Shun-Fa Yang, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Ying-Erh Chou
OBJECTIVES: Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the urinary bladder is a major malignancy of the genitourinary tract. Etiological factors, such as the environment, ethnicity, genetics, and diet, contribute to UCC carcinogenesis. WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), also known as CCN4, a cysteine-rich protein belonging to the Cyr61, CTGF, Nov (CCN) family of matricellular proteins, has many developmental functions and might be involved in carcinogenesis. This study investigated WISP1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to evaluate UCC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics...
December 22, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276962/association-between-misty-mesentery-with-baseline-or-new-diagnosis-of-cancer-a-matched-cohort-study
#5
Sivan G Marcus, Susana Candia, Marc D Kohli, John Mongan, Ronald J Zagoria, Spencer C Behr, Derek Sun, Antonio C Westphalen
We compared the prevalence of a baseline diagnosis of cancer in patients with and without misty mesentery (MM) and determined its association with the development of a new cancer. This was a retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved case-control study of 148 cases and 4:1 age- and gender-matched controls. Statistical tests included chi-square, t-test, hazard models, and C-statistic. Patients with MM were less likely to have cancer at baseline (RR=0.74, p=0.003), but more likely to develop a new malignancy on follow-up (RR=2...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230671/incorporating-dna-methyltransferase-inhibitors-dnmtis-in-the-treatment-of-genitourinary-malignancies-a-systematic-review
#6
Michal Chovanec, Fadi Taza, Maitri Kalra, Noah Hahn, Kenneth P Nephew, Michael J Spinella, Costantine Albany
Inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) has emerged as a novel treatment strategy in solid tumors. Aberrant hypermethylation in promoters of critical tumor suppressor genes is the basis for the idea that treatment with hypomethylating agents may lead to the restoration of a "normal" epigenome and produce clinically meaningful therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this review article is to summarize the current state of knowledge of DNMT inhibitors in the treatment of genitourinary malignancies. The efficacy of these agents in genitourinary malignancies was reported in a number of studies and suggests a role of induced DNA hypomethylation in overcoming resistance to conventional cytotoxic treatments...
December 11, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229171/special-considerations-in-pediatric-kidney-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Sean A Hebert, Rita D Swinford, David R Hall, Jason K Au, John S Bynon
Universally accepted as the treatment of choice for children needing renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation affords children the opportunity for an improved quality of life over dialysis therapy. Immunologic and surgical advances over the last 15 years have improved the pediatric patient and kidney graft survival. Unique to pediatrics, congenital genitourinary anomalies are the most common primary diseases leading to kidney failure, many with urological issues. Early urological evaluation for post-transplant bladder dysfunction and emphasis on immunization adherence are the mainstays of pediatric pretransplant and post-transplant evaluations...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227586/identification-of-potential-crucial-genes-associated-with-carcinogenesis-of-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Erlin Song, Wenting Song, Minghua Ren, Li Xing, Wenjun Ni, Yongxiang Li, Mancheng Gong, Mingbo Zhao, Xin Ma, Xu Zhang, Ruihua An
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common genitourinary malignancy with high mortality. However, the molecular pathogenesis of ccRCC remains unclear and effective biomarkers for daily practice are still limited. Thus, we aimed to identify the potential crucial genes and pathways associated with carcinogenesis of ccRCC and further analyze the molecular mechanisms implicated in tumorigenesis. In the present study, expression profiles GSE 66270, GSE 53757, GSE 36895 and GSE 76351 were downloaded from GEO database, including 244 matched primary and adjacent normal tissues, furthermore, the level 3 RNAseq dataset (RNAseqV2 RSEM) of KIRC was also downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which consist of 529 ccRCC tumors and 72 normal tissues...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224900/single-fraction-stereotactic-ablative-body-radiotherapy-for-oligometastasis-outcomes-from-132-consecutive-patients
#9
S Gandhidasan, D Ball, T Kron, M Bressel, M Shaw, J Chu, S Chander, G Wheeler, N Plumridge, B Chesson, S David, S Siva
AIMS: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is currently used to treat oligometastases, but the optimum dose/fractionation schedule is unknown. In this study, we evaluated outcomes after single fraction SABR in patients with oligometastatic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single institutional retrospective review of patients treated with single fraction SABR for one to three oligometastases between 2010 and 2015. The primary outcome was freedom from widespread disease defined as distant recurrence not amenable to surgery or SABR; or recurrence with four or more metastases...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203997/perianal-paget-s-disease-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-current-diagnosis-and-management
#10
Chintamani Godbole, Jyoti Mehta, Bijoy Methil, Reshma Palep, Prajesh Bhuta
Paget's disease is an intraepithelial adenocarcinoma arising from the apocrine gland component of the skin. Paget's disease is most common in the breast but extra mammary disease is also seen. Perianal Paget's disease is a rare form of extramammary disease with few cases reported in literature. It can be primary-arising from the skin or secondary-cutaneous metastases of anorectal or genitourinary malignancy. We hereby wish to report a case of perianal Paget's disease that presented as an eczematous lesion and was diagnosed incidentally on biopsy...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186979/the-need-for-immune-biomarkers-for-treatment-prognosis-and-response-in-genitourinary-malignancies
#11
Susan F Slovin
Immune biomarkers encompass a wide range of blood-borne and cell-associated molecules whose detection or expression may change in response to an immune therapy. These immune therapies encompass a range of platforms including autologous cellular products, in other words, dendritic cells, prime boost DNA vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and checkpoint inhibitors. The response to checkpoint inhibitors by a particular cancer may not be necessarily associated with a change in a particular immune biomarker; other immune biomarkers are needed to assess their association with treatment response or a change in the biology that can impact on the immunologic milieu...
November 30, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184912/liver-transplantation-from-donors-with-a-history-of-malignancy-a-single-center-experience
#12
Tamas Benkö, Dieter P Hoyer, Fuat H Saner, Jürgen W Treckmann, Andreas Paul, Sonia Radunz
Background: The demand for transplantable organs exceeds donor organ supply. Transplantation of organs from donors with a history of malignancy remains controversial and the transmission of cancer in liver transplant recipients has not been sufficiently examined. Methods: From 2002 until 2017, 83 livers from donors with a history of malignancy were transplanted at the University Hospital Essen, Germany. Donor and recipient data, type of malignancy, tumor-free interval at organ procurement, and follow-up data were analyzed...
November 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183736/immunotherapy-in-the-elderly
#13
REVIEW
Aly-Khan A Lalani, Dominick Bossé, Bradley A McGregor, Toni K Choueiri
CONTEXT: Immunotherapy has historic and contemporary presence in prostate, urothelial (UC), and renal cell (RCC) carcinomas. However, robust data on utility and generalizability of these treatments in older patients are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in elderly patients with prostate cancer, UC, or RCC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to October 2017 and according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement...
November 25, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179467/knockdown-of-long-non-coding-rna-taurine-up-regulated-1-inhibited-doxorubicin-resistance-of-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#14
Dalong Xie, Hui Zhang, Xuanhao Hu, Chao Shang
In genitourinary system, bladder cancer (BC) is the most common and lethal malignant tumor, which most common type is bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC). Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Taurine Up-Regulated 1 (TUG1) gene is high-expressed in several malignant tumors, including BC. In this study, over-expression of TUG1 was found in BUC tissues and cell line resistant to doxorubicin (Dox). Knockdown of TUG1 inhibited the Dox resistance and promoted the cytotoxicity induced by Dox in T24/Dox cells. TUG1 knockdown also depressed the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and the activation the Wnt/β-catenin pathway partly reversed the inhibitory effects of TUG1 knockdown on Dox resistance in T24/Dox cells...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137468/epidemiology-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-an-iranian-population
#15
Mona MalekZadeh, Sam Alahyari, Saleh Sandoughdaran, Hanieh Zham
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of malignancies most commonly found in the gastrointestinal system. In this study, we examined the epidemiology of NETs in an Iranian population. The incident NET cases diagnosed between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014 were collected from databases of three hospitals in Tehran (Shoada-e-Tajrish Hospital, Imam Hossein Hospital and Pars Hospital).  A total of 291 cases with NET diagnosis were identified. The most common NET location was gastrointestinal (71...
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130549/concomitant-idh-wildtype-glioblastoma-and-idh1-mutant-anaplastic-astrocytoma-in-a-patient-with-constitutional-mismatch-repair-deficiency-syndrome
#16
Francesca Galuppini, Enrico Opocher, Uri Tabori, Isabella Mammi, Melissa Edwards, Britany Campbell, Jacalyn Kelly, Alessandra Viel, Michele Quaia, Francesca Rivieri, Domenico D'Avella, Antonella Arcella, Felice Giangaspero, Matteo Fassan, Marina Paola Gardiman
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare and often under-recognized tumour predisposition syndrome, presenting with both extracranial and malignant brain tumours that occur in children and/or young adults [1]. The genetic defects underlying this disease are biallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes leading to a constitutional DNA repair defect that causes a cancer predisposition syndrome with early onset [2]. This mechanism is different from Lynch syndrome (LS) where a heterozygous germline loss-of-function mutation is observed and the patients are more prone to develop colon and genitourinary cancers as adults [1]...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128599/cutaneous-metastasis-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-masquerading-as-an-infected-sebaceous-cyst
#17
R J Boaz, T Vig, A J Tirkey, N T John, R M Kumar, N Kekre
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the third most common genitourinary malignancy with an estimated one third of cases with metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Though rare, cutaneous metastasis from RCC is more frequent than any other genitourinary malignancy. Metastasis of RCC to skin carries poor prognosis as coexistent visceral spread is the norm. A 38-year-old man presented one year after radical nephrectomy for clear cell carcinoma of the left kidney with a submental lesion that proved to be metastatic...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110729/penile-metastasis-from-rectal-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report
#18
Boubacar Efared, Gabrielle Atsame Ebang, Soufiane Tahirou, Layla Tahiri, Ibrahim Sory Sidibé, Fatimazahra Erregad, Aboubakry Sow, Nawal Hammas, Moulay H Farih, Laila Chbani, Hinde El Fatemi
BACKGROUND: Despite its rich vasculature, the penis is rarely involved by metastasis. Since the first description of penile metastasis in 1870, fewer than 500 cases have been reported in the literature. The pelvic organs are the main source of primary tumors that metastasize to the penis. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 46-year-old Arabic man who presented with erectile dysfunction and painful induration of the penile root. Eight months ago, he had undergone abdomino-perineal resection for rectal adenocarcinoma after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy...
November 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089679/embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-of-the-biliary-tree-a-rare-cause-of-obstructive-jaundice-in-children-which-can-mimic-choledochal-cysts
#19
Dhara J Kinariwala, Andrew Y Wang, Patrick D Melmer, William P McCullough
Jaundice in children is more often due to hepatic disease than obstruction. Differential considerations for obstructive jaundice in children include choledocholithiasis, choledochal cysts and rare neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common soft tissue sarcoma in pediatric patients, typically involves the head and neck, genitourinary system and extremities. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree is a rare entity. We present a 3-year-old boy with abrupt onset obstructive jaundice. Although initial imaging suggested a dilated biliary system with fusiform common bile duct, sludge, and possible cholelithiasis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) diagnosed a common bile duct embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and further imaging showed involvement of the cystic duct...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081406/upregulation-of-long-noncoding-rna-pvt1-predicts-unfavorable-prognosis-in-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#20
Xu Bao, Junyao Duan, Yongji Yan, Xin Ma, Yu Zhang, Hanfeng Wang, Dong Ni, Shengpan Wu, Cheng Peng, Yang Fan, Yu Gao, Xintao Li, Jianwen Chen, Qingshan Du, Fan Zhang, Xu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most malignant genitourinary diseases worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs in the human genome that are involved in RCC initiation and progression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of PVT1 in ccRCC and evaluate its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics and patients' survival. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine PVT1 expression in 129 ccRCC tissue samples and matched adjacent normal tissue samples...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
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