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etomidate infusion

Yu Zhang, Ruo-Meng Li, Chun Wang, Na Liu, Shen Lv, Jun-Yu Xiong
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of etomidate administered prior to or following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) on the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and lymphocyte apoptosis in septic rats. Right jugular vein catheterization was performed on female Sprague‑Dawley rats under isoflurane anesthesia, and CLP surgery was performed to induce sepsis 3 days following catheterization. The rats were randomly divided into five groups. All groups were infused with 2 ml of either etomidate or 5‰ dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 1 ml/h for 2 h from 6 h post‑surgery...
December 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Masoud Ghorbanlo, Mahmoud Reza Mohaghegh, Forozan Yazdanian, Mehrdad Mesbah, Ziya Totonchi
BACKGROUND: The need for muscle relaxants in general anesthesia in different surgeries including cardiac surgeries, and the type of relaxant to be used considering its different hemodynamic effects on patients with heart disease can be of considerable importance. In this study, the hemodynamic effects of two muscle relaxants, Cisatracurium and Atracurium in patients whit low function of left ventricle who are candidate for open heart surgery have been considered. METHOD: This study has been designed as a randomized prospective double-blind clinical trial...
July 27, 2016: Medical Archives
Caroline Cole
CASE SUMMARY: A 6 yr old 45 kg child with severe Cushinoid features was admitted to PICU with probable hypertensive encephalopathy. She presented with increasing headaches, vomiting and seizures becoming unresponsive with a GCS of 3. She was profoundly hypertensive and her cortisol levels were significantly elevated (>2000 nmol/L). Rapid reduction in cortisol levels was required to stabilise her condition prior to surgery. Etomidate is the only readily available intravenous preparation which reliably suppresses adrenocortical function...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Yang Shen, Mei-Hua Cai, Wei Ji, Jie Bai, Yue Huang, Ying Sun, Lin Lin, Jing Niu, Ma-Zhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiologic changes in children with congenital heart disease may alter the effect of drugs by influencing the pharmacokinetics (PK). Considering the limited literature that describes the PK of etomidate in pediatric patients, especially in those with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), our aim was to characterize the PK of etomidate and explore the effects of TOF. METHODS: Twenty-nine pediatric patients (15 with TOF and 14 with normal cardiac anatomy) scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia were recruited in the study...
September 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hervé Hyvernat, Rémy Barel, Anne Gentilhomme, Jean François Césari-Giordani, Annie Freche, Michel Kaidomar, Bernard Goubaux, Christian Pradier, Jean Dellamonica, Gilles Bernardin
PURPOSE: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines recommend hydrocortisone in septic shock only when fluid resuscitation and vasopressors fail to restore hemodynamic stability. Hydrocortisone administration modalities are supported only by low-grade recommendations. Our main objective here was to determine differences in 28-day mortality between two low-dose hydrocortisone regimens for the treatment of septic shock. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, pilot study in four adult medical intensive care units...
November 2016: Shock
Leslee N Matheny, Jessica R Wilson, Howard B A Baum
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has been described as a source of ectopic ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's syndrome. This is an infrequent association, occurring in less than 1% of MTC cases. Among these, it is even more unusual for an initial diagnosis of hypercortisolism to lead to the discovery of underlying MTC. Here we present a case of a patient with weakness, diarrhea, and hypokalemia who was found first to have Cushing's syndrome and later diagnosed with metastatic MTC. The patient was treated initially with oral agents to control his hypercortisolism, then with an etomidate infusion after experiencing intestinal perforation...
April 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Jonas Höjer, Dag Jacobsen, Pertti J Neuvonen, Per H Rosenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Ervin Pejo, Jifeng Liu, Xiangjie Lin, Douglas E Raines
BACKGROUND: Methoxycarbonyl etomidate (MOC-etomidate) and cyclopropyl methoxycarbonyl metomidate (CPMM) are rapidly metabolized "soft" etomidate analogs. CPMM's duration of hypnotic effect is context insensitive, whereas MOC-etomidate's is not. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CPMM's effect is context insensitive because, unlike MOC-etomidate, its metabolite fails to reach physiologically important concentrations in vivo even with prolonged continuous infusion. METHODS: We compared the potencies with which MOC-etomidate and CPMM activate α1(L264T)β3γ2 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and induce loss-of-righting reflexes (i...
April 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Mohamed Mahmoud, Keira P Mason
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decade, the field of pediatric sedation has benefited from contributions which include the introduction and update of policies, procedures, and guidelines regarding training, physiologic monitoring and delivery, the approval of new sedatives, the multispecialty collaborations intended to advance the field and the development of sedatives, and delivery systems. This review will explore new drug innovations as well as evolved formulations of already approved agents, unique sedative delivery systems, the clinical application of pharmacogenetics and will conclude with a reflection on the current and future trends and focus of pediatric sedation research...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Guan-Nan Wu, Hai-Jun Xu, Fang-Fang Liu, Xian Wu, Hai Zhou
Myoclonic movement induced by etomidate is a common but undesirable problem during general anesthesia induction. To investigate the influence of pretreatment with low-dose ketamine on the incidence and severity of myoclonus induced by etomidate, 104 patients were randomized allocated to 1 of 2 equally sized groups (n = 52) to receive either intravenous low-dose ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (group K) or an equal volume of normal saline (group S) 1 minute before induction of anesthesia with 0.3-mg/kg etomidate. The incidence and severity of myoclonus were assessed for 2 minutes after administration of etomidate...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bangyong Qin, Hongzhuan Hu, Baofeng Cao, Zhaoqiong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Etomidate is a commonly used sedative in intravenous anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various etomidate doses administered by continuous infusion on adrenal function in dogs under general anesthesia. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy adult male dogs were randomly divided into six groups. Sodium pentobarbital alone was administered to the control group (group C); five experimental groups (E1, E2, E3, E4, and E5) were also given etomidate at doses of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 μg · kg(-1) · min(-1), respectively, to maintain anesthesia...
January 8, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Matthew R Dettmer, R Phillip Dellinger
There is continued debate about the clinical ramifications of single-dose etomidate for rapid sequence induction (RSI) in patients with sepsis. This history of this debate includes early studies identifying an association between etomidate infusions and mortality with adrenal suppression as a hypothesized mechanism. More recent data describing the high prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in patients with sepsis has prompted additional investigation as to the clinical effects of single-dose etomidate when utilized as an agent in RSI...
October 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Maura Bucciarelli, Ya-Yu Lee, Vasudev Magaji
UNLABELLED: Ectopic ACTH secretion from breast cancer is extremely rare. We report a case of a 30-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer, who presented with psychosis and paranoid behaviour. CT of the head showed white matter disease consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Despite using mifepristone with multiple antihypertensives including lisinopril, spironolactone and metoprolol, she was hypertensive. Transaminitis did not allow mifepristone dose escalation and ketoconazole utilization...
2015: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Nadia Banihashem, Ebrahim Alijanpour, Majid Basirat, Javad Shokri Shirvany, Mehrdad Kashifard, Hasan Taheri, Shahriyar Savadkohi, Vahid Hosseini, Seyed Sedigheh Solimanian
BACKGROUND: The combination of propofol-fentanyl for sedation during colonoscopy is characterized by high prevalence of side effects. Etomidate-fentanyl provides fewer hemodynamic and respiratory complications. The aim of our study was to compare the safety and efficacy of propofol-fentanyl and etomidate-fentanyl for conscious sedation in elective colonoscopy. METHODS: This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients aged between 18- 55 years old who were candidates for elective colonoscopy...
2015: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Peter Santer, Ervin Pejo, Yan Feng, Wei Chao, Douglas E Raines
BACKGROUND: Cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate (CPMM) is a rapidly metabolized etomidate analog that is currently in clinical trials. The goal of this study is to assess CPMM's potential value as an anesthetic agent for use in patients with sepsis by defining its actions in an acute inflammatory model of sepsis. METHODS: Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/kg) was injected intravenously into Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty minutes later, CPMM, etomidate, or vehicle (n = 8 per group) was infused for 1 h...
August 2015: Anesthesiology
Hongbin Gu, Mazhong Zhang, Meihua Cai, Jinfen Liu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare plasma cortisol concentration during anesthesia of children with congenital heart disease who received dexmedetomidine (DEX) with those who received etomidate (ETO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We recruited 99 ASA physical status II-III pediatric patients scheduled for congenital heart disease (CHD) corrective surgery and divided into them into 3 groups. Group DEX received an infusion of DEX intravenously with a bolus dose of 0...
2015: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Shan Liu, Xiao-Ping Zhang, Na-Na Han, Shen Lv, Jun-Yu Xiong
Etomidate is frequently used as an anesthetic and sedation agent in the clinic setting. This study determined that a low-dose pre-infusion followed by a continuous dose infusion of etomidate could reduce etomidate-induced adrenal gland insufficiency. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were used, with six rats per group. Based on preliminary experiments, 0.6mg/kg etomidate was selected as the low dose for this study. Oxidative stress and apoptosis-related proteins in the adrenal glands were assayed using Western blot, and serum levels of CORT and 11β-hydroxylase were detected using ELISA...
May 2015: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Alice Gallo de Moraes, Carlos J Racedo Africano, Sumedh S Hoskote, Dereddi Raja S Reddy, Rudy Tedja, Lokendra Thakur, Jasleen K Pannu, Elizabeth C Hassebroek, Nathan J Smischney
BACKGROUND: Endotracheal intubation is a common procedure performed for critically ill patients that can have immediate life-threatening complications. Induction medications are routinely given to facilitate the procedure, but most of these medications are associated with hypotension. While etomidate is known for its neutral hemodynamic profile, it has been linked with increased mortality in septic patients and increased morbidity in trauma patients. Ketamine and propofol are effective anesthetics with counteracting cardiovascular profiles...
February 13, 2015: American Journal of Case Reports
Xiao-Chun Shen, Xing Ao, Yan Cao, Li Lan, Xin-Man Liu, Wen-Jing Sun, Ping Li, Chun-Hui Lan
BACKGROUND: This prospective and randomized study was designed to compare safety, potential complications, and patient and examiner satisfaction of 2 anesthetic combinations - etomidate-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil - in elderly patients undergoing diagnostic gastroscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 720 patients, aged 60-80 years, scheduled for diagnostic gastroscopy under sedation were prospectively randomized. After 0.4-0.6 μg kg⁻¹ of remifentanil was infused, etomidate or propofol was administered...
2015: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
H F Luan, Z B Zhao, J Y Feng, J Z Cui, X B Zhang, P Zhu, Y H Zhang
Myoclonus induced by etomidate during induction of general anesthesia is undesirable. This study evaluated the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) pretreatment on the incidence and severity of etomidate-induced myoclonus. Ninety patients undergoing elective surgical procedures were randomly allocated to three groups (n=30 each) for intravenous administration of 10 mL isotonic saline (group I), 0.5 µg/kg DEX in 10 mL isotonic saline (group II), or 1.0 µg/kg DEX in 10 mL isotonic saline (group III) over 10 min...
February 2015: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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