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Wengang Xie, Junchao Zhang, Xuhong Zhao, Zongyu Zhang, Yanrong Wang
BACKGROUND: Elymus sibiricus is an important forage grass in semi-arid regions, but it is difficult to grow for commercial seed production due to high seed shattering. To better understand the underlying mechanism and explore the putative genes related to seed shattering, we conducted a combination of morphological, histological, physiochemical and transcriptome analysis on two E. sibiricus genotypes (XH09 and ZhN03) that have contrasting seed shattering. RESULTS: The results show that seed shattering is generally caused by a degradation of the abscission layer...
April 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Zhe Zhao, Shuqiang Li
Evolutionary biology has long been concerned with how changing environments affect and drive the spatiotemporal development of organisms. Coelotine spiders (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) are common species in the temperate and subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Their long evolutionary history and the extremely imbalanced distribution of species richness suggest that Eurasian environments, especially since the Cenozoic, are the drivers of their diversification. We use phylogenetics, molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions, diversity, and ecological niche analyses to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of 286 coelotine species from throughout the region...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
Zhenjie Wang, Shaonong Dang, Yuan Xing, Qiang Li, Hong Yan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is very limited published data on Tibetan dietary patterns and its association with nutrient intakes and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the dietary patterns and the associations with nutrient intakes in rural Tibetan pregnant, lactating mothers. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes were identified via a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We identified dietary patterns using principle component analysis (PCA) of intakes of 17 food groups and specific Tibetan foods...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Wei Chi, Xufa Ma, Jiangong Niu, Ming Zou
BACKGROUND: Molecular adaptation to the severe environments present during the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has attracted the attention of researchers. The divergence of the three specialization groups of schizothoracins (Primitive, Specialized and Highly Specialized) may correspond to the three phases of plateau uplift. Based on the transcripts of representative species of the three specialized groups and an outgroup, genes in schizothoracins that may have played important roles during the adaptation to new environments were investigated...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
Li-Wei Zhou, Jie Song
Phellinopsis (Hymenochaetaceae) was recently segregated from Phellinus. Phellinopsis differs from other genera segregated from Phellinus in a combination of hymenial setae, if present, mostly originating from tramal hyphae and hyaline basidiospores becoming pale yellowish with age. In this study, two new species of Phellinopsis, P. lonicericola and P. tibetica, from Tibet in southwestern China were described and illustrated. Morphological data and sequences of the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] barcode) support the recognition of these taxa as distinct...
March 3, 2017: Mycologia
Feixiang Wu, Desui Miao, Mee-Mann Chang, Gongle Shi, Ning Wang
Understanding the Tibetan Plateau's palaeogeography and palaeoenvironment is critical for reconstructing Asia's climatic history; however, aspects of the plateau's uplift history remain unclear. Here, we report a fossil biota that sheds new light on these issues. It comprises a fossil climbing perch (Anabantidae) and a diverse subtropical fossil flora from the Chattian (late Oligocene) of central Tibet. The fish, Eoanabas thibetana gen. et sp. nov., is inferred to be closely related to extant climbing perches from tropical lowlands in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shanmei Cheng, Qiong La, Fan Lu, Takahiro Yonezawa, Ganqiang Yin, Zhiping Song, Yuguo Wang, Ji Yang, Wenju Zhang
Wu hypothesized that the Tibetan flora originated mostly from the paleotropical Tertiary flora in the Hengduan Mountains by adapting to the cold and arid environments associated with the strong uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Here, we combine the phylogeographic history of Sophora moorcroftiana with that of S. davidii to explore the speciation of S. moorcroftiana to test this hypothesis. We collected 151 individuals from 17 populations and sequenced two chloroplast fragments and the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Y H Dong, H B Liu, Z H Wang, R B Xu, Z P Yang, J Ma
Objective: To investigate the characteristics of geographic distribution and change trend of myopia prevalence for children and adolescents aged 7-18 years old from 2005 to 2014, which provides the basis for the prevention of myopia. Methods: Research material was selected from the data of 2005, 2010, and 2014 Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health, including 31 provinces (with the exception of Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan). The complete detection data of binoculus in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years old were selected as our research objects...
April 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Deyan Ge, Liang Lu, Jilong Cheng, Lin Xia, Yongbin Chang, Zhixin Wen, Xue Lv, Yuanbao Du, Qiyong Liu, Qisen Yang
The underlying mechanisms that allow the Hengduan Mountains (HDM), the terrestrial biodiversity centre of China, to harbour high levels of species diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we sought to explore the biogeographic history of the endemic rat, Niviventer andersoni species complex (NASC), and to understand the long-term persistence of high species diversity in this region. In contrast to previous studies that have proposed regional refuges in eastern or southern of the HDM and emphasized the influence of climatic oscillations on local vertebrates, we found that HDM as a whole acted as refuge for the NASC and that the historical range shifts of NASC mainly occurred in the marginal regions...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jian-Yong Zheng, Yi-Gang Qiu, Dong-Tao Li, Jiang-Chun He, Yu Chen, Yi Cao, Ying-Ming Liu, Xian-Feng Li, Hai-Tao Chi, Tian-Chang Li
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of CHD has been well described worldwide except in Tibet. This study aimed to illustrate the prevalence and composition of CHD in Tibetan children according to altitude. Methods and results In the first part, we prospectively recruited 7088 unselected Tibetan children (4-17 years) from south-west Tibet. The total prevalence of CHD increased from 4.6/1000 below 4200 m to 13.4/1000 above 4700 m, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.3:3.1. The total prevalence and female prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus increased more than 10-fold...
April 10, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Ying Huang, Meihua Deng, Tingqiang Li, Jan Japenga, Qianqian Chen, Xiaoe Yang, Zhenli He
China was considered the biggest contributor for airborne mercury in the world but the amount of mercury emission in effluents and solid wastes has not been documented. In this study, total national and regional mercury emission to the environment via exhaust gases, effluents and solid wastes were accounted with updated emission factors and the amount of goods produced and/or consumed. The national mercury emission in China increased from 448 to 2151 tons during the 1980-2012 period. Nearly all of the emissions were ended up as exhaust gases and solid wastes...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yun Zhang, Zhaochen Kong, Zhenjing Yang, Li Wang, Xiaohong Duan
We explore the relationship between modern pollen spectra and vegetation patterns in the Eastern Tibet, China in order to provide information on the representation of pollen taxa and improve the general knowledge of vertical pollen transport. Forty-two modern pollen samples collected in surface soil along two altitudinal transects allowed conclusions on vertical pollen dispersal from the alpine region of Dingqing County, Changdu district in Tibet. Discriminant analyses and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of 24 pollen taxa were used to further discuss the difference of modern pollen spectra in these alpine vegetation zones...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yu Zhou, Sirui Wang, Hedan Zhu, Pipeng Li, Baotian Yang, Jianzhang Ma
Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses...
2017: PloS One
Yu Shi, Yongsong Hu, Jie Wang, Mauricio A Elzo, Xue Yang, Songjia Lai
Tibetan yak (Bos grunniens) inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) where the average altitude is 4000 m, is specially adapted to live at these altitudes. Conversely, cattle (B. taurus) has been found to suffer from high-altitude hypertension or heart failure when exposed to these high altitudes. Two mitochondrial genes, MT-ND1 and MT-ND2, encode two subunits of NADH dehydrogenase play an essential role in the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We sequenced these two mitochondrial genes in two bovine groups (70 Tibetan yaks and 70 Xuanhan cattle) and downloaded 300 sequences of B...
April 1, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Huan Li, Tongtong Li, Bo Tu, Yongping Kou, Xiangzhen Li
The mammalian stomach acts as an important barrier against ingested pathogens into the entire gastrointestinal tract, thereby playing a key role in host health. However, little is known regarding to the stomach microbial compositions in wild mammals and the factors that may influence the community compositions. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we characterized the stomach bacterial community compositions, diversity, and interactions in two common pika (Ochotona sp.) species in China, including Plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) and Daurian pikas (Ochotona daurica) living in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Inner Mongolia Grassland, respectively...
April 1, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zhanjun Ren, Huiling Chen, Xuejiao Yang, Chengdong Zhang
Recently, the number of Tibetan mastiffs, which is a precious germplasm resource and cultural heritage, is decreasing sharply. Therefore, the genetic diversity of Tibetan mastiffs needs to be studied to clarify its phylogenetics relationships and lay the foundation for resource protection, rational development and utilization of Tibetan mastiffs. We sequenced hypervariable region I of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 110 individuals from Tibet region and Gansu province. A total of 12 polymorphic sites were identified which defined eight haplotypes of which H4 and H8 were unique to Tibetan population with H8 being identified first...
March 2017: Journal of Genetics
Yindong Tong, Xiaoge Bu, Cen Chen, Xi Yang, Yiren Lu, Huijiao Liang, Maodian Liu, Huiming Lin, Haoran Zhang, Yan Lin, Feng Zhou, Shen Zhao, Tianyu Wu, Guozhu Mao, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang
Identifying the sanitation efficacy in reducing contaminations entering the environment is an important step for water pollution controls and developing management strategies to further improve sanitation conditions. With continuous efforts in sanitation improvement during the past decade, reductions in discharges of aquatic nutrients are expected in China. In this study, we estimated the aquatic nitrogen discharges from human excreta in 31 provinces in China during 2006-2014. The results indicated that the nitrogen discharges entering the environment from human excreta are largely determined by both local population and sanitation conditions...
March 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hui Zhang, Houqiang Luo, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Fazul Nabi, Kun Li, Yanfang Lan, Shucheng Huang, Lihong Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Muhammad Shahzad, Jiakui Li
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) which is a major threat to animals and humans health. This virus has been reported earlier from low altitude regions of Tibet, in mosquitoes, Tibetan pigs and local Tibetans, but no reports are available for the probable propagation of JE to high altitude regions (3100 m) of Tibet. This study aimed to find the evidence of JEV in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and pigs from high altitude regions of Tibet, China...
January 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Yuanjin Pan, Wen-Bin Shen
The ongoing collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate brings up N-S crustal shortening and thickening of the Tibet Plateau, but its dynamic mechanisms remain controversial yet. As one of the most tectonically active regions of the world, South-Eastern Tibet (SET) has been greatly paid attention to by many geoscientists. Here we present the latest three-dimensional GPS velocity field to constrain the present-day tectonic process of SET, which may highlight the complex vertical crustal deformation...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Meng Li, Tetsuo Ohi-Toma, Yun-Dong Gao, Bo Xu, Zhang-Ming Zhu, Wen-Bin Ju, Xin-Fen Gao
Explaining how plants from eastern Asia migrated to other Northern Hemisphere regions is still challenging. The genus Sorbus sensu stricto (including c. 88 species) is considered as a good example to illuminate this scenario, due to the wide distribution in the temperate zone and high diversity in the Himalayas and Hengduan Mountains. Based on four nuclear markers (LEAFY-2, GBSSI-1, SBEI and WD) and one chloroplast marker (rps16-trnK), we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationship of Sorbus using 54 taxa (60% of the genus representing all subgenera, sections, or series and geographical areas in the previous classifications), and estimated divergence time and historical biogeography of the genus...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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