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Lactate AND Homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089327/ceruloplasmin-gene-expression-profile-changes-in-the-rat-mammary-gland-during-pregnancy-lactation-and-involution
#1
Natalia A Platonova, Iurii A Orlov, Sergey A Klotchenko, Victor S Babich, Ekaterina Y Ilyechova, Polina S Babich, Yuri P Garmai, Andrey V Vasin, Nadezhda V Tsymbalenko, Liudmila V Puchkova
Copper metabolism disturbances in mammary gland (MG) cells have severe consequences in newborns. The mechanism that controls the balance of copper in the MG has not been thoroughly characterized. Four primary copper homeostasis genes in mammals: (1) ceruloplasmin (Cp) encoding multifunction multicopper blue (ferr)oxidase; (2) CTR1 encoding high affinity copper importer 1; and (3 and 4) two similar genes encoding Cu(I)/Cu(II)-ATPases P1 type (ATP7A and ATP7B) responsible for copper efflux from the cells and metallation of cuproenzymes formed in the Golgi complex are expressed in MG...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087461/low-glucose-stress-decreases-cellular-nadh-and-mitochondrial-atp-in-colonic-epithelial-cancer-cells-influence-of-mitochondrial-substrates
#2
Magdalena L Circu, Ronald E Maloney, Tak Yee Aw
In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NADH/NAD(+)) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation imposed by glucose deprivation or supplementation with mitochondrial substrates, succinate and malate/glutamate (M/G). Our results showed that low glucose caused cellular NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance that diminished lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and resulted in lower lactate contents. The concurrent activation of malic enzyme (ME) suggested a role for malate in preserving cellular pyruvate that remained unchanged at low glucose...
January 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072496/structural-reconstruction-of-the-perivascular-space-in-the-adult-mouse-neurohypophysis-during-an-osmotic-stimulation
#3
K Nishikawa, E Furube, S Morita, N Horii-Hayashi, M Nishi, S Miyata
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), neuropeptides in the neurohypophysis (NH), control lactation and body fluid homeostasis, respectively. Hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons project their axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the NH to make contact with the vascular surface and release OXT and AVP. The neurohypophysial vascular structure is unique, because it has a wide perivascular space between the inner and outer basement membranes. However, the significance of this unique vascular structure remains unclear; therefore, we aimed to elucidate the functional significance of the perivascular space and its activity-dependent changes during salt loading in adult mice...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063249/effects-of-feeding-frequency-on-meat-quality-traits-and-longissimus-muscle-proteome-in-finishing-pigs
#4
J B Liu, X Cai, H Xiong, H F Zhang
Sixty-four barrows with an initial body weight of 59.8 ± 2.1 kg were allocated to one of the two feeding frequency regimes (had free access to diet and fed two meals per day). Pigs had free access (FA) to feed were fed on an ad libitum basis during the 8-week experimental period. Pigs fed twice daily (M2) were allowed to consume their meals in 2 h. Pigs fed twice daily had lower average daily feed intake (p < 0.01) and average daily gain (p < 0.1), but a greater G:F (p < 0.05) than FA pigs...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060943/farnesoid-x-receptor-activation-attenuates-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#5
Laurens J Ceulemans, Len Verbeke, Jean-Paul Decuypere, Ricard Farré, Gert De Hertogh, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ina Jochmans, Diethard Monbaliu, Frederik Nevens, Jan Tack, Wim Laleman, Jacques Pirenne
INTRODUCTION: The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is abundantly expressed in the ileum, where it exerts an enteroprotective role as a key regulator of intestinal innate immunity and homeostasis, as shown in pre-clinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Since intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is characterized by hyperpermeability, bacterial translocation and inflammation, we aimed to investigate, for the first time, if the FXR-agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) could attenuate intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056323/-the-role-of-neuroglobin-in-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation-induced-mitochondrial-depolarization-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#6
S Y Deng, Y H Ai, L N Zhang, L Wu, C X Chen, Y M Wang, Z Y Liu, L Huang, Q Y Peng
Objective: To investigate the role of neuroglobin (NGB) in oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced mitochondrial depolarization and reactive oxygen species (ROS)production in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). Methods: SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with lentivirus to establish a stable cell line of NGB knockdown (KD). After treated with OGD/R, cells were collected at different time points to analyze NGB mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, cells were stained with JC-1 and DCFH-DA to evaluate mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production by inverted fluorescence microscope...
January 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039864/sirtuin-6-attenuates-periapical-lesion-propagation-by-modulating-hypoxia-induced-ccl2-production-in-osteoblasts
#7
Y-L Lee, S-K Lin, K-L Hou, S-H Kok, E H-H Lai, H-W Wang, J Z-C Chang, H Yang, C-Y Hong
AIM: To investigate the attenuating effect of sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) on hypoxia-induced production of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) by osteoblasts and the relevance of this action on the pathogenesis of periapical lesions. METHODOLOGY: SIRT6 was overexpressed in MC3T3-E1 murine osteoblasts by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer. The relationship between the anti-glycolytic/anti-oxidative activities of SIRT6 and its effect on hypoxia-induced CCL2 production were examined...
December 31, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039630/sublethal-effect-assessment-of-a-low-power-and-dual-frequency-anti-cyanobacterial-ultrasound-device-on-the-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-a-field-study
#8
Didier Techer, Sylvain Milla, Damien Banas
The use of ultrasonication for cyanobacterial control in freshwater bodies has become increasingly popular during the last decades despite controversial efficiency on large scale application. Apart from that, little information is currently available regarding ultrasound toxicity potential towards non-target species. This work was designed to address this issue in the common carp using a low-power (7-9 W output) and dual-frequency (23 and 46 kHz) anti-cyanobacterial ultrasound device. Results showed that carps were unaffected by ultrasound exposure when exposed in floating cages in fish ponds over a 30-day period...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028317/oral-leptin-supplementation-throughout-lactation-in-rats-prevents-later-metabolic-alterations-caused-by-gestational-calorie-restriction
#9
N Szostaczuk, T Priego, M Palou, A Palou, C Picó
OBJECTIVES: Calorie-restriction during gestation in rats has been seen to produce lasting detrimental effects in the offspring, affecting energy balance control and other related metabolic functions. Our aim was to assess whether leptin supplementation throughout lactation may prevent the dysmetabolic phenotype in adulthood associated with gestational calorie restriction. METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats were followed: the offspring of ad libitum fed dams (controls); the offspring of 20% calorie-restricted dams during gestation (CR); and CR rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation (CR-Leptin)...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025577/impact-of-perinatal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet-and-stress-on-responses-to-nutritional-challenges-food-motivated-behaviour-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-function
#10
M Romaní-Pérez, A L Lépinay, L Alonso, M Rincel, L Xia, H Fanet, S Caillé, M Cador, S Layé, S Vancassel, M Darnaudéry
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Energy dense food exposure and stress during development have been suggested to contribute to obesity and metabolic disorders later in life. Although these factors are frequently associated, the effects of their combination have not yet been investigated. In this study, using an animal model, we examined the long term impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and early-life stress (ELS) on energy homeostasis control and food motivation. METHODS: Body weight growth under HFD, adipose tissue, body weight control in response to fasting and refeeding, food-motivated behaviour and mesolimbic dopamine function were examined in adult male offspring exposed to maternal HFD (during gestation and lactation) and/or ELS (maternal separation 3 h per day from postnatal day 2 to 14)...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004032/histological-and-metabolic-state-of-dams-suckling-small-litter-or-msg-treated-pups
#11
Claudia Regina Capriglioni Cancian, Nayara Carvalho Leite, Elisangela Gueiber Montes, Stefani Valeria Fisher, Leticia Waselcoski, Emily Caroline Lopes Stal, Renata Zanardini Christoforo, Sabrina Grassiolli
Lactation is an important function that is dependent on changes in the maternal homeostasis and sustained by histological maternal adjustments. We evaluated how offspring manipulations during the lactational phase can modulate maternal morphologic aspects in the mammary gland, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets of lactating dams. Two different models of litter-manipulation-during-lactation were used: litter sizes, small litters (SL) or normal litters (NL) and subcutaneous injections in the puppies of monosodium glutamate (MSG), or saline (CON)...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988124/increased-serum-serotonin-improves-parturient-calcium-homeostasis-in-dairy-cows
#12
Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Laura L Hernandez, Samantha Weaver, Rupert M Bruckmaier
Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935992/intense-exercise-and-aerobic-conditioning-associated-with-chromium-or-l-carnitine-supplementation-modified-the-fecal-microbiota-of-fillies
#13
Maria Luiza Mendes de Almeida, Walter Heinz Feringer, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia Carvalho, Isadora Mestriner Rodrigues, Lilian Rezende Jordão, Mayara Gonçalves Fonseca, Adalgiza Souza Carneiro de Rezende, Antonio de Queiroz Neto, J Scott Weese, Márcio Carvalho da Costa, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos, Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz
Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913184/tolerance-of-hyperammonemia-in-brain-of-heteropneustes-fossilis-is-supported-by-glutamate-glutamine-cycle
#14
Suman Mishra, Rajnikant Mishra
This report presents analysis of molecular switches associated with tolerance to hyperammonemia in Heteropneustes fossilis because it tolerates about 100-fold more ammonia than mammals. Brains of Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to 100mM ammonium chloride were dissected after Zero hour as control, 16h and 20h exposure. The status of neuron and glia were analysed by Golgi staining, Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl's staining. The expression patterns of genes associated to homeostasis of neuron and glia, management of oxidative stress and inflammation, ammonia metabolism and brain derived neurotrophic factor were analysed through reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901646/the-time-dependent-health-and-biochemical-effects-in-rats-exposed-to-stainless-steel-welding-dust-and-its-soluble-form
#15
Tadeusz Halatek, Magdalena Stanislawska, Irena Kaminska, Malgorzata Cieslak, Radoslaw Swiercz, Wojciech Wasowicz
Welding processes that generate fumes containing toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni), have been implicated in lung injury, inflammation, and lung tumor promotion in animal models. The principal objective of this study was to determine the dynamics of toxic effects of inhalation exposure to morphologically rated welding dust from stainless steel welding and its soluble form in TSE System with a dynamic airflow. We assessed the pulmonary toxicity of welding dust in Wistar rats exposed to 60...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899891/cardiac-stat3-deficiency-impairs-contractility-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-hypertension
#16
Raffaele Altara, Romain Harmancey, Sean P Didion, George W Booz, Fouad A Zouein
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protects the heart from acute ischemic stress. However, the importance of STAT3 to the heart in chronic stress, such as hypertension, is not known. To study this, we used cardiomyocyte-targeted STAT3 knockout (KO) mice and Angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion by osmotic minipumps. After 4 weeks, ANG II induced similar cardiac hypertrophy in wild type (WT) and cardiac Cre-expressing control (CTRL) mice with no impairment of cardiac function. In contrast, STAT3 KO mice exhibited reduced contractile function but similar hypertrophy to CTRL mice...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894810/na-ca-2-exchanger-1-inhibition-abolishes-ischemic-tolerance-induced-by-ischemic-preconditioning-in-different-cardiac-models
#17
Pasqualina Castaldo, Maria Loredana Macrì, Vincenzo Lariccia, Alessandra Matteucci, Marta Maiolino, Santo Gratteri, Salvatore Amoroso, Simona Magi
Ca(2+)-handling disturbances play an important role in the genesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a powerful strategy to induce tolerance against subsequent ischemic episodes. IPC signaling pathways may be triggered by Ca(2+) ion. Since Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) participates in modulating intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, here we further defined its role in I/R and investigated its potential involvement in IPC-induced cardioprotection. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, perfused rat heart and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, I/R produced a significant cell injury, assessed by measuring extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and, for the whole heart, also by estimating myocardial infarct size area...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894063/loss-of-glutaredoxin-3-impedes-mammary-lobuloalveolar-development-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#18
Khanh Pham, Jie Dong, Xiqian Jiang, Ying Qu, Han Yu, Yisheng Yang, Walter Olea, Juan C Marini, Lawrence Chan, Jin Wang, Xander H T Wehrens, Xiaojiang Cui, Yi Li, Darryl L Hadsell, Ninghui Cheng
Mammalian glutaredoxin 3 (Grx3) has been shown to be important for regulating cellular redox homeostasis in the cell. Our previous studies indicate that Grx3 is significantly overexpressed in various human cancers including breast cancer and demonstrate that Grx3 controls cancer cell growth and invasion by regulating ROS and NF-κB signaling pathways. However, it remains to be determined whether Grx3 is required for normal mammary gland development and how it contributes to epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo In the present study, we examined Grx3 expression in different cell types within the developing mouse mammary gland (MG) and found enhanced expression of Grx3 at pregnancy and lactation stages...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865496/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-delta-facilitates-lipid-secretion-and-catabolism-of-fatty-acids-in-dairy-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#19
H B Shi, C H Zhang, W Zhao, J Luo, J J Loor
In rodents, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) is associated primarily with catabolism of fatty acids. However, the role of PPARD in regulating lipid metabolism in ruminant mammary gland remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed the mRNA abundance of PPARD at 3 stages of lactation in goat mammary tissue. Results revealed that PPARD had lower expression at peak lactation than in the nonlactating period. Luciferase assays revealed that GW0742 (GW), a specific PPARD ligand, enhanced the activity of the PPARD response element in goat mammary epithelial cells...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856334/quantitative-metabolic-flux-analysis-reveals-an-unconventional-pathway-of-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-cancer-cells-deficient-for-the-mitochondrial-citrate-transport-protein
#20
Lei Jiang, Adam Boufersaoui, Chendong Yang, Bookyung Ko, Dinesh Rakheja, Gerardo Guevara, Zeping Hu, Ralph J DeBerardinis
The mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP), encoded by SLC25A1, accommodates bidirectional trafficking of citrate between the mitochondria and cytosol, supporting lipid biosynthesis and redox homeostasis. Genetic CTP deficiency causes a fatal neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with the accumulation of L- and D-2-hydroxyglutaric acid, and elevated CTP expression is associated with poor prognosis in several types of cancer, emphasizing the importance of this transporter in multiple human pathologies...
November 14, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
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