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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669838/effects-of-adjuvants-on-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-sosip-trimers-in-vitro
#1
Gabriel Ozorowski, Albert Cupo, Michael Golabek, Michelle LoPiccolo, Thomas A Ketas, Matt Cavallary, Christopher A Cottrell, P J Klasse, Andrew B Ward, John P Moore
Native-like, soluble, recombinant SOSIP trimers of various designs and based on several env genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are being tested as immunogens in different animal models. These experiments almost always involve co-formulating the trimers with an adjuvant to boost the magnitude of the immune responses. One factor relevant to the choice of an adjuvant is that it should not physically damage the immunogen or impede its ability to present relevant epitopes. As examples, an adjuvant formulation that includes harsh detergents could disrupt the structural integrity of a trimer, and any charged compounds in the formulation could bind to counter-charged regions of the trimer and physically occlude nearby epitopes...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609429/comparison-of-wound-healing-effects-between-oncorhynchus-keta-derived-polydeoxyribonucleotide-pdrn-and-oncorhynchus-mykiss-derived-pdrn
#2
Jong Hun Lee, Jin Woo Han, Jin Hwan Byun, Won Mi Lee, Min Ho Kim, Wen Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) influencing cellular growth and differentiation is recognized to promote wound healing by stimulating tissue repair. Although PDRN can be extracted from human placentas, PDRN medications have recently been extracted from the semen of trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) and salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta ). The present study was designed to evaluate the wound healing effects of O. keta -derived PDRN for injection (Rejuvenex) and PDRN cream (Rejuvenex Cream) in comparison with those of O...
March 2018: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554567/interspecies-variation-in-the-susceptibility-of-adult-pacific-salmon-to-toxic-urban-stormwater-runoff
#3
Jenifer K McIntyre, Jessica I Lundin, James R Cameron, Michelle I Chow, Jay W Davis, John P Incardona, Nathaniel L Scholz
Adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) prematurely die when they return from the ocean to spawn in urban watersheds throughout northwestern North America. The available evidence suggests the annual mortality events are caused by toxic stormwater runoff. The underlying pathophysiology of the urban spawner mortality syndrome is not known, and it is unclear whether closely related species of Pacific salmon are similarly at risk. The present study co-exposed adult coho and chum (O. keta) salmon to runoff from a high traffic volume urban arterial roadway...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478566/detection-and-identification-of-furan-fatty-acids-from-fish-lipids-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-electrospray-ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#4
Hajime Uchida, Yutaka Itabashi, Ryuichi Watanabe, Ryoji Matsushima, Hiroshi Oikawa, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Masashi Hosokawa, Naonobu Tsutsumi, Kazuhiro Ura, Donato Romanazzi, Matthew R Miller
Using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS), we have developed a new method for detection and identification of furan fatty acids (F-acids), which are widely distributed in living organisms and foods as minor lipid components and are known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. For this purpose, total fatty acids prepared from the testis lipids of Japanese chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) were examined without any concentration or isolation of F-acids...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474444/epitopes-for-neutralizing-antibodies-induced-by-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-bg505-sosip-trimers-in-rabbits-and-macaques
#5
P J Klasse, Thomas J Ketas, Christopher A Cottrell, Gabriel Ozorowski, Gargi Debnath, Diawoye Camara, Erik Francomano, Pavel Pugach, Rajesh P Ringe, Celia C LaBranche, Marit J van Gils, Christine A Bricault, Dan H Barouch, Shane Crotty, Guido Silvestri, Sudhir Kasturi, Bali Pulendran, Ian A Wilson, David C Montefiori, Rogier W Sanders, Andrew B Ward, John P Moore
The native-like, soluble SOSIP.664 trimer based on the BG505 clade A env gene of HIV-1 is immunogenic in various animal species, of which the most studied are rabbits and rhesus macaques. The trimer induces autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) consistently but at a wide range of titers and with incompletely determined specificities. A precise delineation of immunogenic neutralization epitopes on native-like trimers could help strategies to extend the NAb response to heterologous HIV-1 strains. One autologous NAb epitope on the BG505 Env trimer is known to involve residues lining a hole in the glycan shield that is blocked by adding a glycan at either residue 241 or 289...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415182/arabidopsis-zinc-finger-like-protein-asymmetric-leaves2-as2-and-two-nucleolar-proteins-maintain-gene-body-dna-methylation-in-the-leaf-polarity-gene-ettin-arf3
#6
Simon Vial-Pradel, Sumie Keta, Mika Nomoto, Hiro Takahashi, Masataka Suzuki, Yuri Yokoyama, Michiko Sasabe, Shoko Kojima, Yasuomi Tada, Yasunori Machida, Chiyoko Machida
Arabidopsis ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) plays a critical role in leaf adaxial-abaxial partitioning by repressing expression of the abaxial-determining gene ETTIN/AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ETT/ARF3). We previously reported that six CpG dinucleotides in its exon 6 are thoroughly methylated by METHYLTRASFERASE1, that CpG methylation levels are inversely correlated with ETT/ARF3 transcript levels, and that methylation levels at three out of six are decreased in as2-1, All these imply that AS2 is involved in epigenetic repression of ETT/ARF3 by gene body methylation...
February 5, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248569/molecular-characterization-and-gene-expression-of-synaptosome-associated-protein-25-snap-25-in-the-brain-during-both-seaward-and-homeward-migrations-of-chum-salmon-oncorhynchus-keta
#7
Takashi Abe, Yui Minowa, Hideaki Kudo
It is generally accepted that information about some of the odorants in the natal streams of anadromous Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) is imprinted during their seaward migration, and that anadromous Pacific salmon use olfaction to identify their natal streams during the homeward migration. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the various pre-synaptic functions that are important for olfactory imprinting and memory retrieval in the salmon brain. Synaptosome-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) mediates pre-synaptic vesicle exocytosis and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity...
March 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218434/inhibition-of-gsk-3beta-signaling-pathway-rescues-ketamine-induced-neurotoxicity-in-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#8
Jingjing Zhang, Changlei Cui, Yanhui Li, Haiyang Xu
Clinical application of anesthetic reagent, ketamine (Keta), may induce irreversible neurotoxicity in central nervous system. In this work, we utilized an in vitro model of neural stem cells-derived neurons (nSCNs) to evaluate the role of GSK-3 signaling pathway in Keta-induced neurotoxicity. Embryonic mouse-brain neural stem cells were differentiated into neurons in vitro. Keta (50 μM)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured nSCNs was monitored by apoptosis, immunohistochemical and western blot assays, respectively...
March 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150937/cgmp-production-and-analysis-of-bg505-sosip-664-an-extensively-glycosylated-trimeric-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-vaccine-candidate
#9
Antu K Dey, Albert Cupo, Gabriel Ozorowski, Vaneet K Sharma, Anna-Janina Behrens, Eden P Go, Thomas J Ketas, Anila Yasmeen, Per J Klasse, Eddy Sayeed, Heather Desaire, Max Crispin, Ian A Wilson, Rogier W Sanders, Thomas Hassell, Andrew B Ward, John P Moore
We describe the properties of BG505 SOSIP.664 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) conditions. These proteins are the first of a new generation of native-like trimers that are the basis for many structure-guided immunogen development programs aimed at devising how to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 by vaccination. The successful translation of this prototype demonstrates the feasibility of producing similar immunogens on an appropriate scale and of an acceptable quality for Phase I experimental medicine clinical trials...
April 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044040/epizootiology-of-the-ectoparasitic-protozoans-ichthyobodo-salmonis-and-trichodina-truttae-on-wild-chum-salmon-oncorhynchus-keta
#10
Shinya Mizuno, Shigehiko Urawa, Mahito Miyamoto, Hayato Saneyoshi, Makoto Hatakeyama, Nobuhisa Koide, Hiroshi Ueda
Infestations of the ectoparasitic flagellate Ichthyobodo salmonis and the ciliate Trichodina truttae have caused acute mortalities of hatchery-reared juvenile chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta in Hokkaido, northern Japan. This study examined the epizootiology of I. salmonis and T. truttae on wild chum salmon as a possible infection source of the 2 parasitic protozoans in hatcheries. Infestations by both ectoparasites were detected on freshwater-adapted adult and juvenile chum salmon in all 4 rivers examined. This is the first study of an anadromous Pacific salmonid to report infestation of I...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834745/improving-the-immunogenicity-of-native-like-hiv-1-envelope-trimers-by-hyperstabilization
#11
Alba Torrents de la Peña, Jean-Philippe Julien, Steven W de Taeye, Fernando Garces, Miklos Guttman, Gabriel Ozorowski, Laura K Pritchard, Anna-Janina Behrens, Eden P Go, Judith A Burger, Edith E Schermer, Kwinten Sliepen, Thomas J Ketas, Pavel Pugach, Anila Yasmeen, Christopher A Cottrell, Jonathan L Torres, Charlotte D Vavourakis, Marit J van Gils, Celia LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Heather Desaire, Max Crispin, Per Johan Klasse, Kelly K Lee, John P Moore, Andrew B Ward, Ian A Wilson, Rogier W Sanders
The production of native-like recombinant versions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer requires overcoming the natural flexibility and instability of the complex. The engineered BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer mimics the structure and antigenicity of native Env. Here, we describe how the introduction of new disulfide bonds between the glycoprotein (gp)120 and gp41 subunits of SOSIP trimers of the BG505 and other genotypes improves their stability and antigenicity, reduces their conformational flexibility, and helps maintain them in the unliganded conformation...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724359/the-burden-of-hiv-on-tuberculosis-patients-in-the-volta-region-of-ghana-from-2012-to-2015-implication-for-tuberculosis-control
#12
Eric Osei, Joyce Der, Richard Owusu, Philip Kofie, Wisdom Kudzo Axame
BACKGROUND: The impact of HIV on TB, and the implications for TB control, has been acknowledged as a public health challenge. It is imperative therefore to assess the burden of HIV on TB patients as an indicator for monitoring the control efforts of the two diseases in this part of the world. This study aimed at determining the burden of HIV infection in TB patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of TB registers in five districts of the Volta Region of Ghana...
July 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539451/reducing-v3-antigenicity-and-immunogenicity-on-soluble-native-like-hiv-1-env-sosip-trimers
#13
Rajesh P Ringe, Gabriel Ozorowski, Kimmo Rantalainen, Weston B Struwe, Katie Matthews, Jonathan L Torres, Anila Yasmeen, Christopher A Cottrell, Thomas J Ketas, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Albert Cupo, Max Crispin, Ian A Wilson, Andrew B Ward, Rogier W Sanders, P J Klasse, John P Moore
Native-like trimers of the SOSIP design are being developed as immunogens in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development programs. These trimers display the epitopes for multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) but can also expose binding sites for some types of nonneutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs). Among the latter are epitopes in the gp120 V3 region that are highly immunogenic when SOSIP trimers are evaluated in animal models. It is presently uncertain whether antibodies against V3 can interfere with the induction of NAbs, but there are good arguments in favor of suppressing such "off-target" immune responses...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528412/bioindicators-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-the-sea-of-okhotsk-and-the-western-bering-sea
#14
Vasiliy Yu Tsygankov, Margarita D Boyarova, Olga N Lukyanova, Nadezhda K Khristoforova
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O...
August 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508403/physiochemical-and-functional-properties-of-chum-salmon-oncorhynchus-keta-skin-gelatin-extracted-at-different-temperatures
#15
Yang Liu, Lining Xia, Hui Jia, Qi Li, Wengang Jin, Xiuping Dong, Jinfeng Pan
BACKGROUND: Aquatic source gelatins are gaining more attention due to the advantages in safety and religion acceptability compared with mammalian sources. For understanding the effects of extracting temperature on gelatins from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) skins (GCSS), gelatins were extracted at temperatures from 40 to 90°C and the physiochemical properties of GCSS were investigated. RESULTS: GCSS yield increased while imino acids content declined as the increase of temperature...
December 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496186/an-ancient-selective-sweep-linked-to-reproductive-life-history-evolution-in-sockeye-salmon
#16
Andrew J Veale, Michael A Russello
Study of parallel (or convergent) phenotypic evolution can provide important insights into processes driving sympatric, ecologically-mediated divergence and speciation, as ecotype pairs may provide a biological replicate of the underlying signals and mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence for a selective sweep creating an island of divergence associated with reproductive behavior in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), identifying a series of linked single nucleotide polymorphisms across a ~22,733 basepair region spanning the leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 9 gene exhibiting signatures of divergent selection associated with stream- and shore-spawning in both anadromous and resident forms across their pan-Pacific distribution...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491036/pharmacological-activity-and-clinical-use-of-pdrn
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Squadrito, Alessandra Bitto, Natasha Irrera, Gabriele Pizzino, Giovanni Pallio, Letteria Minutoli, Domenica Altavilla
PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout) or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon) sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470711/carbohydrate-recognition-by-the-rhamnose-binding-lectin-sul-i-with-a-novel-three-domain-structure-isolated-from-the-venom-of-globiferous-pedicellariae-of-the-flower-sea-urchin-toxopneustes-pileolus
#18
Tomomitsu Hatakeyama, Ayaka Ichise, Hideaki Unno, Shuichiro Goda, Tatsuya Oda, Hiroaki Tateno, Jun Hirabayashi, Hitomi Sakai, Hideyuki Nakagawa
The globiferous pedicellariae of the venomous sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus contains several biologically active proteins. We have cloned the cDNA of one of the toxin components, SUL-I, which is a rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) that acts as a mitogen through binding to carbohydrate chains on target cells. Recombinant SUL-I (rSUL-I) was produced in Escherichia coli cells, and its carbohydrate-binding specificity was examined with the glycoconjugate microarray analysis, which suggested that potential target carbohydrate structures are galactose-terminated N-glycans...
August 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464311/comparative-anatomy-of-the-dorsal-hump-in-mature-pacific-salmon
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kenta Susuki, Masatoshi Ban, Masaki Ichimura, Hideaki Kudo
Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) demonstrate prominent morphological changes, such as the development of a dorsal hump. The degree of dorsal hump formation depends on the species in Pacific salmon. It is generally accepted that mature males of sockeye (O. nerka) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon develop most pronounced dorsal humps. The internal structure of the dorsal hump in pink salmon has been confirmed in detail. In this study, the dorsal hump morphologies were analyzed in four Pacific salmon species inhabiting Japan, masu (O...
July 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452089/congruent-population-structure-across-paralogous-and-nonparalogous-loci-in-salish-sea-chum-salmon-oncorhynchus-keta
#20
R K Waples, J E Seeb, L W Seeb
Whole-genome duplications are major evolutionary events with a lasting impact on genome structure. Duplication events complicate genetic analyses as paralogous sequences are difficult to distinguish; consequently, paralogs are often excluded from studies. The effects of an ancient whole-genome duplication (approximately 88 MYA) are still evident in salmonids through the persistence of numerous paralogous gene sequences and partial tetrasomic inheritance. We use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing on 10 collections of chum salmon from the Salish Sea in the USA and Canada to investigate genetic diversity and population structure in both tetrasomic and rediploidized regions of the genome...
August 2017: Molecular Ecology
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