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Lactate homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814306/blood-acid-base-status-in-impala-aepyceros-melampus-immobilised-and-maintained-under-total-intravenous-anaesthesia-using-two-different-drug-protocols
#1
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
BACKGROUND: In mammals, homeostasis and survival are dependent on effective trans-membrane movement of ions and enzyme function, which are labile to extreme acid-base changes, but operate efficiently within a narrow regulated pH range. Research in patients demonstrating a pH shifts outside the narrow regulated range decreased the cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance and altered the oxygen binding to haemoglobin. These cardiopulmonary observations may be applicable to the risks associated with anaesthesia and performance of wildlife ungulates on game farms...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761318/parkin-overexpression-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-against-glutamate-excitotoxicity
#2
Xinxin Hu, Yi Dai, Xinghuai Sun
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of parkin in regulating mitochondrial homeostasis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) under glutamate excitotoxicity. METHODS: Rat RGCs were purified from dissociated retinal tissue with a modified two-step panning protocol. Cultured RGCs were transfected with parkin using an adenovirus system. The distribution and morphology of mitochondria in the RGCs were assessed with MitoTracker. The expression and distribution of parkin and optineurin proteins were measured with western blot analysis and immunofluorescence...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754993/neurometabolic-and-electrophysiological-changes-during-cortical-spreading-depolarization-multimodal-approach-based-on-a-lactate-glucose-dual-microbiosensor-arrays
#3
Cátia F Lourenço, Ana Ledo, Greg A Gerhardt, João Laranjinha, Rui M Barbosa
Spreading depolarization (SD) is a slow propagating wave of strong depolarization of neural cells, implicated in several neuropathological conditions. The breakdown of brain homeostasis promotes significant hemodynamic and metabolic alterations, which impacts on neuronal function. In this work we aimed to develop an innovative multimodal approach, encompassing metabolic, electric and hemodynamic measurements, tailored but not limited to study SD. This was based on a novel dual-biosensor based on microelectrode arrays designed to simultaneously monitor lactate and glucose fluctuations and ongoing neuronal activity with high spatial and temporal resolution...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739053/glucomannan-consumption-elevates-colonic-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-by-up-regulating-the-expression-of-iap-i-which-is-associated-with-increased-production-of-protective-factors-for-gut-epithelial-homeostasis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#4
Yukako Okazaki, Tetsuyuki Katayama
We previously reported that consumption of glucomannan-containing food (lily bulb) modulates gut microbiota and increases gut immunoglobulin A (IgA, index of intestinal immune function), mucins (index of intestinal barrier function), and colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Small intestinal ALP has an established protective effect in inflammatory diseases, whereas little is known about the function of colonic ALP activity. We hypothesized that dietary glucomannan would increase colonic ALP activity and the gene expression in rats fed an HF diet...
July 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738246/crocin-modulates-il-4-il-13-signaling-and-ameliorates-experimentally-induced-allergic-airway-asthma-in-a-murine-model
#5
Haidy Yosri, Wagdi F Elkashef, Eman Said, Nariman M Gameil
Allergic asthma is a chronic respiratory disease with a prevalent T helper (Th2)-mediated immune reaction. Crocin, the major bioactive constituent of saffron, has been reported in multiple studies to have numerous pharmacological activities, including prominent anti-oxidant activities. In the current study, the anti-asthmatic potential of crocin was evaluated. Adult male Swiss Albino mice were administered 10mg of ovalbumin (OVA) mixed with 1mg of aluminum hydroxide intraperitoneally on days 0 and 7 and were administered crocin (25mg/kg) orally daily for 16days...
July 21, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727610/the-metabolopathy-of-tissue-injury-hemorrhagic-shock-and-resuscitation-in-a-rat-model
#6
Anne L Slaughter, Geoffrey R Nunns, Angelo D'Alessandro, Anirban Banerjee, Kirk C Hansen, E E Moore, Christopher C Silliman, Travis Nemkov, Hunter B Moore, Miguel Fragoso, Kiara Leasia, Erik D Peltz
INTRODUCTION: The metabolic consequences of trauma induce significant clinical pathology. In this study we evaluate the independent, metabolic contributions of tissue injury (TI) and combined tissue injury and hemorrhagic shock (TI / HS) using MS-metabolomics in a controlled animal model of critical injury. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 14) underwent TI alone or TI / HS, followed by resuscitation with normal saline and shed blood. Plasma was collected (baseline, post-laparotomy, post-HS, post-resuscitation) for Ultra High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) MS-metabolomics...
July 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727010/effect-of-experimentally-increased-protein-supply-to-postpartum-dairy-cows-on-plasma-protein-synthesis-rumen-tissue-proliferation-and-immune-homeostasis
#7
M Larsen, C M Røntved, P K Theil, M Khatun, C Lauridsen, N B Kristensen
The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at -14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[C]Phe infusion...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723882/altered-carnitine-homeostasis-in-children-with-increased-pulmonary-blood-flow-due-to-ventricular-septal-defects
#8
Stephen M Black, Aida Field-Ridley, Shruti Sharma, Sanjiv Kumar, Roberta L Keller, Rebecca Kameny, Emin Maltepe, Sanjeev A Datar, Jeffrey R Fineman
OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow results in progressive pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated increased perioperative morbidity. Using our ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow, we have previously demonstrated progressive endothelial dysfunction associated with disruption in carnitine homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased nitric oxide signaling, and enhanced reactive oxygen species generation...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711923/acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-require-6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase-for-cell-growth-and-nadph-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming
#9
Haymanti Bhanot, Ellen L Weisberg, Mamatha M Reddy, Atsushi Nonami, Donna Neuberg, Richard M Stone, Klaus Podar, Ravi Salgia, James D Griffin, Martin Sattler
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are highly dependent on glycolytic pathways to generate metabolic energy and support cell growth, hinting at specific, targetable vulnerabilities as potential novel targets for drug development. Elevated levels of NADPH, a central metabolic factor involved in redox reactions, are common in myeloid leukemia cells, but the significance or biochemical basis underlying this increase is unknown. Using a small molecule analog that efficiently inhibits NADPH-producing enzymes, we found that AML cells require NADPH homeostasis for cell growth...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706733/the-effect-of-characteristics-of-proteins-fed-during-gestation-and-lactation-on-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-dams-and-male-offspring-of-wistar-rats
#10
A Jahan-Mihan, C A Labyak, A Y Arikawa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to examine the role of characteristics of proteins in maternal and weaning diets on risk of metabolic syndrome in male offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were allocated to two groups (n = 12) and were fed the AIN-93G diets based on either intact protein-based diet (IPD) or mixed amino acid-based diet (AAD) from day 3 of gestation throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to either an IPD or AAD diet for 18 weeks...
June 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690152/decreased-expression-of-orexin-1-receptor-in-adult-mice-testes-during-alloxan-induced-diabetes-mellitus-perturbs-testicular-steroidogenesis-and-glucose-homeostasis
#11
Deepanshu Joshi, Debarshi Sarkar, Shio Kumar Singh
Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects male reproductive system and causes infertility. The male reproductive health is largely dependent upon uptake and proper utilization of glucose by testicular cells. Results show involvement of orexin A (OXA) and its receptor (OX1R) in regulation of steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis in adult mice testis. However, the role of OX1R in regulation of testicular functions during hyperglycemia has not been investigated so far. The present study, therefore, examined the role of OX1R in regulation of steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis in testis of adult mice during alloxan-induced type 1 DM...
September 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684104/acid-base-disorders-in-liver-disease
#12
REVIEW
Scheiner Bernhard, Lindner Gregor, Reiberger Thomas, Schneeweiss Bruno, Trauner Michael, Zauner Christian, Funk Georg-Christian
Next to the kidneys and lungs, the liver has been recognized as an important regulator of acid-base homeostasis. While respiratory alkalosis is the most common acid-base disorder in chronic liver disease, various complex metabolic acid-base disorders may occur with liver dysfunction. Although the standard variables of acid-base equilibrium, such as pH and overall base excess, often fail to unmask the underlying cause of acid-base disorders, the physical-chemical acid-base model allows a more in-depth pathophysiological understanding and clinical judgement of acid-base disorders in patients with liver diseases...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683350/the-metabolic-effects-of-diuron-in-the-rat-liver
#13
Mellina da Silva Simões, Lívia Bracht, Angela Valderrama Parizotto, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
A systematic study on the effects of diuron on the hepatic metabolism was conducted with emphasis on parameters linked to energy metabolism. The experimental system was the isolated perfused rat liver. The results demonstrate that diuron inhibited biosynthesis (gluconeogenesis) and ammonia detoxification, which are dependent of ATP generated within the mitochondria. Conversely, it stimulated glycolysis and fructolysis, which are compensatory phenomena for an inhibited mitochondrial ATP generation. Furthermore, diuron diminished the cellular ATP content under conditions where the mitochondrial respiratory chain was the only source of this compound...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672774/combinatorial-therapy-of-exercise-preconditioning-and-nanocurcumin-formulation-supplementation-improves-cardiac-adaptation-under-hypobaric-hypoxia
#14
Sarita Nehra, Varun Bhardwaj, Anju Bansal, Deepika Saraswat
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (cHH) mediated cardiac insufficiencies are associated with pathological damage. Sustained redox stress and work load are major causative agents of cardiac insufficiencies under cHH. Despite the advancements made in pharmacological (anti-oxidants, vasodilators) and non-pharmacological therapeutics (acclimatization strategies and schedules), only partial success has been achieved in improving cardiac acclimatization to cHH. This necessitates the need for potent combinatorial therapies to improve cardiac acclimatization at high altitudes...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668526/effect-of-supplemental-concentrate-during-the-dry-period-or-early-lactation-on-rumen-epithelium-gene-and-protein-expression-in-dairy-cattle-during-the-transition-period
#15
K Dieho, J van Baal, L Kruijt, A Bannink, J T Schonewille, D Carreño, W H Hendriks, J Dijkstra
We previously reported 2 experiments with rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian dairy cows showing that during the transition period, rumen papillae surface area, and fractional absorption rate of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase after calving. However, supplemental concentrate during the dry period and rate of increase of concentrate allowance during lactation affected papillae surface area, but not VFA absorption. Here we report the changes in gene and protein expression in rumen papillae related to tissue growth and VFA utilization...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659186/low-volume-resuscitation-with-normal-saline-is-associated-with-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-after-hemorrhage-in-rats-compared-to-colloids-and-balanced-crystalloids
#16
Luciana N Torres, Kevin K Chung, Christi L Salgado, Michael A Dubick, Ivo P Torres Filho
BACKGROUND: Restoration of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) barrier may be an essential therapeutic target for successful resuscitation. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the effects of resuscitation with normal saline (NS) to lactated Ringer's solution (LR), 5% albumin and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) on their ability to maintain EG and barrier function integrity, mitigate endothelial injury and inflammation, and restore vascular homeostasis after hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Anesthetized rats (N = 36) were subjected to hemorrhagic shock (bled 40% of total blood volume), followed by resuscitation with 45 ml/kg NS or LR, or 15 ml/kg 5% albumin or FFP...
June 29, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656783/oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-biomarker-responses-after-a-moderate-intensity-soccer-training-session
#17
Rodrigo Mello, Ricardo Mello, Diego Gomes, Gabriel Andrade Paz, Igor Nasser, Humberto Miranda, Verônica P Salerno
The present study investigated the effects of a moderate-intensity soccer training session on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant capacity in athletes along with the biomarkers creatine kinase and transaminases for lesions in muscle and liver cells. Twenty-two male soccer players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5 min before and after a moderate-intensity game simulation. The results showed a decrease in the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) from an elevation in the production of ROS that maintained the redox homeostasis...
July 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655584/biological-biochemical-and-histological-features-of-bradybaena-similaris-gastropoda-pulmonata-infected-by-heterorabditis-indica-rhabditida-heterorhabditidae-strain-lpp1
#18
Victor Menezes Tunholi, Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Caio Oliveira Monteiro, Lidiane Cristina da Silva, Cláudia de Melo Dolinski, Rosane Nora Castro, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro Bittencourt, Jairo Pinheiro da Silva, Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins
This study investigated the possible biological, biochemical and histological changes in Bradybaena similaris(Gastropoda: Pulmonata) infected by Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), strain LPP1. Two groups of 16 snails were formed: the control group (unexposed) and the treated group, which was exposed for three weeks to infective juveniles (J3) of H. indica LPP1. The experiment was conducted in duplicate, using a total of 64 snails. After the exposure period, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and tissues, for evaluation of the physiological changes caused by the infection...
August 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654182/the-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-modld1-is-essential-for-growth-and-infection-related-development-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#19
Tengsheng Zhou, Li Qin, Xiaohan Zhu, Wenyun Shen, Jitao Zou, Zonghua Wang, Yangdou Wei
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is initiated by the attachment of conidia to plant surfaces. Germ tubes emerging from conidia develop melanized appressoria to physically penetrate the host surface. Previous studies revealed that appressorium development requires the breakdown of storage lipids and glycogen that occur in peroxisomes and the cytosol respectively, culminating in production of pyruvate. However, the downstream product(s) entering the mitochondria for further oxidation is unclear...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620355/role-of-the-vasopressin-apelin-balance-and-potential-use-of-metabolically-stable-apelin-analogs-in-water-metabolism-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Adrien Flahault, Pierre Couvineau, Rodrigo Alvear-Perez, Xavier Iturrioz, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Apelin, a (neuro)vasoactive peptide, plays a prominent role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions. In animal models, experimental data demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injection of apelin into lactating rats inhibits the phasic electrical activity of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons, reduces plasma AVP levels, and increases aqueous diuresis. In the kidney, apelin increases diuresis by increasing the renal microcirculation and by counteracting the antidiuretic effect of AVP at the tubular level...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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