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Lactate homeostasis

Lei Yang, Dan Wang, Xue-Ting Wang, Ya-Peng Lu, Li Zhu
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and transferrin receptor (TfR1) are vital proteins for cellular iron uptake. These proteins have hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) in their 5'-regulatory region, and they are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) transcriptionally under hypoxic condition. Besides, iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) regulates DMT1 and TfR1 by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) present in their mRNAs to control cellular iron homeostasis...
November 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Joo Sun Choi
The defective satiation signaling may contribute to the etiology of obesity. We investigated how dietary modification during maternal (pregnancy and lactation) and post-weaning affects obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hypothalamic appetite responses in offspring in adulthood. Pregnant female SD rats were randomly allocated to either maternal high-fat diet (43% energy from fat) or control diet (12% energy from fat) until the end of suckling. After weaning for additional 4 weeks, half of the offsprings were continuously fed the same diet as the dam (C-C and H-H groups); the remainder received the counterpart diet (C-H and H-C groups)...
October 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
Maya Zachut, Gitit Kra, Uzi Moallem, Lilya Livshitz, Yishai Levin, Shiran Udi, Alina Nemirovski, Joseph Tam
Adipose tissue (AT) plays a major role in metabolic adaptations in postpartum (PP) dairy cows. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a key regulator of metabolism and energy homeostasis; however, information about this system in ruminants is scarce. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the eCB system in subcutaneous AT, and to determine its relation to the metabolic profile in peripartum cows. Biopsies of AT were performed at 14 d prepartum, and 4 and 30 d PP from 18 multiparous peripartum cows. Cows were categorized retrospectively according to those with high body weight (BW) loss (HWL, 8...
2018: PloS One
Sara Rodrigues, Sara C Antunes, Alberto T Correia, Bruno Nunes
During the last decades, the presence of antibiotics in different aquatic compartments has raised increasing interest and concern, since these compounds are usually persistent and bioactive pseudo pollutants. Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic, prescribed for human and veterinary medicines but also used in aquaculture and livestock production. Taking into account the recorded environmental levels of ERY, its toxicity to non-target organisms has become a still poorly studied issue, particularly in fish...
November 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hendyel A Pacheco, Simone da Silva, Anil Sigdel, Chun Kuen Mak, Klibs N Galvão, Rodrigo A Texeira, Laila T Dias, Francisco Peñagaricano
Milk fever is an important metabolic disorder that affects dairy cows around parturition. It is associated with a breakdown in the mechanisms of calcium homeostasis, resulting in very low blood calcium levels (hypocalcemia). The main objective of this study was to dissect the genetic basis underlying milk fever incidence in Holstein cattle. Data consisted of 31.6 k producer-recorded lactation incidence records from 15.3 k cows. The analysis included a whole-genome scan and a subsequent gene-set analysis in order to reveal individual genes, genetic mechanisms and biological pathways implicated in the incidence of periparturient hypocalcemia...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Rajesh Parsanathan, Angelaalincy Maria Joseph, Balasubramanian Karundevi
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a distinctive endocrine-disrupting chemical, is widely used as a plasticizer in a variety of consumer products. It can easily cross the placenta and enter breast milk and then it is rapidly absorbed by offspring. Since it is generally accepted that individuals are more sensitive to chemical exposure during vital developmental periods, we investigated whether DEHP exposure during lactation affects cardiac insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in the F1 male rat offspring at postnatal day 22 (PND22)...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Fengming Chen, Denise M Coslo, Tao Chen, Limin Zhang, Yuan Tian, Philip B Smith, Andrew D Patterson, Curtis J Omiecinski
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) contributes important regulatory roles in biotransformation, xenobiotic transport function, energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis. In this investigation, global serum and liver tissue metabolomes were assessed analytically in wild type and CAR-null transgenic mice using NMR, GC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolomics. Significantly, CAR activation increased serum levels of fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and tricarboxylic acid cycle products, whereas levels of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, amino acids and liver glucose were decreased following short-term activation of CAR...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Vanesa de Oliveira Pateis, Lívia Bracht, Lorena Dos Santos Castro, Gabriela Bueno Franco Salla, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Angela Valderrama Parizotto, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
A study of the effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on the hepatic metabolism was conducted with emphasis on parameters linked to energy metabolism and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. The experimental systems were the isolated perfused rat liver and isolated mitochondria. It was found that BHA inhibits biosynthetic pathways (gluconeogenesis) and ammonia detoxification, which are dependent on ATP generated within the mitochondria. Conversely, the compound stimulated glycolysis and fructolysis, which are compensatory phenomena for an inhibited mitochondrial ATP generation...
December 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Benoît Maury, Valérie Serazin, Khadija Fathallah, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
Throughout the entire first trimester of pregnancy, fetal growth is sustained by endometrial secretions, i.e. histiotrophic nutrition. Endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) accumulate and secrete a variety of nutritive molecules that are absorbed by trophoblastic cells and transmitted to the fetus. Glycogen appears to have a critical role in the early stages of fetal development, since infertile women have low endometrial glycogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism and trafficking at the fetal–maternal interface have not yet been characterized...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Yu Han, Jacob M Goldberg, Stephen J Lippard, Amy E Palmer
Small-molecule fluorescent probes are powerful and ubiquitous tools for measuring the concentration and distribution of analytes in living cells. However, accurate characterization of these analytes requires rigorous evaluation of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in fluorescence intensities and intracellular distribution of probes. In this study, we perform a parallel and systematic comparison of two small-molecule fluorescent vesicular Zn2+ probes, FluoZin-3 AM and SpiroZin2, to evaluate each probe for measurement of vesicular Zn2+ pools...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Debarshi Sarkar, Vinay Kumar Singh, Shio Kumar Singh
Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), a congener of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), is used as flame retardant and affects thyroid homeostasis. Thyroid hormones (THs) play crucial role in Leydig cell differentiation and steroidogenesis during early life. Present study examined the effect of maternal BDE-209 exposure during lactation on testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1) and possible mechanism(s) of its action in prepubertal Parkes mice offspring...
December 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ana D Martins, Mariana P Monteiro, Branca M Silva, Alberto Barros, Mário Sousa, Rui A Carvalho, Pedro F Oliveira, Marco G Alves
Obesity incidence has pandemic proportions and is expected to increase even further. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) based therapies are well-established pharmacological resources for obesity treatment. GLP-1 regulates energy and glucose homeostasis, which are also crucial for spermatogenesis. Herein, we studied the GLP-1 effects in human Sertoli cells (hSCs) metabolism and mitochondrial function. hSCs were cultured in absence or exposed to increasing doses of GLP-1 mimicking physiological post-prandial (0...
October 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Katrina V Cook, Scott G Hinch, S Matt Drenner, Graham G Raby, David A Patterson, Steven J Cooke
Fish vitality can be measured by classifying reflex impairments (i.e., a visual impression of the ability to respond to induced stimuli) and visible injuries. These metrics can predict survival probability following release from fisheries, and monitoring physiological disturbances following capture can help understand mechanisms of mortality. To test the hypothesis that severity of injury and reflex impairment influences the time course of physiological recovery, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were held for up to 84-h following capture by purse seine...
October 5, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Ruiying Wang, Minghua Yang, Min Wang, Xuesong Liu, Huibo Xu, Xudong Xu, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Total saponins of Aralia elata (Miq) Seem (AS) from the Chinese traditional herb Long ya Aralia chinensis L. reportedly provide cardioprotective effects, but the exact mechanisms require further study. Previous studies have showed that myocardial ischemia/ reperfusion injury (MIRI) was related to calcium homeostasis imbalance and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Thus, this study aimed to demonstrate protective effects of AS on MIRI. METHODS: After administrating AS for 5 days, the left anterior descending artery coronary artery of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was ligated for 30 min...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jessika Geisebel Oliveira Neto, Thais Bento-Bernardes, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Karen Jesus Oliveira
PURPOSE: Studies with foods, known to promote health benefits in addition to the nutritive value, show that their consumption by pregnant and/or lactating females could induce negative outcomes to the offspring. It is well characterized that cinnamon intake promotes benefits to energy homeostasis. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of the consumption of an aqueous extract of cinnamon by lactating female rats on the endocrine-metabolic outcomes in the adult offspring. METHODS: Lactating dams (Wistar rats) were supplemented with cinnamon aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight/day) for the entire lactating period...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine
Gabriela Torres Santiago, José Iván Serrano Contreras, María Estela Meléndez Camargo, L Gerardo Zepeda Vallejo
An untargeted NMR-based metabonomics approach was used to evaluate the effects of pure resveratrol (RSV, 50 and 250 mg/kg per os) on the urinary and faecal metabolome of normal female Wistar rats. Multivariate data analysis on both the endogenous and xenobiotic metabotype of RSV provided an insight into its metabolic fate and influence on endogenous metabolites. The xenobiotic trajectory shows that RSV is highly metabolized within the first 12 h, the period of the most significant variation of endogenous metabolites...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Taofeek O Usman, Emmanuel D Areola, Olufunto O Badmus, InKyeom Kim, Lawrence A Olatunji
Nutritional challenges and androgen excess have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes and poor fetal outcome, but the mechanisms are not well delineated. The effects of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) on glucose dysmetabolism and poor fetal outcome induced by gestational androgen excess is also not known. We tested the hypothesis that blockade of androgen receptor (AR) and suppression of late gestational androgen excess prevents glucose dysmetabolism and poor fetal outcome through suppression of adenosine deaminase (ADA)/xanthine oxidase (XO) pathway...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Masako Fujiwara, Itiro Ando, Keisuke Satoh, You Shishido, Kazuhito Totsune, Hiroshi Sato, Yutaka Imai
Recently, the ratio of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) among hemodialysis (HD) patients has increased to become the largest sub-population. Their prognoses are significantly worse than those of patients without diabetes (non-DM). In the present study, 10 DM patients who did not take meals and 10 non-DM patients who took meals during HD sessions were investigated. The time courses of the change in plasma levels of metabolites during HD were determined. DM patients exhibited decreased plasma levels of lactate, pyruvate and alanine and dramatically increased levels of ketone bodies...
2018: PloS One
C Ding, M K-S Leow, F Magkos
Oxytocin was once understood solely as a neuropeptide with a central role in social bonding, reproduction, parturition, lactation and appetite regulation. Recent evidence indicates that oxytocin enhances glucose uptake and lipid utilization in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, suggesting that dysfunction of the oxytocin system could underlie the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Murine studies revealed that deficiencies in oxytocin signalling and oxytocin receptor expression lead to obesity despite normal food intake, motor activity and increased leptin levels...
September 25, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
E C Kessler, S K Wall, L L Hernandez, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) affects many physiological functions because it is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, calcium homeostasis, and regulation of lactation in dairy cows. This study aimed to examine physiological differences in serum 5-HT concentrations (high vs. low) and their association with metabolic status and milk production at the onset of lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were milked within 4 h of calving, and blood and milk samples were collected at the first 6 subsequent milkings after parturition and at the evening milkings on d 5, 8, 10, and 14...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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