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Lactate homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515121/ampk%C3%AE-1-ldh-pathway-regulates-muscle-stem-cell-self-renewal-by-controlling-metabolic-homeostasis
#1
Marine Theret, Linda Gsaier, Bethany Schaffer, Gaëtan Juban, Sabrina Ben Larbi, Michèle Weiss-Gayet, Laurent Bultot, Collodet Caterina, Marc Foretz, Dominique Desplanches, Pascual Sanz, Zizhao Zang, Lin Yang, Guillaume Vial, Benoit Viollet, Kei Sakamoto, Anne Brunet, Bénédicte Chazaud, Rémi Mounier
Control of stem cell fate to either enter terminal differentiation versus returning to quiescence (self-renewal) is crucial for tissue repair. Here, we showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the master metabolic regulator of the cell, controls muscle stem cell (MuSC) self-renewal. AMPKα1(-/-) MuSCs displayed a high self-renewal rate, which impairs muscle regeneration. AMPKα1(-/-) MuSCs showed a Warburg-like switch of their metabolism to higher glycolysis. We identified lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a new functional target of AMPKα1...
May 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510784/effects-of-acute-and-chronic-hypoxia-on-acid-base-regulation-hematology-ion-and-osmoregulation-of-juvenile-american-paddlefish
#2
Daniel L Aboagye, Peter J Allen
Despite the increasing prevalence of hypoxia in natural habitats occupied by the American paddlefish, basal bony fish, and ram ventilator, information about its response to hypoxia is scarce. To understand the physiological and biochemical responses of juvenile paddlefish (~150 g) to acute (<24 h) and chronic hypoxia (≥24 h), blood oxygen transport, blood acid-base balance, and metabolic stress were evaluated under four different partial pressures of oxygen [pO2; normoxia (148 mmHg), mild hypoxia (89 mmHg), moderate hypoxia (59 mmHg), and extreme hypoxia (36 mmHg)], all at 21 °C...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501920/a-dramatic-blood-plasticity-in-hibernating-and-14-day-hindlimb-unloading-daurian-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-dauricus
#3
Huan-Xin Hu, Fang-Ying Du, Wei-Wei Fu, Shan-Feng Jiang, Jin Cao, Shen-Hui Xu, Hui-Ping Wang, Hui Chang, Nandu Goswami, Yun-Fang Gao
We compared the effects of hibernation inactivity and 14-day hindlimb unloading in non-hibernating period on biochemical, rheological, and hematological parameters of blood in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Twenty-four squirrels were randomly divided into four groups: control (CON), hibernation (HIB), post-hibernation (POST), and 14-day hindlimb unloading (HU). The results showed that serum enzymes (L-lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase) activities decreased in HIB, POST, and HU squirrels compared with CON...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492807/biochemical-parameters-of-silver-catfish-rhamdia-quelen-after-transport-with-eugenol-or-essential-oil-of-lippia-alba-added-to-the-water
#4
J Salbego, C Toni, A G Becker, C C Zeppenfeld, C C Menezes, V L Loro, B M Heinzmann, B Baldisserotto
The transport of live fish is a routine practice in aquaculture and constitutes a considerable source of stress to the animals. The addition of anesthetic to the water used for fish transport can prevent or mitigate the deleterious effects of transport stress. This study investigated the effects of the addition of eugenol (EUG) (1.5 or 3.0 µL L-1) and essential oil of Lippia alba (EOL) (10 or 20 µL L-1) on metabolic parameters (glycogen, lactate and total protein levels) in liver and muscle, acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in muscle and brain, and the levels of protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nonprotein thiol groups (NPSH) and activity of glutathione-S-transferase in the liver of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen; Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) transported for four hours in plastic bags (loading density of 169...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484364/energy-homeostasis-in-monotremes
#5
REVIEW
Stewart C Nicol
In 1803, the French anatomist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire decided that the newly described echidna and platypus should be placed in a separate order, the monotremes, intermediate between reptiles and mammals. The first physiological observations showed monotremes had low body temperatures and metabolic rates, and the consensus was that they were at a stage of physiological development intermediate between "higher mammals" and "lower vertebrates." Subsequent studies demonstrated that platypuses and echidnas are capable of close thermoregulation in the cold although less so under hot conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474871/effects-of-hydrogen-rich-water-on-prolonged-intermittent-exercise
#6
Alessandro DA Ponte, Nicola Giovanelli, Daniele Nigris, Stefano Lazzer
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed a positive effect of Hydrogen Rich Water (HRW) intake on acid-basic homeostasis at rest. We investigated 2-weeks of HRW intake on repeated sprint performance and acid-base status during prolonged intermittent cycling exercise. METHODS: In a cross over single-blind protocol, eight trained male cyclists (age [mean ± SD] 41±7 years, body mass 72.3±4.4 kg, height 1.77±0.04 m, maximal oxygen uptake [V̇ O2max] 52.6±4.4 ml·kg-1·min-1) were provided daily with 2 liters of placebo normal water (PLA, pH 7...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471544/neonatal-hypothyroidism-affects-testicular-glucose-homeostasis-through-increased-oxidative-stress-in-prepubertal-mice-effects-on-glut3-glut8-and-cx43
#7
D Sarkar, S K Singh
Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in maintaining the link between metabolism and reproduction and the altered THs status is associated with induction of oxidative stress in various organs like brain, heart, liver and testis. Further, reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in regulation of glucose homeostasis in several organs, and glucose utilization by Leydig cells is essential for testosterone biosynthesis and thus is largely dependent on glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8). Glucose uptake by Sertoli cells is mediated through glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) under the influence of THs to meet energy requirement of developing germ cells...
May 4, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461222/cold-mortality-is-not-caused-by-oxygen-limitation-or-loss-of-ion-homeostasis-in-the-tropical-freshwater-shrimp-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#8
Lisa B Jørgensen, Heath A MacMillan, Johannes Overgaard
Using the tropical crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii we investigate two popular hypotheses proposed to explain loss of function in ectotherms exposed to critically high and low temperatures. Specifically, we examine whether acute cold stress disrupts hemolymph and muscle ion balance or causes a loss of oxygen availability. We found that acute cold stress causes loss of righting response at 13 °C, but that a cold-induced loss of ion-balance only occurs after onset of mortality. In regards to oxygen availability, we found no decrease in hemolymph oxygen content during cold exposure, and no changes in the concentrations of the anaerobic end products l-lactate and succinate in the tail muscle of the shrimp...
April 28, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#9
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433571/antitumor-and-chemosensitizing-action-of-3-bromopyruvate-implication-of-deregulated-metabolism
#10
Saveg Yadav, Shrish Kumar Pandey, Ajay Kumar, Praveen Kumar Kujur, Rana Pratap Singh, Sukh Mahendra Singh
3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP), brominated derivative of pyruvate, possesses strong antitumor potential, owing to its ability to inhibit multiple target molecules crucial for survival of neoplastic cells. Although, 3-BP displays cytotoxicity against a wide variety of tumors, there is no report with respect to malignancies of thymic origin. Therefore, we investigated its antineoplastic action in vitro against tumor cells of a murine transplantable lymphoma of thymoma origin, designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL). 3-BP treatment of tumor cells inhibited metabolism and survival with augmented induction of apoptosis and necrosis...
April 19, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414271/monitoring-atp-dynamics-in-electrically-active-white-matter-tracts
#11
Andrea Trevisiol, Aiman S Saab, Ulrike Winkler, Grit Marx, Hiromi Imamura, Wiebke Möbius, Kathrin Kusch, Klaus-Armin Nave, Johannes Hirrlinger
In several neurodegenerative diseases and myelin disorders, the degeneration profiles of myelinated axons are compatible with underlying energy deficits. However, it is presently impossible to measure selectively axonal ATP levels in the electrically active nervous system. We combined transgenic expression of an ATP-sensor in neurons of mice with confocal FRET imaging and electrophysiological recordings of acutely isolated optic nerves. This allowed us to monitor dynamic changes and activity-dependent axonal ATP homeostasis at the cellular level and in real time...
April 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411128/the-effects-of-experimental-gestational-hypertension-on-maternal-blood-pressure-and-fluid-intake-and-pre-weanling-hypothalamic-neuronal-activity
#12
Juan Arguelles, Carmen Perillan, Terry G Beltz, Baojian Xue, Daniel Badaue-Passos, Jose A Vega, Alan Kim Johnson
To examine the fetal programming effects of maternal hypertension, natriophilia and hyperreninemia [experimentally induced in rats by partial inter-renal aortic ligature (PAL) prior to mating] fos immunoreactivity was studied in 6-day-old offspring of PAL and control mothers. The purposes of the present set of experiments were twofold. The first was to characterize the effects of PAL on the mother's arterial blood pressure and intake of salt (1.8% NaCl solution) and water over the course of gestation. Second, was to study the pattern of neuronal activation in key brain areas of 6-day-old offspring treated with the dipsogen isoproterenol that were from PAL and control mothers...
April 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411114/circulating-biologically-active-adrenomedullin-bio-adm-predicts-hemodynamic-support-requirement-and-mortality-during-sepsis
#13
Pietro Caironi, Roberto Latini, Joachim Struck, Oliver Hartmann, Andreas Bergmann, Giuseppe Maggio, Marco Cavana, Gianni Tognoni, Antonio Pesenti, Luciano Gattinoni, Serge Masson
BACKGROUND: The biological role of adrenomedullin, a hormone involved in hemodynamic homeostasis, is controversial in sepsis, since administration of either the peptide or an antibody against it may be beneficial. METHODS: Plasma bio-ADM was assessed on days 1, 2 and 7 after randomization of 956 patients with sepsis or septic shock to albumin or crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in the multicenter Albumin Italian Outcome Sepsis (ALBIOS) trial. We tested the association of bio-ADM and its time-dependent variation with fluid therapy, vasopressor administration, organ failures and mortality...
April 11, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409226/daily-thermal-fluctuations-to-a-range-of-subzero-temperatures-enhance-cold-hardiness-of-winter-acclimated-turtles
#14
James M Wiebler, Manisha Kumar, Timothy J Muir
Although seasonal increases in cold hardiness are well documented for temperate and polar ectotherms, relatively little is known about supplemental increases in cold hardiness during winter. Because many animals are exposed to considerable thermal variation in winter, they may benefit from a quick enhancement of cold tolerance prior to extreme low temperature. Hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) overwintering in their natal nests experience substantial thermal variation in winter, and recently, it was found that brief subzero chilling of winter-acclimated hatchlings decreases subsequent chilling-induced mortality, increases blood concentrations of glucose and lactate, and protects the brain from cryoinjury...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392701/evaluation-of-the-clinical-effect-of-small-volume-resuscitation-on-uncontrolled-hemorrhagic-shock-in-emergency
#15
Gang Zhao, Wei Wu, Qi-Ming Feng, Jian Sun
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to explore the resuscitative effect of small-volume resuscitation on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency. METHODS: In this study, the resuscitative effects in 200 trauma patients with uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency were studied. Half of these patients were infused with hypertonic/hyperoncotic fluid (small-volume resuscitation group, n=100), whereas the rest were infused with Hespan and lactated Ringer's solution (conventional fluid resuscitation group, n=100)...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383716/essential-role-for-non-canonical-poly-a-polymerase-gld4-in-cytoplasmic-polyadenylation-and-carbohydrate-metabolism
#16
Jihae Shin, Ki Young Paek, Maria Ivshina, Emily E Stackpole, Joel D Richter
Regulation of gene expression at the level of cytoplasmic polyadenylation is important for many biological phenomena including cell cycle progression, mitochondrial respiration, and learning and memory. GLD4 is one of the non-canonical poly(A) polymerases that regulates cytoplasmic polyadenylation-induced translation, but its target mRNAs and role in cellular physiology is not well known. To assess the full panoply of mRNAs whose polyadenylation is controlled by GLD4, we performed an unbiased whole genome-wide screen using poy(U) chromatography and thermal elution...
April 5, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382025/starter-feeding-supplementation-alters-colonic-mucosal-bacterial-communities-and-modulates-mucosal-immune-homeostasis-in-newborn-lambs
#17
Junhua Liu, Gaorui Bian, Daming Sun, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
This study aims to investigate the effect of starter feeding supplementation on colonic mucosal bacterial communities and on mucosal immune homeostasis in pre-weaned lambs. We selected eight pairs of 10-day-old lamb twins. One twin was fed breast milk (M, n = 8), while the other was fed breast milk plus starter (M+S, n = 8). The lambs were sacrificed at 56 days age. Colonic content was collected to determine the pH and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate. The colonic mucosa was harvested to characterize the bacterial communities using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and to determine mRNA expression levels of cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLR) using quantitative real-time PCR...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378505/prolactin-receptors-in-rip-cre-cells-but-not-in-agrp-neurons-are-involved-in-energy-homeostasis
#18
S R Ladyman, M A MacLeod, Z Khant Aung, P Knowles, H R Phillipps, R S E Brown, D R Grattan
Among its many functions, prolactin has been implicated in energy homeostasis, particularly during pregnancy and lactation. The arcuate nucleus is a key site in the regulation of energy balance. The aim of this study was to examine whether arcuate nucleus neuronal populations involved in energy homeostasis are prolactin responsive and if they can mediate the effects of prolactin on energy homeostasis. To determine if Agrp neurons or Rip-Cre neurons are prolactin responsive, transgenic mice expressing the reporter td-tomato in Agrp neurons (td-tomato/AgRP-Cre) or Rip-Cre neurons (td-tomato/Rip-Cre) were treated with prolactin and perfused 45 minutes later...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371083/animal-models-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-exposure-and-effects-on-metabolism-in-offspring-a-meta-regression-analysis
#19
REVIEW
G A Ribaroff, E Wastnedge, A J Drake, R M Sharpe, T J G Chambers
Animal models of maternal high fat diet (HFD) demonstrate perturbed offspring metabolism although the effects differ markedly between models. We assessed studies investigating metabolic parameters in the offspring of HFD fed mothers to identify factors explaining these inter-study differences. A total of 171 papers were identified, which provided data from 6047 offspring. Data were extracted regarding body weight, adiposity, glucose homeostasis and lipidaemia. Information regarding the macronutrient content of diet, species, time point of exposure and gestational weight gain were collected and utilized in meta-regression models to explore predictive factors...
June 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369926/uteroplacental-insufficiency-reduces-rat-plasma-leptin-concentrations-and-alters-placental-leptin-transporters-ameliorated-with-enhanced-milk-intake-and-nutrition
#20
Jessica F Briffa, Rachael O'Dowd, Karen M Moritz, Tania Romano, Lisa R Jedwab, Andrew J McAinch, Deanne H Hryciw, Mary E Wlodek
KEY POINTS: Uteroplacental insufficiency compromises maternal mammary development, milk production and pup organ development; this is ameliorated by cross-fostering, which improves pup growth and organ development and prevents adult diseases in growth-restricted (Restricted) offspring by enhancing postnatal nutrition. Leptin is transported to the fetus from the mother by the placenta; we report reduced plasma leptin concentrations in Restricted fetuses associated with sex-specific alterations in placental leptin transporter expression...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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