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Lactate homeostasis

Albert R Jones Iv, Tova Meshulam, Marcus F Oliveira, Nathan Burritt, Barbara E Corkey
BACKGROUND: Many tissues play an important role in metabolic homeostasis and the development of diabetes and obesity. We hypothesized that the circulating redox metabolome is a master metabolic regulatory system that impacts all organs and modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, energy production and changes in lipid turnover in many cells including adipocytes. METHODS: Differentiated human preadipocytes were exposed to the redox couples, lactate (L) and pyruvate (P), β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) and acetoacetate (Acoc), and the thiol-disulfides cysteine/ cystine (Cys/CySS) and GSH/GSSG for 1...
2016: PloS One
H Arthur Woods, Steven J Lane
Many terrestrial insects live in environments that flood intermittently, and some life stages may spend days underwater without access to oxygen. We tested the hypothesis that terrestrial insects with underground pupae show respiratory adaptations for surviving anoxia and subsequently reestablishing normal patterns of respiration. Pupae of Manduca sexta were experimentally immersed in water for between 0 and 13 days. All pupae survived up to 5 days of immersion regardless of whether the water was aerated or anoxic...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Rune Isak Dupont Birkler, Zahra Nochi, Niels Gregersen, Johan Palmfeldt
Monitoring of proteins involved in cellular life and death processes is of high scientific interest since it permits the elucidation of functional changes in a variety of diseases. In this study, we have developed a nanoLC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous detection and quantification of 24 selected proteins that are known to be important for cellular homeostasis. The Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) assay applies heavy-labeled peptide analogues for the relative quantification of proteins with central functions in cellular stress and metabolism, including many mitochondrial proteins...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Morten Hostrup, Jens Bangsbo
Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level of the individual. Intense exercise (½-6 min) causes major ionic perturbations (Ca(2+) , Cl(-) , H(+) , K(+) , lactate(-) , and Na(+) ) that may reduce sarcolemmal excitability, Ca(2+) release, and force production of skeletal muscle...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Joon Kyungjoon Lim, Sandra Burke, Geoffrey Head
OBJECTIVE: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of developing hypertension in the offspring. Plasma leptin levels correlate strongly with blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a key centre of energy homeostasis, haemodynamic and sympathetic tone to renal vasculature. It is possible that exposure to over-nutrition during development change the activity of the neurons, amplifying sympathetic output leading to hypertension in the offspring...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nathan A Lewis, Colin Towey, Georgie Bruinvels, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar
Exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). Measuring ARH in elite athletes may aid in the identification of training tolerance, fatigued states, and underperformance. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined ARH in elite male and female distance runners at sea level. The monitoring of ARH in athletes is hindered by a lack of reliable and repeatable in-the-field testing tools and by the rapid turnaround of results. We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on ARH in healthy (non-over-reached) elite male and female endurance athletes using clinical point-of-care (POC) redox tests, referred to as the free oxygen radical test (FORT) (pro-oxidant) and the free oxygen radical defence (FORD) (antioxidant)...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Saverio Cinti
In all mammals, adipocytes are cells with abundant cytoplasmic lipids forming the parenchyma of the adipose organ. White adipocytes store highly energetic molecules to release them, in the form of free fatty acids to survive between meals. Brown adipocytes trough their unique mitochondrial UCP1 protein burn glucose and lipids to perform thermogenesis in order to survive in cold environments. A third type of adipocytes appears in the subcutaneous depot of the adipose organ of female mice during pregnancy and lactation: the pink adipocytes...
September 10, 2016: Biochimie
Perrine Goguet-Rubio, Berfin Seyran, Laurie Gayte, Florence Bernex, Anne Sutter, Hélène Delpech, Laetitia Karine Linares, Romain Riscal, Cendrine Repond, Geneviève Rodier, Olivier Kirsh, Jawida Touhami, Jean Noel, Charles Vincent, Nelly Pirot, Guillaume Pavlovic, Yann Herault, Marc Sitbon, Luc Pellerin, Claude Sardet, Matthieu Lacroix, Laurent Le Cam
The multifunctional protein E4 transcription factor 1 (E4F1) is an essential regulator of epidermal stem cell (ESC) maintenance. Here, we found that E4F1 transcriptionally regulates a metabolic program involved in pyruvate metabolism that is required to maintain skin homeostasis. E4F1 deficiency in basal keratinocytes resulted in deregulated expression of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (Dlat), a gene encoding the E2 subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. Accordingly, E4f1 knock-out (KO) keratinocytes exhibited impaired PDH activity and a redirection of the glycolytic flux toward lactate production...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Roxana Karbaschi, Forouzan Sadeghimahalli, Homeira Zardooz
This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams...
September 2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
N N Nemova, O V Meshcheryakova, M V Churova, S A Murzina
The activity of the enzymes of the energy and carbohydrate metabolisms (cytochrome-c oxidase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase) have been studied in White Sea herring (the 1+, 2+, and 3+ age groups) sampled in Onega Bay, Dvina Bay, and Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. The bays differ in the hydrological regime, ecological and feeding conditions. The individual variability of the enzyme activity was the largest in the herring of the age 1+. The flexibility of the intensity and vector of the basic metabolic reactions probably supports the energy homeostasis, preconditions the switching to the most effective way of using the resources, and regulates the synthesis of the structural and storage molecules, as well as vectors the adaptation strategy of herring specimens of each age group to the hydrological regime, environment, and feeding conditions of the particular bay, corresponding to their age-related characteristics...
July 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Z I Mikashinovich, E S Belousova
Long-term administration of simvastatin to rats, irrespective of the baseline cholesterol levels, induced biochemical changes in erythrocytes attesting to hypoxic damage (accumulation of lactate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate), disturbances in ATP-dependent mechanisms of ion homeostasis regulation (decrease in total ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities), and antioxidant enzymes system imbalance. These changes can be considered as a sensitive indicator and molecular basis of cell damage during long-term administration of statins...
August 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Eskedar Ayele Angamo, Joerg Roesner, Agustin Liotta, Richard Kovacs, Uwe Heinemann
Astrocyte derived lactate supports pathologically enhanced neuronal metabolism but its role under physiological conditions is still a matter of debate. Here, we determined the contribution of astrocytic neuronal lactate shuttle to maintenance of ion homeostasis and energy metabolism. We tested for the effects of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4-CIN), which could interfere with energy metabolism by blocking monocarboxylate-transporter 2 (MCT2) mediated neuronal lactate uptake, on evoked potentials, stimulus induced changes in K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and oxygen concentrations as well as on changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) autofluorescence in the hippocampal area CA3...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Natascha Wosnick, Hugo Bornatowski, Carolina Ferraz, André Afonso, Bianca Sousa Rangel, Fábio Hissa Vieira Hazin, Carolina Arruda Freire
Sharks are very sensitive to stress and prone to a high mortality rate after capture. Since approximately 50 million of sharks are caught as bycatch every year, and current recommendations to reduce the impact of commercial fishing strongly support immediate release, it is imperative to better understand post-release mortality caused by the stress of capture and handling. Blood samples allow the assessment of stress levels which are valuable tools to reduce mortality in commercial, recreational and scientific fishing, being essential for the improvement in those conservation measures...
August 22, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Kuo-Liang Hou, Sze-Kwan Lin, Ling-Hsiu Chao, Eddie Hsiang-Hua Lai, Cheng-Chi Chang, Chia-Tung Shun, Wan-Yu Lu, Jyh-Horng Wang, Michael Hsiao, Chi-Yuan Hong, Sang-Heng Kok
Elevated glycolytic activity and redox imbalance induced by tissue hypoxia are common phenomena of chronic inflammation, including inflammatory bone diseases such as arthritis. However, relation between glycolysis and redox signaling in the inflammatory milieu is unclear. The histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a crucial modulator of inflammation and glucose metabolism, and it is also involved in cellular protection against oxidative injury. The aims of the study were to examine the connection between glycolysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human osteoblastic cells (HOB) and whether SIRT6 modulates inflammatory response via regulation of glycolytic activity and ROS generation...
August 18, 2016: BioFactors
Takeshi Y Hiyama, Masaharu Noda
The brain monitors conditions of body fluids and levels of circulating neuroactive factors to maintain the systemic homeostasis. Unlike most regions in the brain, circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack the blood-brain barrier, and serve as the sensing center. Among the CVOs, the subfornical organ (SFO) is the sensing site of Na(+) levels in body fluids to control water and salt intake. The SFO harbors neuronal cell bodies with a variety of hormone receptors and innervates many brain loci. In addition, the SFO harbors specialized glial cells (astrocytes and ependymal cells) expressing Nax, a Na(+)-level-sensitive sodium channel...
August 10, 2016: Neuroscience Research
José I Serrano-Contreras, Isabel García-Pérez, María E Meléndez-Camargo, L Gerardo Zepeda
Starvation is a postabsorptive condition derived from a limitation on food resources by external factors. Energy homeostasis is maintained under this condition by using sources other than glucose via adaptive mechanisms. After refeeding, when food is available, other adaptive processes are linked to energy balance. However, less has been reported about the physiological mechanisms present as a result of these conditions, considering the rat as a supraorganism. Metabolic profiling using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize the physiological metabolic differences in urine specimens collected under starved, refed, and recovered conditions...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Francis Albarede, Philippe Télouk, Vincent Balter, Victor P Bondanese, Emmanuelle Albalat, Philippe Oger, Paola Bonaventura, Pierre Miossec, Toshiyuki Fujii
This review examines recent applications of stable copper, zinc and sulfur isotopes to medical cases and notably cancer. The distribution of the natural stable isotopes of a particular element among coexisting molecular species varies as a function of the bond strength, the ionic charge, and the coordination, and it also changes with kinetics. Ab initio calculations show that compounds in which a metal binds to oxygen- (sulfate, phosphate, lactate) and nitrogen-bearing moieties (histidine) favor heavy isotopes, whereas bonds with sulfur (cysteine, methionine) favor light isotopes...
October 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Dzmitry Matsiukevich, Giovanna Piraino, Lindsey R Klingbeil, Paul W Hake, Vivian Wolfe, Michael O'Connor, Basilia Zingarelli
The development of myocardial dysfunction in patients with hemorrhagic shock is significantly impacted by the patient age. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal orchestrator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic recovery after cellular stress. We investigated whether AMPK-regulated pathways are age-dependent in hemorrhage-induced myocardial injury and whether AMPK activation by 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside (AICAR) affords cardioprotective effects. Anesthetized C57/BL6 young (3-5 months old) and mature male mice (9-12 months old) were subjected to hemorrhagic shock by blood withdrawing followed by resuscitation with shed blood and Lactated Ringer's solution...
August 10, 2016: Shock
Willis K Samson
Considered for many years to be primarily a circulating hormone contributing to parturition and lactation, over the past three decades oxytocin's broader spectrum of bioactivity has revealed important roles in the control of anterior pituitary hormone secretion, the stress response, social behaviors, cardiovascular control, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and appetite regulation. Most of these observations clearly reflect actions not related to release from the neurohypophysis, but instead release from distinct neuronal populations within the central nervous system (CNS) and perhaps even actions of peptide produced outside of the CNS...
August 10, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Lanier Heyburn, Michaeline L Hebron, Jacqueline Smith, Charisse Winston, John Bechara, Zhaoxia Li, Irina Lonskaya, Mark P Burns, Brent Harris, Charbel E-H Moussa
The trans-activating response DNA/RNA binding protein (TDP)-43 pathology is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases via unknown mechanisms. Here, we use a transgenic mouse model overexpressing human wild-type neuronal TDP-43 to study the effects of TDP-43 pathology on glutamate metabolism and synaptic function. We found that neuronal TDP-43 overexpression affects synaptic protein expression, including Synapsin-1 and alters surrounding astrocytic function. TDP-43 over-expression is associated with an increase in glutamate and GABA and reduction of glutamine and aspartate levels, indicating impairment of pre-synaptic terminal...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
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