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Lactate homeostasis

Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Hongbiao Dong, Hua Li, Qingsong Liu, Jiasong Zhang, Dalin Xiong
Sulfide is a harmful environmental pollutant that affects the survival and immunity of shrimps. The gill is important for shrimp respiratory and osmotic adjustment, the physiological and immune homeostasis of the organ can be influenced by sulfide. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of sulfide (5 mg/L) on the morphology, physiological and immune response in the gills of Litopenaeus vannamei. H&E stain showed that sulfide stress damaged the gills histological structure. Specifically, osmoregulation capacity including of Na+ /K+ -ATPase and Ca2+ /Mg2+ -ATPase activity was both increased at 6 h and 12 h, and decreased at 72 h; the contents of free amino acid including of Gly, Pro, Ser, Thr and Ala were decreased at 72 h...
July 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
I A Kourtzidis, C F Dolopikou, A N Tsiftsis, N V Margaritelis, A A Theodorou, I A Zervos, M P Tsantarliotou, A S Veskoukis, I S Vrabas, V Paschalis, A Kyparos, M G Nikolaidis
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? To investigate the potential metabolic and redox mechanisms that impaired exercise performance after a 21-day supplementation with 300 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide riboside in rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Nicotinamide riboside disturbed energy and redox metabolism and impaired exercise performance in heathy rats. Exogenously administered redox agents in heathy populations may lead to adverse effects...
July 14, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, John Oluwasegun Fatoye, Oluwakunmi Folashade Idowu, Damilola Ilekoya, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Monsurat Titi Gbadamosi, Nnaemeka Tobechukwu Asogwa
Metal ions are crucial for normal neurochemical signaling and perturbations in their homeostasis have been associated with neurodegenerative processes. Hypothesizing that in vivo modulation of key neurochemical processes including metal ion regulation (by transferrin receptor-1: TfR-1) in cells can improve disease outcome, we investigated the efficacy of a complex vitamin supplement (CVS) containing B-vitamins and ascorbic acid in preventing/reversing behavioral decline and neuropathology in rats. Wistar rats (eight weeks-old) were assigned into five groups (n = 8), including controls and those administered CVS (400 mg/kg/day) for two weeks before or after AlCl3 (100 mg/kg)-induced neurotoxicity...
July 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Fan Wu, Pin Gao, Wei Wu, Zaozao Wang, Jie Yang, Jiabo Di, Beihai Jiang, Xiangqian Su
BACKGROUND: Serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) is critical in regulating whole-body glucose and insulin homeostasis and the accumulation of ectopic lipids. The Warburg effect, also known as aerobic glycolysis, is an essential metabolic characteristic of cancer cells. However, the effects of STK25 on aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells remain unexplored. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of STK25 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Avner Ehrlich, Sabina Tsytkin-Kirschenzweig, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Muneef Ayyash, Anne Riu, Reine Note, Gladys Ouedraogo, Jan Vanfleteren, Merav Cohen, Yaakov Nahmias
Drug development is currently hampered by the inability of animal experiments to accurately predict human response. While emerging organ on chip technology offers to reduce risk using microfluidic models of human tissues, the technology still mostly relies on end-point assays and biomarker measurements to assess tissue damage resulting in limited mechanistic information and difficulties to detect adverse effects occurring below the threshold of cellular damage. Here we present a sensor-integrated liver on chip array in which oxygen is monitored using two-frequency phase modulation of tissue-embedded microprobes, while glucose, lactate and temperature are measured in real time using microfluidic electrochemical sensors...
July 11, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Nicolas Degauque, Carole Brosseau, Sophie Brouard
Antigen challenge induced by allotransplantation results in the activation of T and B cells, followed by their differentiation and proliferation to mount an effective immune response. Metabolic fitness has been shown to be crucial for supporting the major shift from quiescent to active immune cells and for tuning the immune response. Metabolic reprogramming includes regulation of the balance between glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration processes. Recent research has shed new light on the functions served by the end products of metabolism such as lactate, acetate, and ATP...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jiali Chen, Bing Yu, Daiwen Chen, Zhiqing Huang, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
Intestinal barrier plays key roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Inflammation and oxidative damage can severely destroy the intestinal integrity of mammals. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural polyphenol present in human diet and plants, possessing potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of CGA and its molecular mechanisms on intestinal barrier function in a porcine model. Twenty-four weaned pigs were allotted to two groups and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet containing 1000 mg/kg CGA...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Chiara Porta, Arianna Marino, Francesca Maria Consonni, Augusto Bleve, Silvia Mola, Mariangela Storto, Elena Riboldi, Antonio Sica
New evidences indicate that the metabolic instruction of immunity (immune metabolism) results from the integration of cell metabolism and whole body metabolism, that are both influenced by nutrition, microbioma metabolites and disease-driven metabolism (e.g. cancer metabolism). Cancer metabolism influences the immunological homeostasis and promotes immune alterations that support disease progression, hence influencing the clinical outcome. Cancer cells display increased glucose uptake and fermentation of glucose to lactate, even in the presence of completely functioning mitochondria...
July 2, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Hui Chen, Gerard Li, Yik Lung Chan, Tara Nguyen, David van Reyk, Sonia Saad, Brian G Oliver
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking can lead to perturbations in central metabolic regulators such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) signalling components in offspring. With the growing interest in e-cigarettes as a tobacco replacement, this short report assessed central metabolic regulation in offspring of mouse dams exposed to e-cigarettes. We examined the impact of continuous use of e-cigarettes, and e-cigarette replacement of tobacco cigarettes during pregnancy. Supplementation of an antioxidant L-carnitine was also co-used with tobacco cigarette in the mother to determine whether the impact of maternal tobacco smoking was oxidative stress driven...
July 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Siemowit Muszyński, Krzysztof Kostro, Iwona Taszkun, Andrzej Żmuda, Tomasz Blicharski, Monika Hułas-Stasiak
Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d) and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks ( Neovison vison ) of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: non-treated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Research
Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Benoit Maury, Valérie Serazin, Khadija Fathallah, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
Throughout the entire first trimester of pregnancy, fetal growth is sustained by endometrial secretions, i.e histiotrophic nutrition. Endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) accumulate and secrete a variety of nutritive molecules which are absorbed by trophoblastic cells and transmitted to the fetus. Glycogen appears to have a critical role in the early stages of fetal development, since infertile women have low endometrial glycogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism and trafficking at the fetal-maternal interface have not yet been characterized...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Assia Kamel, Zohra Hamouli-Said
T3 is the active hormone, produced by peripheral deiodination of thyroxine. Exposure to excess thyroid hormones leads to hypermetabolic state and thus generates oxidative stress which seems to be involved in hyperthyroidism-induced testicular pathophysiology. We investigated the effects of T3 administration on the testis during development throughout sexual maturation in rats. Male pups were divided into two groups. T3 group was administered 80 µg/kg body weight intraperitoneal T3 injections daily for 21 days from the 1st postnatal day, while the control group was administered saline intraperitoneal injections...
July 2, 2018: Andrologia
Thomas Gronwald, Sebastian Ludyga, Olaf Hoos, Kuno Hottenrott
In recent years, complex models of cardiac regulation have integrated heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of the cardiac autonomic activity during exercise. Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique, the present study examines the influence of cycling cadence and exercise duration on non-linear dynamics of HRV. Sixteen trained cyclists performed a 60-minute exercise bout at 90% of the individual anaerobic threshold on a bicycle ergometer. Cadence was changed every 10 min (90-120-60-120-60-90 rpm)...
June 29, 2018: Human Movement Science
Deepanshu Joshi, Debarshi Sarkar, Shio Kumar Singh
Orexin A (OXA), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, regulates food intake, sleep-wake cycle and energy balance by binding to its receptor (OX1R). Apart from brain, OXA and OX1R are also present in peripheral organs including reproductive tissues. Mammalian reproduction depends on uptake and proper utilization of glucose in the testes. This study, therefore, examined role of OXA/OX1R system in regulation of glucose homeostasis in adult mouse testis under in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Binding of OXA to OX1R was blocked using an OX1R antagonist, SB-334867...
June 29, 2018: Biochimie
Malgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Kinga A Kocemba-Pilarczyk, Marcin Majka
The small molecules, natural antioxidant Caffeic Acid (trans-3,4-Dihydroxycinnamic acid CA) and anti-diabetic drug Metformin (Met), activate 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and interfere with metabolic reprogramming in human cervical squamous carcinoma cells. Here, to gain more insight into the ability of CA, Met and the combination of both compounds to impair aerobic glycolysis (the “Warburg effect”) and disrupt bioenergetics of cancer cells, we employed the cervical tumor cell lines C-4I and HTB-35/SiHa...
June 28, 2018: Nutrients
Suman Srinivasa, Anna Aulinas, Timothy O'Malley, Patrick Maehler, Gail K Adler, Steven K Grinspoon, Elizabeth A Lawson
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin, while classically known for its role in parturition, lactation and social behavior, also has been implicated in the control of sodium homeostasis in animal models. To improve our understanding of oxytocin physiology in humans, we measured basal oxytocin levels under low and liberal dietary sodium conditions and following a peripheral Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. METHODS: Ten healthy individuals underwent a 6-day standardized low sodium diet and a 6-day liberal sodium diet...
June 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Michelle van Geldermalsen, Lake-Ee Quek, Nigel Turner, Natasha Freidman, Angel Pang, Yi Fang Guan, James R Krycer, Renae Ryan, Qian Wang, Jeff Holst
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells require increased levels of nutrients such as amino acids to sustain their rapid growth. In particular, leucine and glutamine have been shown to be important for growth and proliferation of some breast cancers, and therefore targeting the primary cell-surface transporters that mediate their uptake, L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and alanine, serine, cysteine-preferring transporter 2 (ASCT2), is a potential therapeutic strategy. METHODS: The ASCT2 inhibitor, benzylserine (BenSer), is also able to block LAT1 activity, thus inhibiting both leucine and glutamine uptake...
June 26, 2018: BMC Cancer
Amanda M Henderson, Daven C Tai, Rika E Aleliunas, Abeer M Aljaadi, Melissa B Glier, Eric E Xu, Joshua W Miller, C Bruce Verchere, Tim J Green, Angela M Devlin
Epidemiologic studies have reported relationships between maternal high folate and/or low B12 status during pregnancy and greater adiposity and insulin resistance in children. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation (10 mg/kg diet), with (50 μg/kg diet) and without B12 , on adult, female offspring adiposity and glucose homeostasis. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed 1 of 3 diets from weaning and throughout breeding, pregnancy, and lactation: control (2 mg/kg diet folic acid, 50 μg/kg diet B12 ), supplemental folic acid with no B12 (SFA-B12 ), or supplemental folic acid with adequate B12 (SFA+B12 )...
April 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yanling Feng, Jingwei Liu, Wendong Guo, Yi Guan, Hongde Xu, Qiqiang Guo, Xiaoyu Song, Fei Yi, Ting Liu, Wenyu Zhang, Xiang Dong, Longyue L Cao, Brian P O'Rourke, Liu Cao
Metabolic reprogramming is a distinct hallmark in tumorigenesis. Autophagy can rewire cell metabolism by regulating intracellular homeostasis. Warburg effect is a specific energy metabolic process that allows tumor cells to metabolize glucose via glycolysis into lactate even in the presence of oxygen. Although both autophagy and Warburg effect are involved in the stress response to energy crisis in tumor cells, their molecular relationship has remained largely elusive. We found that Atg7, a key molecule involved in autophagy, inhibits the Warburg effect...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Soojung Lee, Trine V Axelsen, Nicolai Jessen, Stine F Pedersen, Pernille Vahl, Ebbe Boedtkjer
Metabolic acid production challenges cellular pH homeostasis in solid cancer tissue, and mechanisms of net acid extrusion represent promising new targets for breast cancer therapy. Here, we used genetically engineered mice to investigate the contribution of the Na+ ,HCO3 - -cotransporter NBCn1 (Slc4a7) to intracellular acid-base regulation in ErbB2-induced breast cancer tissue and the consequences of NBCn1 knockout for breast tumor development and growth. We demonstrate an approximately 2-fold increase of NBCn1 protein abundance in ErbB2-induced breast cancer tissue compared to normal breast tissue despite a 4-fold decrease in the NBCn1 mRNA level...
June 15, 2018: Oncogene
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