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Lactate homeostasis

E C Kessler, S K Wall, L L Hernandez, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) affects many physiological functions because it is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, calcium homeostasis, and regulation of lactation in dairy cows. This study aimed to examine physiological differences in serum 5-HT concentrations (high vs. low) and their association with metabolic status and milk production at the onset of lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were milked within 4 h of calving, and blood and milk samples were collected at the first 6 subsequent milkings after parturition and at the evening milkings on d 5, 8, 10, and 14...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Xiaojing Wang, Mingqun Deng, Xiao Zhai, Rongrong Li
Maternal over-nutrition can lead to metabolic disorders in offspring, whereas maternal dietary genistein may have beneficial effects on the metabolic health of offspring. Our objective was to determine whether maternal dietary genistein could attenuate the detrimental effects of a maternal high-fat diet on their offspring's metabolism and to explore the role of the gut microbiota on their offspring's glucose and lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 female mice were fed either a high-fat diet without genistein (HF), high-fat diet with low-dose genistein (0...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Anna Espart, Sebastián Artime, Glòria Tort-Nasarre, Edinson Yara-Varón
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-physiological heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations. Increasing anthropogenic activities are incrementing the risk of accumulation of this heavy metal in different organs and tissues of the body. In the case of pregnant women, the threat is more serious due to the implications affecting not only their own health but also fetal development as well. Metallothioneins (MTs), small cysteine-rich proteins, are involved in zinc (Zn) and copper homeostasis in mammals but can, however, also bind with Cd if present...
September 17, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Wei-Lin Tu, Chuen-Yu Cheng, Chao-Jung Chen, Hong-Lin Chan, Shih-Han Wang, Pin-Chi Tang, Chih-Feng Chen, Yen-Pai Lee, Shuen-Ei Chen, San-Yuan Huang
The hypothalamus is the coordinating center for maintaining temperature homeostasis. In this study, global protein expression in the hypothalami of layer-type Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress was investigated. Twelve 30-week-old female TCCs were divided into three acute heat-stressed groups, namely acute heat stress at 36 °C for 4 h with 0 h (without recovery, H4R0), 2 h (H4R2), or 6 h (H4R6) of recovery. A control group was maintained at 25 °C. Hypothalamus samples were collected at the end of each time point for proteomic analysis...
October 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Andrew P Cap, Heather F Pidcoke, Philip Spinella, Geir Strandenes, Matthew A Borgman, Martin Schreiber, John Holcomb, Homer Chin-Nan Tien, Andrew N Beckett, Heidi Doughty, Tom Woolley, Joseph Rappold, Kevin Ward, Michael Reade, Nicolas Prat, Sylvain Ausset, Bijan Kheirabadi, Avi Benov, Edward P Griffin, Jason B Corley, Clayton D Simon, Roland Fahie, Donald Jenkins, Brian J Eastridge, Zsolt Stockinger
Damage control resuscitation (DCR) is a strategy for resuscitating patients from hemorrhagic shock to rapidly restore homeostasis. Efforts are focused on blood product transfusion with whole blood or component therapy closely approximating whole blood, limited use of crystalloid to avoid dilutional coagulopathy, hypotensive resuscitation until bleeding control is achieved, empiric use of tranexamic acid, prevention of acidosis and hypothermia, and rapid definitive surgical control of bleeding. Patients receiving uncrossmatched Type O blood in the emergency department and later receiving cumulative transfusions of 10 or more red blood cell units in the initial 24-hour post-injury (massive transfusion) are widely recognized as being at increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to exsanguination...
September 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Renan de Oliveira Venci, Gabriel Bortoli Ramos, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Camila Cristina Ianoni Matiusso, Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Audrei Pavanello, Kelly Valério Prates, Laize Peron Tófolo, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Gabriel Sergio Fabricio, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Ananda Malta
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effects of a maternal protein-caloric restriction diet during late pregnancy on the metabolism of rat offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD) during adulthood. METHODS: During late pregnancy, rat dams received either a low-protein (4%; LP group) or normoprotein (23%; NP group) diet. After weaning, the offspring were fed a standard diet (Control; C). Male offspring (60 days old) from both groups were then fed either the C diet or HFD until they were 90 days old...
September 6, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Sangeeta Khare, Kuppan Gokulan, Katherine Williams, Shasha Bai, Kathleen M Gilbert, Sarah J Blossom
The developing immune system is particularly sensitive to immunotoxicants. This study assessed trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced effects on the gut microbiome and cytokine production during the development in mice. Mice were exposed to TCE (0.05 or 500 μg/mL) at the levels that approximate to environmental or occupational exposure, respectively. Mice were subjected to a continuous developmental exposure to these doses encompassing gestation, lactation and continuing directly in the drinking water postnatally for 154 days (PND154) or PND259...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Julia D Hofmann, Andreas Otto, Mareike Berges, Rebekka Biedendieck, Annika-Marisa Michel, Dörte Becher, Dieter Jahn, Meina Neumann-Schaal
The obligate anaerobe, spore forming bacterium Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile ) causes nosocomial and community acquired diarrhea often associated with antibiotic therapy. Major virulence factors of the bacterium are the two large clostridial toxins TcdA and TcdB. The production of both toxins was found strongly connected to the metabolism and the nutritional status of the growth environment. Here, we systematically investigated the changes of the gene regulatory, proteomic and metabolic networks of C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Govindan Dayanithi, Oksana Forostyak, Serhiy Forostyak, Tomohiko Kayano, Yoichi Ueta, Alexei Verkhratsky
The neurohormones arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) synthesised in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of neurohypophysis regulate lactation, systemic water homeostasis and nociception. Using transgenic rats expressing AVP and OT tagged with fluorescent proteins we demonstrate that both neurohormones are expressed in sensory neurones both in vitro, in primary cultures, and in situ, in the intact ganglia; this expression was further confirmed with immunocytochemistry. Both neurohormones were expressed in nociceptive neurones immunopositive to transient receptor potential vannilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antibodies...
August 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Desai, M G Ferrini, J K Jellyman, G Han, M G Ross
In utero exposure to the ubiquitous plasticizer, bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with offspring obesity. As adipogenesis is a critical factor contributing to obesity, we determined the effects of in vivo maternal BPA and in vitro BPA exposure on newborn adipose tissue at the stem-cell level. For in vivo studies, female rats received BPA before and during pregnancy and lactation via drinking water, and offspring were studied for measures of adiposity signals. For in vitro BPA exposure, primary pre-adipocyte cell cultures from healthy newborns were utilized...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Kristoffer Svensson, Jess R Dent, Shahriar Tahvilian, Vitor F Martins, Abha Sathe, Julien Ochala, Mulchand S Patel, Simon Schenk
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and is an important control-point for carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation. However, the importance of the PDC and CHO oxidation to muscle metabolism and exercise performance, particularly during prolonged or high-intensity exercise, has not been fully defined, especially in mature skeletal muscle. To this end, we determined whether skeletal muscle-specific loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1 (Pdha1), which is a critical subunit of the PDC, impacts resting energy metabolism, exercise performance or metabolic adaptation to high-fat diet (HFD) feeding...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nair Anupama, M R Preetha Rani, G L Shyni, K G Raghu
Several mechanisms have been proposed for the heart dysfunction during hyperglycemia. The aim of the present in vitro study is to elucidate the role of alterations in redox homeostasis in the induction of apoptosis during hyperglycemia in H9c2 cells via dysfunction in mitochondria and polyol pathway and evaluation of the beneficial effect of cinnamic acid against the same. The H9c2 cells were incubated with 33 mM glucose for 48 h to simulate the diabetic condition. Cell injury was confirmed with a significant increase of atrial natriuretic peptide and lactate dehydrogenase release...
August 23, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Dong-Ho Bak, Jungtae Na, Mi Ji Choi, Byung Chul Lee, Chang Taek Oh, Jeom-Yong Kim, Hae Jung Han, Moo Joong Kim, Tae Ho Kim, Beom Joon Kim
Apoptosis and oxidative stress are essential for the pathogenesis of acute liver failure and fulminant hepatic failure. Human placental hydrolysate (hPH) has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory properties. In the present study, the protective effects of hPH against D‑galactosamine (D‑GalN)‑ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced hepatocyte apoptosis were investigated in vivo. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti‑apoptotic activities of hPH against D‑GalN‑induced cell death in vitro were examined...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Douglas Lopes Almeida, Fernando Salgueiro Simões, Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra, Ana Maria Praxedes Moraes, Camila Cristina Ianoni Matiusso, Ananda Malta, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Paulo Cesar de Freitas Mathias
PURPOSE: The early-life nutritional environment affects long-term glucose homeostasis, we investigated the effects of maternal low-protein diet combined with postnatal early overfeeding on the male offspring's glucose homeostasis in adulthood. METHODS: Only male rats were used, and their delivery was considered postnatal-day 0 (PN0). Wistar rats' dams were divided into control (NP) or low-protein diet (LP). LP dams remained on the diet until PN14, after which all animals were supplied with the control diet...
August 20, 2018: Endocrine
Sandra L Romero-Cordoba, Sergio Rodriguez-Cuevas, Veronica Bautista-Pina, Antonio Maffuz-Aziz, Elvira D'Ippolito, Giulia Cosentino, Sara Baroni, Marilena V Iorio, Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous and aggressive neoplasia lacking the expression of hormonal receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the importance of miRNAs dysregulation in the establishment of cancer programs, but the functional role of many miRNAs remains unclear. The description of miRNAs roles might provide novel strategies for treatment. In the present work, an integrated analysis of miRNA transcriptional landscape was performed (N = 132), identifying the significant down-modulation of miR-342-3p in TNBC, probably because of the aberrant activity of estrogen receptor, which serves as a transcription factor of the miRNA, as demonstrated by a siRNA-knockdown approach...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Quanz, Eckhard Bender, Charlotte Kopitz, Sylvia Grünewald, Andreas Schlicker, Wolfgang Schwede, Ashley Eheim, Luisella Toschi, Roland Neuhaus, Carmen Richter, Joern Toedling, Claudia Merz, Ralf Lesche, Atanas Kamburov, Holger Siebeneicher, Marcus Bauser, Andrea Haegebarth
The lactate transporter SLC16A1/MCT1 plays a central role in tumor cell energy homeostasis. In a cell based screen, we identified a novel class of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitors, including BAY-8002, which potently suppress bidirectional lactate transport. We investigated the antiproliferative activity of BAY-8002 in a panel of 246 cancer cell lines and show that hematopoietic tumor cells, in particular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines, and subsets of solid tumor models are particularly sensitive to MCT1 inhibition...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Clara Sanchez-Parra, Cécile Jacovetti, Olivier Dumortier, Kailun Lee, Marie-Line Peyot, Claudiane Guay, Marc Prentki, D Ross Laybutt, Emmanuel Van Obberghen, Romano Regazzi
Pancreatic β-cell expansion throughout the neonatal period is essential to generate the appropriate mass of insulin-secreting cells to maintain blood glucose homeostasis later in life. Hence, defects in this process can predispose to diabetes development at adulthood. Global profiling of the transcripts in pancreatic islets of newborn and adult rats revealed that the expression of the long non-coding RNA H19 is controlled by the transcription factor E2F1 and is profoundly downregulated during the post-natal period...
August 16, 2018: Diabetes
Jennifer W Hill, Carol F Elias
A minimum amount of energy is required for basic physiological processes, such as protein biosynthesis, thermoregulation, locomotion, cardiovascular function, and digestion. However, for reproductive function and survival of the species, extra energy stores are necessary. Production of sex hormones and gametes, pubertal development, pregnancy, lactation, and parental care all require energy reserves. Thus the physiological systems that control energy homeostasis and reproductive function coevolved in mammals to support both individual health and species subsistence...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Sadia Shah, Md Sayeed Akhtar, Md Quamrul Hassan, Mohd Akhtar, Yam Nath Paudel, Abul Kalam Najmi
AIM: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) related reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation results in myocardial damage. We aimed to investigate the role of gefitinib (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM). METHOD: DbCM was induced by injecting streptozotocin (55 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days) to C57/BL6 mice intraperitoneally. Diabetic C57/BL6 mice (fasting blood glucose level ≥ 250 mg/dl) were allocated into four study groups and treated with two doses of gefitinib (30 mg/kg and 350 mg/kg per day) as well as ramipril (3 mg/kg/day) for four weeks...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Laís Vales Mennitti, Lila Missae Oyama, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Oller do Nascimento, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
We evaluated the impacts of maternal consumption of different types of fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation on the lipid and glucose metabolism of 21-day-old offspring. Rats received either control (C), saturated (SFAs), trans (TFAs) or n - 3 polyunsaturated (PUFAs) normolipidic diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. 21-day old male pups constituted the groups: C21, S21, T21 and PUFA21. At 21st day, serum parameters, hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) deposition, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and liver protein expressions were investigated...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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