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Maria Lina Tornesello, Clorinda Annunziata, Anna Lucia Tornesello, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco Maria Buonaguro
Viral oncogenesis is a multistep process largely depending on the complex interplay between viruses and host factors. The oncoviruses are capable of subverting the cell signaling machinery and metabolic pathways and exploit them for infection, replication, and persistence. Several viral oncoproteins are able to functionally inactivate the tumor suppressor p53, causing deregulated expression of many genes orchestrated by p53, such as those involved in apoptosis, DNA stability, and cell proliferation. The Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1, the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5 proteins have shown to directly bind to and degrade p53...
June 22, 2018: Cancers
Souichi Nukuzuma, Chiyoko Nukuzuma, Masanori Kameoka, Shigeki Sugiura, Kazuo Nakamichi, Takafumi Tasaki, Koushi Hidaka, Tsutomu Takegami
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients. Archetype JCPyV circulates in the human population. There have been several reports of archetype JCPyV replication in cultured cells, in which propagation was not enough to produce high titers of archetype JCPyV. In this study, we carried out cultivation of the transfected cells with archetype JCPyV DNA MY for more than two months to establish COS-7 cells (designated COS-JC cells) persistently producing archetype JCPyV...
June 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Volker Nickeleit, Harsharan K Singh, Daniel J Kenan, Piotr A Mieczkowski
In immunocompromised patients, reactivation of latent BK-polyomavirus (BKPyV) can cause disease with lytic infections of kidneys and the lower urinary tract. Emerging evidence also links BKPyV to oncogenesis and high grade intra-renal and transitional cell carcinomas. These neoplasms strongly express polyomavirus large-T antigen as a defining feature, i.e. they are "large-T positive carcinomas". Such neoplasms arise in immunocompromised patients, typically in renal allograft recipients and preferentially in tissues harboring latent BKPyV...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Felipe Gonçalves Motta Maia, William Marciel de Souza, Gilberto Sabino-Santos, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Sejal Modha, Pablo Ramiro Murcia, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
The nearly complete genome sequence of a novel polyomavirus from blood samples of Akodon montensis and Calomys tener collected in Brazil was determined by high-throughput sequencing. This virus showed a typical polyomaviruses genome organization, and it was classified as a member of the genus Betapolyomavirus. Our results expand the host range and viral diversity of the family Polyomaviridae.
June 21, 2018: Archives of Virology
Andrew Siref, Bonnie Balzer, Andrew Hendifar
A 63-year-old white man with no significant previous medical or surgical history presented with painless jaundice after 3 weeks of dark urine, yellow stools, and a 9-pound weight loss. Bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase were elevated, and a computed tomography scan detected a 10-cm, ill-defined mass at the porta hepatis compressing the common bile duct. He underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with stenting and ultrasound-guided biopsies. Histologic sections showed a neoplastic population of small ovoid cells with a high N:C ratio, nuclear hyperchromasia, "smoky" chromatin and abundant mitotic figures, and characteristic of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (HGNECA)...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Miguel G Toscano, Peter de Haan
Viruses efficiently transfer and express their genes in host cells and evolve to evade the host's defense responses. These properties render them highly attractive for use as gene delivery vectors in vaccines, gene, and immunotherapies. Among the viruses used as gene delivery vectors, the macaque polyomavirus Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is unique in its capacity to evade intracellular antiviral defense responses upon cell entry. We here describe the unique way by which SV40 particles deliver their genomes in the nucleus of permissive cells and how they prevent presentation of viral antigens to the host's immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kelly G Paulson, Shailender Bhatia
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a neuroendocrine skin cancer. The clinical impact of MCC has been increasing due to steadily rising incidence rates. Since 2001, more than 24,000 cases of MCC have been reported to the US National Program of Cancer Registries database, and in 2018, more than 2,500 incident cases are expected. MCC is highly aggressive, and one-third of patients will either present with or develop metastatic disease. Outcomes in patients with metastatic MCC have historically been poor; median time to progression with cytotoxic chemotherapy is only 3 months...
June 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Christopher K Bichakjian, Thomas Olencki, Sumaira Z Aasi, Murad Alam, James S Andersen, Rachel Blitzblau, Glen M Bowen, Carlo M Contreras, Gregory A Daniels, Roy Decker, Jeffrey M Farma, Kris Fisher, Brian Gastman, Karthik Ghosh, Roy C Grekin, Kenneth Grossman, Alan L Ho, Karl D Lewis, Manisha Loss, Daniel D Lydiatt, Jane Messina, Kishwer S Nehal, Paul Nghiem, Igor Puzanov, Chrysalyne D Schmults, Ashok R Shaha, Valencia Thomas, Yaohui G Xu, John A Zic, Karin G Hoffmann, Anita M Engh
This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) focuses on areas impacted by recently emerging data, including sections describing MCC risk factors, diagnosis, workup, follow-up, and management of advanced disease with radiation and systemic therapy. Included in these sections are discussion of the new recommendations for use of Merkel cell polyomavirus as a biomarker and new recommendations for use of checkpoint immunotherapies to treat metastatic or unresectable disease. The next update of the complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for MCC will include more detailed information about elements of pathology and addresses additional aspects of management of MCC, including surgical management of the primary tumor and draining nodal basin, radiation therapy as primary treatment, and management of recurrence...
June 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Andrea Garretto, Krystal Thomas-White, Alan J Wolfe, Catherine Putonti
Viruses are the most abundant component of the human microbiota. Recent evidence has uncovered a rich diversity of viruses within the female bladder, including both bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of the bladder microbiome of 30 women: 10 asymptomatic 'healthy' women and 20 women with an overactive bladder. These metagenomes include sequences representative of human, bacterial and viral DNA. This analysis, however, focused specifically on viral sequences. Using the bioinformatic tool virMine, we discovered sequence fragments, as well as complete genomes, of bacteriophages and the eukaryotic virus JC polyomavirus...
June 11, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Susanne Hanner, Ulrike Wieland, Wolfgang Hartschuh, Alexander Enk, Ferdinand Toberer
An 81-year-old woman presented with a several weeks history of an erythematous tumour at her right nostril (Figure 1a). The tumour was surgically removed. Histopathology showed peritumoral clefts and BerEP4-expression consistent with basal cell carcinoma (Figure 2a). One year later the patient developed a small erythematous tumour at the left nostril (Figure 1b). Histopathology was consistent with a diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) (Figure 2c,d). The tumour was removed using Mohs micrographic surgery...
June 11, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Marco Ligozzi, Liliana Galia, Maria Carelli, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Erica Diani, Davide Gibellini
In this study, we describe a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of KIPyV and WUPyV polyomaviruses based on TaqMan probes. This assay detected 500 copies/mL both for KIPyV and WUPyV in 100% of tested positive samples. We assessed this technique on 482 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens from hospitalized pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms, previously analyzed with commercial multiplex assay for 16 major respiratory viruses. Our assay detected KIPyV genome in 15 out of 482 samples (3...
June 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
F Ekşi, T Karslıgil, I Gündeş, M Sağlam, M P Kırık, M S Büdeyri, H Haydaroğlu Şahin, M Pehlivan
INTRODUCTION: BK virus (BKV) is a common human polyomavirus and causes latent infection. Especially in immunosuppressive patients, early diagnosis and treatment are very important in reducing the high mortality rate. In this study, we investigated BKV DNA in serum and plasma and urine specimens by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BKV DNA was isolated in QIAsymphony SP/AS (Hilden, Germany) equipment using QIAsymphony DSP Virus/Pathogen Midi Kit, Version 1 (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) in urine and serum samples collected from 100 patients post-transplantation...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
James M Burke, Clovis R Bass, Rodney P Kincaid, Emin T Ulug, Christopher S Sullivan
Polyomaviruses (PyVs) can cause serious disease in immunosuppressed hosts. Several pathogenic PyVs encode microRNAs (miRNAs), small RNAs that regulate gene expression via RNA silencing. Despite recent advances in understanding the activities of PyV miRNAs, the biological functions of PyV miRNAs during in vivo infections are mostly unknown. Studies presented here use murine polyomavirus (MuPyV) as a model to assess the roles of the PyV miRNAs in a natural host. This analysis reveals that a MuPyV mutant that is unable to express miRNAs has enhanced viral DNA loads in select tissues at late times after infection...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Elyse Stachler, Benay Akyon, Nathalia Aquino de Carvalho, Christian Ference, Kyle Bibby
Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health. Many previously developed human-specific fecal pollution indicators lack adequate sensitivity to be reliably detected in environmental waters or do not correlate well with viral pathogens. Recently, two novel human sewage-associated source tracking qPCR markers were developed based on the bacteriophage crAssphage, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064. These assays are highly human specific, abundant in sewage, and are viral-based, suggesting great promise for environmental application as human fecal pollution indicators...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
S D Hwang, J H Lee, S W Lee, J K Kim, M-J Kim, J H Song
BACKGROUND: Reactivation of BK polyomavirus causes destructive virus allograft nephropathy; however, treatment options are limited. Herein, we report a case in which a patient with T cell-mediated rejection was treated with steroid therapy. The patient subsequently developed BK viremia and was successfully treated by using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) after failing to respond to conventional treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old man had been undergoing peritoneal dialysis for 3 years before kidney transplantation...
June 2, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Yang Zhang, Hiba Ahmed, Abdolreza Haririan, Richard Ugarte, John C Papadimitriou, Cinthia B Drachenberg
Evolving BK polyomavirus associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation that closely resembles acute T-cell mediated allograft rejection if tubulitis is significant. The cellular composition of the inflammation varies during the course of BKPyVAN, and clusters of plasma cells may herald resolution of the infection. Less commonly, BKPyVAN can present with a predominance of histiocytes and granuloma formation. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is uncommon in biopsies of either native or transplant kidneys...
June 4, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Bradley William Schmitz, Hitoha Moriyama, Eiji Haramoto, Masaaki Kitajima, Samendra Sherchan, Charles P Gerba, Ian L Pepper
Increased demand for water reuse and reclamation accentuates the importance for optimal wastewater treatment to limit protozoa in effluents. Two wastewater treatment plants utilizing advanced Bardenpho were investigated over a 12-month period to determine the incidence and reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and fecal indicators. Results were compared to conventional facilities that previously operated in the same geographical area. Protozoa (oo)cysts were concentrated using an electronegative filter and subsequently detected by fluorescent microscopy and/or PCR methods...
May 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Cristián Navarrete-Dechent, Carolina Cevallos, Juan Jorge Manríquez, Claudio Salazar, Sergio González
Trichodysplasia spinulosa is a rare disease that occurs in the setting of immunosuppression, associated with tolerogenic therapy used in allograft recipients or patients with hematologic malignancies. Clinically, it is characterized by a centrofacial cutaneous eruption of erythematous papules with a central keratinous spicule, often associated with variable degrees of alopecia. Histologic findings are characteristic, and electron microscopy reveals the presence of trichodysplasia spinulosa associated polyomavirus...
January 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Jimmy Grellier, Hans H Hirsch, Catherine Mengelle, Laure Esposito, Anne Laure Hebral, Julie Bellière, Fabian Weissbach, Jacques Izopet, Arnaud Del Bello, Nassim Kamar
BACKGROUND: Multiple risk factors for BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication after kidney transplantation have been described. Here, we investigated the impact of living donors' urinary BKPyV shedding and recipients' BKPyV antibody status pretransplant on BKPyV replication during the first year posttransplantation. METHODS: We assessed a cohort of living kidney donors and their paired recipients (n=121). All donors were tested before transplantation, and recipients were tested before and after transplantation for BKPyV viruria and viremia...
May 25, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
H H Liu, T Peng
Objective: To investigate the seasonal disturbations and the rates of detection of EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), Human Bocavirus(HBoV), and polyomaviruses KI and WU (KIPyV and WUPyV) in adenoid and tonsil tissues during the absence of acute infection symptoms. Method: DNA expressions of EBV, HBoV, polyomaviruses KIPyV and WUPyV were investigated in children with chronic tonsillar and adenoidal diseases using real time polymerase chain reaction. The patients were divided into three group: adenoid group, chronic tonsillit group and hypertrophic tonsillitis group...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
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