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Patricia Assis, Carlos Eduardo Carvalho, Marcelo Soares Silva, Bruna Ribeiro, Maria da Gloria Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Although identifying cytological viral inclusions (decoy cells) in the urine is relatively easy, distinguishing between Polyomaviruses BKV and JCV is not possible. Few studies have been published regarding JCV detection in kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of BKV and JCV DNA in archival slides of urine cytospin material from renal transplant patients. METHODS: A total of 44 urine specimens were evaluated cytologically for the presence of viral inclusions (decoy cells) and by nested polymerase chain reaction to differentiate between JCV and BKV in DNA isolated from archival slides of urine cytospin material...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Chunhe Wan, Longfei Cheng, Guanghua Fu, Cuiteng Chen, Rongchang Liu, Shaohua Shi, Hongmei Chen, Qiuling Fu, Yu Huang
Due to low doses of infection, an efficient and sensitive virus detection method is necessary to detect low amounts of goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV). In this study, we have developed a TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) specific assay for the detection of GHPV. Specificity assay showed no cross-reactions with other common waterfowl viruses. The standard curve had a linear correlation of 0.997 and efficiency of 99% between the cycle threshold value and the logarithm of the plasmids copy number. The possible lowest detectable concentration was 35...
April 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Michael J Imperiale
JC polyomavirus was discovered in 1971, and its name was derived from the initials of the individual from whose brain tissue it was isolated. While most scientists refer to the virus properly, i.e., calling it JCV or JCPyV, there is a small but palpable number of scientists who refer to the virus by the full name of the patient from whom it was isolated. This practice should stop.
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sarmila Tandukar, Jeevan B Sherchand, Dinesh Bhandari, Samendra P Sherchan, Bikash Malla, Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Eiji Haramoto
Quantification of waterborne pathogens in water sources is essential for alerting the community about health hazards. This study determined the presence of human enteric viruses and protozoa in the Bagmati River, Nepal, and detected fecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli , and Enterococcus spp.), human-fecal markers (human Bacteroidales and JC and BK polyomaviruses), and index viruses (tobacco mosaic virus and pepper mild mottle virus). During a one-year period between October 2015 and September 2016, a total of 18 surface water samples were collected periodically from three sites along the river...
April 6, 2018: Pathogens
Valeria Pietropaolo, Carla Prezioso, Francesca Bagnato, Guido Antonelli
John Cunningham virus (JCV), the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is the first human polyomavirus described. After asymptomatic primary infection which occurs in childhood, the virus spreads by the hematogenous route from the primary site of infection to secondary sites including kidneys, lymphoid tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes, and brain to establish latent infection. During immunosuppression the virus undergoes molecular rearrangements that allow it to replicate in glial tissues causing PML...
April 5, 2018: New Microbiologica
Christa I DeVette, Massimo Andreatta, Wilfried Bardet, Steven J Cate, Vanessa I Jurtz, Kenneth W Jackson, Alana L Welm, Morten Nielsen, William H Hildebrand
With the advancement of personalized cancer immunotherapies, new tools are needed to identify tumor antigens and evaluate T-cell responses in model systems, specifically those that exhibit clinically relevant tumor progression. Key transgenic mouse models of breast cancer are generated and maintained on the FVB genetic background, and one such model is the mouse mammary tumor virus-polyomavirus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyMT) mouse - an immunocompetent transgenic mouse that exhibits spontaneous mammary tumor development and metastasis with high penetrance...
April 3, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Irina Soldatova, Terezie Prilepskaja, Levon Abrahamyan, Jitka Forstová, Sandra Huérfano
The mechanism used by mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) overcomes the crowded cytosol to reach the nucleus has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the involvement of importin α/β1 mediated transport in the delivery of MPyV genomes into the nucleus. Interactions of the virus with importin β1 were studied by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay. For infectivity and nucleus delivery assays, the virus and its capsid proteins mutated in the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were prepared and produced...
March 31, 2018: Viruses
Nichole E Brinkman, Eric N Villegas, Jay L Garland, Scott P Keely
Metagenomics is a powerful tool for characterizing viral composition within environmental samples, but sample and molecular processing steps can bias the estimation of viral community structure. The objective of this study is to understand the inherent variability introduced when conducting viral metagenomic analyses of wastewater and provide a bioinformatic strategy to accurately analyze sequences for viral community analyses. A standard approach using a combination of ultrafiltration, membrane filtration, and DNase treatment, and multiple displacement amplification (MDA) produced DNA preparations without any bacterial derived genes...
2018: PloS One
Myriam Dao, Adrien Pécriaux, Thomas Bessede, Antoine Dürrbach, Charlotte Mussini, Catherine Guettier, Sophie Ferlicot
BK polyomavirus (BKV) nephropathy is a major concern in renal transplantation. Its main consequence is graft loss, which occurs in more than 50% of the cases. De novo renal cell carcinoma in renal allograft is a very rare event. Most of these tumors are papillary or clear cell carcinomas. We report herein the first case of collecting duct carcinoma of the renal allograft in a kidney-pancreas allograft adult recipient. Collecting duct carcinoma occurs long after the cure of a BKV nephropathy. At this time, BKV viremia and viruria were negative as well as the immunostaining for SV40 in the non-tumor kidney...
March 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Wen-Ying Zhang, Yang Liu, Yao Wang, Jing Nie, Ye-Lei Guo, Chun-Meng Wang, Han-Ren Dai, Qing-Ming Yang, Zhi-Qiang Wu, Wei-Dong Han
Excessive activated T-cell proliferation was observed in vivo in one patient after an anti-CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell infusion. The patient, who had chemotherapy refractory and CD19+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), received an anti-CD19 CAR T-cell infusion following conditioning chemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide). The lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood (PB) increased to 77 × 109 /L on day 13 post infusion, and the proportion of CD8+ actived T cells was 93.06% of the lymphocytes...
March 29, 2018: Gene Therapy
Thibault Kervarrec, Mahtab Samimi, Pauline Gaboriaud, Tarik Gheit, Agnès Beby-Defaux, Roland Houben, David Schrama, Gaëlle Fromont, Massimo Tommasino, Yannick Le Corre, Eva Hainaut-Wierzbicka, Francois Aubin, Guido Bens, Hervé Maillard, Adeline Furudoï, Patrick Michenet, Antoine Touzé, Serge Guyétant
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. The main etiological agent is Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), detected in 80% of cases. About 5% of cases, called combined MCC, feature an admixture of neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine tumor cells. Reports of the presence or absence of MCPyV in combined MCC are conflicting, most favoring the absence, which suggests that combined MCC might have independent etiological factors and pathogenesis. These discrepancies might occur with the use of different virus identification assays, with different sensitivities...
March 28, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Madhu Sudhan Ravindran, Chelsey C Spriggs, Kristen J Verhey, Billy Tsai
During entry, polyomavirus (PyV) is endocytosed and sorts to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it penetrates the ER membrane to reach the cytosol. From the cytosol, the virus moves to the nucleus to cause infection. How PyV is transported from the cytosol into the nucleus, a crucial infection step, is unclear. We found that upon reaching the cytosol, the archetype PyV SV40 recruits the cytoplasmic dynein motor, which disassembles the viral particle. This reaction enables the resulting disassembled virus to enter the nucleus to promote infection...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Iwona Bil-Lula, Mieczysław Woźniak
Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to multiple viral infections. Relevant interactions between co-infecting viruses might result from viral regulatory genes which trans-activate or repress the expression of host cell genes as well as the genes of any co-infecting virus. The aim of the current study was to show that the replication of human adenovirus 5 is enhanced by co-infection with BK polyomavirus and is associated with increased expression of proteins including early region 4 open reading frame 1 and both the large tumor antigen and small tumor antigen...
March 26, 2018: Archives of Virology
Bryan A Bassig, Martina Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Xiao-Ou Shu, Woon-Puay Koh, Yu-Tang Gao, Mark P Purdue, Yong-Bing Xiang, Jennifer Adams-Haduch, Renwei Wang, Nicole Brenner, Tim Waterboer, Angelika Michel, Bu-Tian Ji, H Dean Hosgood, Charles S Rabkin, Gong Yang, Jason Y Y Wong, Jinming Zhang, Wei Hu, Wei Jie Seow, Wong-Ho Chow, Michael Pawlita, Wei Zheng, Jian-Min Yuan, Qing Lan, Nathaniel Rothman
Incidence rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and distributions of certain viruses differ between East Asian and Western populations. There are limited data on associations between serologic markers of multiple viral infections in pre-diagnostic blood and NHL risk in East Asians. We conducted a nested case-control study of 214 NHL cases and 214 matched controls from three population-based prospective cohorts in Shanghai and Singapore. Antibodies against antigens from herpesviruses, Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus, and polyomaviruses were measured in plasma or serum using fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Renata Ferrarotto, Robert Cardnell, Shirley Su, Lixia Diao, A Karina Eterovic, Victor Prieto, William H Morrisson, Jing Wang, Merrill S Kies, Bonnie S Glisson, Lauren Averett Byers, Diana Bell
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma are treated similarly to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1) is overexpressed in SCLC and response to PARP inhibitors have been reported in patients with SCLC. Our study explores PARP as a therapeutic target in Merkel cell carcinoma. METHODS: We evaluated PARP1 expression and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in 19 patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. Target exome-sequencing was performed in 14 samples...
March 23, 2018: Head & Neck
Els van der Meijden, Mariet Feltkamp
Approximately 15-20% of human cancer is related to infection, which renders them potentially preventable by antimicrobial or antiviral therapy. Human polyomaviruses (PyVs) are relevant in this regard, as illustrated by the involvement of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in the development of Merkel cell carcinoma. The polyomavirus Small and Large tumor antigen (ST and LT) have been extensively studied with respect to their role in oncogenesis. Recently it was shown that a number of human PyVs, including MCPyV and the trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus (TSPyV), express additional T-antigens called Middle T (MT) and alternative T (ALT)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Murthy S Anand, Shantha Krishnamurthy, Suvarna Ravindranath, Jyothi Ranganathan
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin; MCC is 40 times less common as compared to melanoma. The most frequently reported sites have been the head and neck, extremities, and trunk. Potential mimics include malignant melanoma, lymphoma, or metastatic small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinomas. Histopathology of MCC resembles small cell carcinoma both morphologically and on IHC. The possible cell of origin was proposed as the Merkel cell, which functions as a mechanoreceptor...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Sandra P D'Angelo, Jeffery Russell, Céleste Lebbé, Bartosz Chmielowski, Thilo Gambichler, Jean-Jacques Grob, Felix Kiecker, Guilherme Rabinowits, Patrick Terheyden, Isabella Zwiener, Marcis Bajars, Meliessa Hennessy, Howard L Kaufman
Importance: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer that is associated with poor survival outcomes in patients with distant metastatic disease. Results of part A of the JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial (avelumab in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma) showed that avelumab, an anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody, demonstrated efficacy in second-line or later treatment of patients with metastatic MCC (mMCC). Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of avelumab as first-line treatment for patients with distant mMCC...
March 22, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Margarita-Maria Panou, Emma L Prescott, Daniel L Hurdiss, Gemma Swinscoe, Michael Hollinshead, Laura G Caller, Ethan L Morgan, Louisa Carlisle, Marietta Müller, Michelle Antoni, David Kealy, Neil A Ranson, Colin M Crump, Andrew Macdonald
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV; hereafter referred to as BK) causes a lifelong chronic infection and is associated with debilitating disease in kidney transplant recipients. Despite its importance, aspects of the virus life cycle remain poorly understood. In addition to the structural proteins, the late region of the BK genome encodes for an auxiliary protein called agnoprotein. Studies on other polyomavirus agnoproteins have suggested that the protein may contribute to virion infectivity. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for agnoprotein in BK virus release...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hiroshi Uchi
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive skin cancer with frequent metastasis and death. MCC has a mortality rate of 30%, making it more lethal than malignant melanoma, and incidence of MCC has increased almost fourfold over the past 20 years in the USA. MCC has long been considered to be an immunogenic cancer because it occurs more frequently in immunosuppressed patients from organ transplant and HIV infection than in those with immunocompetent. Chronic UV light exposure and clonal integration of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) are two major causative factors of MCC...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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