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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512245/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-small-t-antigen-initiates-merkel-cell-carcinoma-like-tumor-development-in-mice
#1
Monique E Verhaegen, Doris Mangelberger, Paul W Harms, Markus Eberl, Dawn M Wilbert, Julia Meireles, Christopher K Bichakjian, Thomas L Saunders, Sunny Y Wong, Andrzej A Dlugosz
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tumor cells express several markers detected in normal Merkel cells, a non-proliferative population of neuroendocrine cells which arise from epidermis. MCCs frequently contain Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA and express viral transforming antigens, sT and tLT, but the role of these putative oncogenes in MCC development, and this tumor's cell of origin, are unknown. Using a panel of pre-term transgenic mice, we show that epidermis-targeted co-expression of sT and the cell fate determinant atonal bHLH transcription factor 1 (Atoh1) leads to development of widespread cellular aggregates with histology and marker expression mimicking that of human intraepidermal MCC...
May 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510315/bk-virus-nephropathy-revisited
#2
EDITORIAL
Michael Mengel
More than 20 years after its first description and increased morbidity under powerful immunosuppression, the understanding of the pathogenesis of BK polyomavirus induced allograft nephropathy (BKVN) has changed clinical practice in renal transplantation. Screening programs were introduced at most transplant centers causing the prevalence of BKVN to decrease. However, BK viremia is still found in 10-30% of renal allograft recipients with 1-10% developing BKVN. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505157/structurally-optimized-analogs-of-the-retrograde-trafficking-inhibitor-retro-2cycl-limit-leishmania-infections
#3
Evan Craig, Charles-Eugene Huyghues-Despointes, Chun Yu, Emma L Handy, Jason K Sello, Peter E Kima
In infected mammalian cells, Leishmania parasites reside within specialized compartments called parasitophorous vacuoles (LPVs). We have previously shown that Retro-2, a member of a novel class of small retrograde pathway inhibitors caused reduced LPV sizes and lower parasite numbers during experimental L. mexicana sp. infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if structural analogs of Retro-2cycl reported to have superior potency in the inhibition of retrograde pathway-dependent phenomena (i.e...
May 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500640/dysregulation-of-the-mek-erk-mnk1-signaling-cascade-by-middle-t-antigen-of-the-trichoydsplasia-spinulosa-polyomavirus
#4
Julie H Wu, Deepika Narayanan, Rebecca A Simonette, Peter L Rady, Stephen K Tyring
BACKGROUND: Trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS) is a disfiguring folliculocentric cutaneous disease caused by infection with the trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus (TSPyV). The TSPyV genome contains splice variants encoding the middle tumor (mT) antigen, although the potential role for TSPyV mT antigen in disease development remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to investigate the mechanistic properties of TSPyV mT antigen, which may further our understanding of TS pathogenesis and provide insight into potential therapies...
May 13, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497550/metagenomics-analysis-of-red-blood-cell-and-fresh-frozen-plasma-units
#5
Pierre Lau, Samuel Cordey, Francisco Brito, Diderik Tirefort, Thomas J Petty, Lara Turin, Arthur Guichebaron, Mylène Docquier, Evgeny M Zdobnov, Sophie Waldvogel-Abramowski, Thomas Lecompte, Laurent Kaiser, Olivier Preynat-Seauve
BACKGROUND: Although the risk of transmitting infectious agents by blood transfusion is dramatically reduced after donor selection, leukoreduction, and laboratory testing, some could still be present in donor's blood. A description of metagenomes in blood products eligible for transfusion represents relevant information to evaluate the risk of pathogen transmission by transfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Detection of viruses, bacteria, and fungi genomes was made by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 600 manufactured blood products eligible for transfusion: 300 red blood cell (RBC) and 300 fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) units...
May 11, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493815/the-biology-of-jc-polyomavirus
#6
Benedetta Assetta, Walter J Atwood
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of a fatal central nervous system demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML occurs in people with underlying immunodeficiency or in individuals being treated with potent immunomodulatory therapies. JCPyV is a DNA tumor virus with a double stranded DNA genome and encodes a well-studied oncogene, large T antigen. Its host range is highly restricted to humans and only a few cell types support lytic infection in vivo or in vitro...
May 10, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484898/virus-induced-cancers-of-the-skin-and-mucosa-are-we-dealing-with-smoking-guns-or-smoke-and-mirrors-in-the-operating-theatre
#7
Peter K C Goon, Patrick K Y Goon, Eunice K H Tan, Robin A F Crawford, Nick J Levell, Holger Sudhoff
INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) alone is thought to cause ~610,000 cases of cancer per year, and is the dominant aetiological agent for ano-genital (esp. cervical) and head and neck cancers (esp. oropharyngeal). Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is a more recently discovered virus which causes Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but highly aggressive skin malignancy. METHODS: We explored the available published evidence to see if transmission of live HPV or MCV virus in smoke generated by laser or diathermy was feasible, and would pose an infection risk...
May 8, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483968/pre-analytical-stability-of-antibodies-to-pathogenic-antigens
#8
Verity S Hodgkinson, Sam Egger, Fay Betsou, Tim Waterboer, Michael Pawlita, Angelika Michel, Mark S Baker, Emily Banks, Freddy Sitas
BACKGROUND: Serological testing for antibodies against epitopes from pathogens is a valuable tool for investigating the relationship between infection and disease. This study comprehensively evaluates the impact of pre-analytic variation on antibody seropositivities to a selected set of antigens arising from delays in processing of blood samples, pre-processing storage-temperature and vacutainer-type. METHODS: We assessed peripheral blood collected from 29 volunteers in four different Vacutainer® types (ethylenediaminoetetraacetic-acid (EDTA), acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD), lithium heparin (LH) and serum separator tubes (SST)) and stored at 4◦C or room-temperature for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days before processing...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481120/molecular-epidemiology-of-wu-polyomavirus-in-hospitalized-children-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infection-in-china
#9
Teng Zhu, Qing-Bin Lu, Shu-Yan Zhang, Ying Wo, Lu Zhuang, Pan-He Zhang, Xiao-Ai Zhang, Wei Wei, Wei Liu
AIM: To explore the molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) infection in pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections in China. MATERIALS & METHODS: A laboratory surveillance was performed to recruit pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections. WUPyV was detected using real-time PCR and complete genome was sequenced for randomly selected positive nasopharyngeal aspirate. RESULTS: Altogether 122 (7...
May 8, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473689/polyomavirus-nephropathy-in-native-kidneys-of-an-immunocompetent-individual
#10
Sihyung Park, Yang Wook Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Kang Min Park, Jin Han Park, Bo Mi Kim, Bong Soo Park
BACKGROUND Polyomavirus nephropathy has emerged as an important cause of graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Polyomavirus rarely affects the native kidneys of an immunocompetent individual. Until now, polyomavirus nephropathy in native kidneys of an immunocompetent individual has not been reported, as far as we know. CASE REPORT A 34-year-old man was transferred from a local clinic to be evaluated for the cause of azotemia. Serum creatinine was 2.85 mg/dL. We performed renal biopsy to identify the cause of azotemia...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463406/cpt11-prevents-virus-replication-in-jci-cells-persistently-infected-with-jc-polyomavirus
#11
Souichi Nukuzuma, Chiyoko Nukuzuma, Masanori Kameoka, Shigeki Sugiura, Kazuo Nakamichi, Takafumi Tasaki, Tsutomu Takegami
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of the demyelinating disease in the central nervous system, known as PML in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, PML occurred in patients treated with natalizumab for MS or Crohn's disease as natalizumab-related PML. Many antiviral agents are being investigated due to the lack of drugs currently available for PML. The previous study demonstrated that the topoisomerase I inhibitors topotecan and β-lapachone have inhibitory effects on JCPyV replication in IMR-32 cells...
May 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461484/protein-mediated-viral-latency-is-a-novel-mechanism-for-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-persistence
#12
Hyun Jin Kwun, Yuan Chang, Patrick S Moore
Viral latency, in which a virus genome does not replicate independently of the host cell genome and produces no infectious particles, is required for long-term virus persistence. There is no known latency mechanism for chronic small DNA virus infections. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes an aggressive skin cancer after prolonged infection and requires an active large T (LT) phosphoprotein helicase to replicate. We show that evolutionarily conserved MCV LT phosphorylation sites are constitutively recognized by cellular Fbw7, βTrCP, and Skp2 Skp-F-box-cullin (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases, which degrade and suppress steady-state LT protein levels...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457399/polyomavirus-nephropathy-ten-year-experience
#13
J S Costa, E Ferreira, R Leal, N Bota, C Romãozinho, V Sousa, C Marinho, L Santos, F Macário, R Alves, J Pratas, M Campos, A Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: Polyomavirus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important cause of chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD). Recipient determinants (male sex, white race, and older age), deceased donation, high-dose immunosuppression, diabetes, delayed graft function (DGF), cytomegalovirus infection, and acute rejection (AR) are risk factors. Reducing immunosuppression is the best strategy in BKVN. The objective of our study was to evaluate CAD progression after therapeutic strategies in BKVN and risk factors for graft loss (GL)...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455138/evaluation-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-adjacent-normal-cells
#14
Anahita Behdarvand, Mohammad Saber Zamani, Farzin Sadeghi, Yousef Yahyapour, Farzam Vaziri, Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani, Bahareh Nowruzi, Abolfazl Fateh, Seyed Davar Siadat
Several risk factors have been linked to lung cancer (LC). Nevertheless, a viral etiology has been mentioned for a subset of patients developing LC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) on developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLCs). In total, 96 paraffin-embedded NSCLC biopsies and 96 adjacent non-LC normal specimens were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the existence of the MCPyV DNA and the expressions of RNA transcripts...
April 25, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453853/single-molecule-sequencing-revealing-the-presence-of-distinct-jc-polyomavirus-populations-in-patients-with-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#15
Hanna Seppälä, Elina Virtanen, Mika Saarela, Pia Laine, Lars Paulín, Laura Mannonen, Petri Auvinen, Eeva Auvinen
Background.: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal disease caused by reactivation of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) in immunosuppressed individuals and lytic infection by neurotropic JCPyV in glial cells. The exact content of neurotropic mutations within individual JCPyV strains has not been studied to our knowledge. Methods.: We exploited the capacity of single-molecule real-time sequencing technology to determine the sequence of complete JCPyV genomes in single reads...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445980/the-pp4r1-sub-unit-of-protein-phosphatase-pp4-is-essential-for-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-merkel-polyomavirus-small-tumour-antigen
#16
Hussein Abdul-Sada, Marietta Müller, Rajni Mehta, Rachel Toth, J Simon C Arthur, Adrian Whitehouse, Andrew Macdonald
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with a high metastatic potential. The majority of MCC cases are caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), through expression of the virus-encoded tumour antigens. Whilst mechanisms attributing tumour antigen expression to transformation are being uncovered, little is known of the mechanisms by which MCPyV persists in the host. We previously identified the MCPyV small T antigen (tAg) as a novel inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) signalling and a modulator of the host anti-viral response...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443094/serum-igg-antibodies-from-pregnant-women-reacting-to-mimotopes-of-simian-virus-40-large-t-antigen-the-viral-oncoprotein
#17
Elisa Mazzoni, Mariantonietta Di Stefano, Josè R Fiore, Federica Destro, Marco Manfrini, John Charles Rotondo, Maria V Casali, Fortunato Vesce, Pantaleo Greco, Gennaro Scutiero, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT) coding sequences were revealed in different human samples, whereas SV40 antibodies (Ab) were detected in human sera of cancer patients and healthy individuals, although with a lower prevalence. Previous studies carried out by the neutralization assay gave a SV40 seroprevalence, in the general population, up to 8%, although higher rates, 12%, were detected in kidney transplant children, in a group of HIV-positive patients, and in healthy females. In this study, serum samples from pregnant women, together with those from non-pregnant women, were analyzed to check the prevalence of IgG Ab reacting to SV40 LT antigens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438210/specific-and-quantitative-detection-of-human-polyomaviruses-bkpyv-and-jcpyv-in-the-healthy-pakistani-population
#18
Iqra Hussain, Fareeda Tasneem, Muhammed Umer, Ayesha Pervaiz, Muslim Raza, Muhammad Imran Arshad, Naveed Shahzad
BACKGROUND: The BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infections are widespread in human population and have been associated with severe kidney and brain disorders, respectively. The viruses remain latent primarily in reno-urinary tract, reactivating only in case of a compromised immune system. The seroepidemiology and molecular prevalence of BKPyV and JCPyV have been widely studied both in healthy and immunocompromised patients worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of these viruses in the immunocompetent or apparently healthy Pakistani population is lacking...
April 24, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434897/epidemiology-of-polyomavirus-bk-bkv-and-the-emergent-african-variant-in-kidney-and-bone-marrow-transplant-recipients-in-the-fundacion-valle-del-lili-in-cali-colombia
#19
Luz Ángela Ocampo, Fernando Rosso, Robinson Pacheco, Adriana Villegas
To describe the epidemiology of BKV and to assess the presence of the African variant in bone marrow and kidney transplant patients who have suspected BKV reactivation. A descriptive study was conducted, using institutional records, at the Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali-Colombia. The overall prevalence of BKV during the study period was 51%. The African variant was identified in 49.4% of samples that were positive for BKV. 50.6% of the samples were found to have the wild strain of BKV. Among BKV positive patients, 57% were kidney transplant recipients and 43% were bone marrow transplant recipients...
April 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430100/discovery-of-african-bat-polyomaviruses-and-infrequent-recombination-in-the-large-t-antigen-in-the-polyomaviridae
#20
Michael Carr, Gabriel Gonzalez, Michihito Sasaki, Kimihito Ito, Akihiro Ishii, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Aaron S Mweene, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
Bat species represent natural reservoirs for a number of high-consequence human pathogens. The present study investigated the diversity of polyomaviruses (PyVs) in Zambian insectivorous and fruit bat species. We describe the complete genomes from four newly proposed African bat PyV species employing the recently recommended criteria provided by the Polyomaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A comprehensive phylogenetic and recombination analysis was performed to determine genetic relationships and the distribution of recombination events in PyV from mammalian and avian species...
April 2017: Journal of General Virology
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