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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243131/analysis-of-variability-of-urinary-excreted-jc-virus-strains-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-and-healthy-donors
#1
Danijela Karalic, Ivana Lazarevic, Ana Banko, Maja Cupic, Djordje Jevtovic, Tanja Jovanovic
In immunocompromised individuals, especially in patients with T cell immunodeficiency, reactivation of JCPyV can cause serious life-threatening diseases. Nowadays, HIV infection is one of the most important factor for reactivation of JCPyV and the development of of the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Mutations in the outer loops of the VP1 region can lead to the selection of the viral variants with changed tropism and increased pathological potential. The aims of this study were to determine sequence variation and amino acid changes within VP1 loops and the structure of non-coding control region (NCCR) of urinary excreted JCPyV isolates among HIV-infected patients and healthy donors...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238698/detection-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-dna-in-serum-samples-of-healthy-blood-donors
#2
Elisa Mazzoni, John C Rotondo, Luisa Marracino, Rita Selvatici, Ilaria Bononi, Elena Torreggiani, Antoine Touzé, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been detected in 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). In the host, the MCPyV reservoir remains elusive. MCPyV DNA sequences were revealed in blood donor buffy coats. In this study, MCPyV DNA sequences were investigated in the sera (n = 190) of healthy blood donors. Two MCPyV DNA sequences, coding for the viral oncoprotein large T antigen (LT), were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and DNA sequencing. Circulating MCPyV sequences were detected in sera with a prevalence of 2...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238174/human-polyomaviruses-the-battle-of-large-and-small-tumor-antigens
#3
REVIEW
Camila Freze Baez, Rafael Brandão Varella, Sonia Villani, Serena Delbue
About 40 years ago, the large and small tumor antigens (LT-Ag and sT-Ag) of the polyomavirus (PyVs) simian vacuolating virus 40 have been identified and characterized. To date, it is well known that all the discovered human PyVs (HPyVs) encode these 2 multifunctional and tumorigenic proteins, expressed at viral replication early stage. The 2 T-Ags are able to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo and seem to play a distinct role in the pathogenesis of some tumors in humans. In addition, they are involved in viral DNA replication, transcription, and virion assembly...
2017: Virology: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229573/merkel-cell-carcinoma-an-update-and-review-part-ii-current-and-future-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Tiffany L Tello, Kathleen Coggshall, Sue S Yom, Siegrid S Yu
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin associated with a high risk of local recurrence and distant metastases. It most commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas of Caucasian patients over the age of 65.1,2 The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is thought to be responsible for malignant transformation in approximately 80% of cases in the northern hemisphere,3 while ultraviolet radiation induced DNA damage is implicated in MCV-negative tumors.4 The overall incidence of MCC is low, with approximately 1600 cases diagnosed annually in the United States...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224806/oncogenic-dna-viruses-found-in-salivary-gland-tumors
#5
Alyce A Chen, Tarik Gheit, Marco Stellin, Valentina Lupato, Giacomo Spinato, Roberto Fuson, Anna Menegaldo, Sandrine Mckay-Chopin, Elisa Dal Cin, Giancarlo Tirelli, Maria Cristina Da Mosto, Massimo Tommasino, Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo
BACKGROUND: Previous investigations studying the association of DNA viruses with salivary gland tumors (SGTs) have led to conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different DNA viruses by using a highly sensitive assay in a multi-center series of over 100 fresh frozen salivary gland samples. METHODS: DNA was isolated from 84 SGTs (80 parotid tumors and 4 submandibular gland tumors) and 28 normal salivary tissue samples from 85 patients in Northeast Italy...
December 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221753/pura-the-gene-encoding-pur-alpha-member-of-an-ancient-nucleic-acid-binding-protein-family-with-mammalian-neurological-functions
#6
REVIEW
Dianne C Daniel, Edward M Johnson
The PURA gene encodes Pur-alpha, a 322 amino acid protein with repeated nucleic acid binding domains that are highly conserved from bacteria through humans. PUR genes with a single copy of this domain have been detected so far in spirochetes and bacteroides. Lower eukaryotes possess one copy of the PUR gene, whereas chordates possess 1-4 PUR family members. Human PUR genes encode Pur-alpha (Pura), Pur-beta (Purb) and two forms of Pur-gamma (Purg). Pur-alpha is a protein that binds specific DNA and RNA sequence elements...
December 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217527/merkel-cell-carcinoma-in-the-age-of-immunotherapy-facts-and%C3%A2-hopes
#7
Aric Colunga, Thomas Pulliam, Paul Nghiem
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare (~2,000 US cases/year) but aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. For advanced MCC, cytotoxic chemotherapy only infrequently (<10% of cases) offers durable clinical responses (>1 year) suggesting a great need for improved therapeutic options. In 2008, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was discovered and is clonally integrated in ~80% of MCC tumors. The remaining 20% of MCC tumors have large numbers of UV-associated mutations. Importantly, both the UV-induced-neoantigens in virus-negative tumors and the MCPyV T antigen oncogenes that are required for virus-positive tumor growth are immunogenic...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216863/ccl5-ccr5-interactions-modulate-metabolic-events-during-tumor-onset-to-promote-tumorigenesis
#8
Darrin Gao, Lisa H Cazares, Eleanor N Fish
BACKGROUND: In earlier studies we have shown that CCL5 activation of CCR5 induces the proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells in a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner and that this is in part due to CCR5-mediated increases in glycolytic metabolism. METHODS: Using the MDA-MB-231 triple negative human breast cancer cell line and mouse mammary tumor virus - polyomavirus middle T-antigen (MMTV-PyMT) mouse primary breast cancer cells, we conducted in vivo tumor transplant experiments to examine the effects of CCL5-CCR5 interactions in the context of regulating tumor metabolism...
December 8, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215360/viruses-in-the-environment-presence-and-diversity-of-bacteriophage-and-enteric-virus-populations-in-the-umhlangane-river-durban-south-africa
#9
Veronna Marie, Johnson Lin
Due to the continued persistence of waterborne viral-associated infections, the presence of enteric viruses is a concern. Notwithstanding the health implications, viral diversity and abundance is an indicator of water quality declination in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of viruses (bacteriophage and enteric viruses) in a highly polluted, anthropogenic-influenced river system over a 6-month period at five sampling points. Cytopathic-based tissue culture assays revealed that the isolated viruses were infectious when tested on Hep-G2, HEK293 and Vero cells...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205775/donor-derived-metastatic-urothelial-cancer-after-kidney-transplantation-associated-with-a-potentially-oncogenic-bk-polyomavirus
#10
David C Müller, Maarit Rämö, Klaudia Naegele, Sebastian Ribi, Christian Wetterauer, Valeria Perrina, Luca Quagliata, Tatjana Vlajnic, Christian Ruiz, Beate Balitzki, Rainer Grobholz, Rainer Gosert, Elvis T Ajuh, Hans H Hirsch, Lukas Bubendorf, Cyrill A Rentsch
BK polyomavirus has been linked to urothelial carcinoma in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we performed comprehensive genomic analysis of a BK polyomavirus -associated, metachronous, multifocal and metastatic micropapillary urothelial cancer in a kidney transplant recipient. Dissecting cancer heterogeneity by sorting technologies prior to array-comparative genomic hybridization followed by short tandem repeat analysis revealed that the metastatic urothelial cancer was of donor-origin (4 year-old male). The top 50 cancer-associated genes displayed no key driver mutations as assessed by next generation sequencing...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198676/case-report-primary-de-novo-sarcoma-in-transplant-pancreas-allograft
#11
S Nagaraju, S J Grethlein, S Vaishnav, A A Sharfuddin, J A Powelson, J A Fridell
BACKGROUND: The majority of malignancies after transplantation appear to be virally mediated and of recipient origin. Donor-derived neoplasms occur early, whereas recipient-origin tumors typically occur many years after transplantation. Sarcomas are a relatively rare form of cancer. The etiology of sarcomas remains largely unknown, although some are linked to viruses, familial cancer syndromes, or therapeutic radiation exposure. Primary sarcomas are extremely rare, accounting for <0...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190347/ecil-guidelines-for-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-bk-polyomavirus-associated-haemorrhagic-cystitis-in-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#12
Simone Cesaro, Tina Dalianis, Christine Hanssen Rinaldo, Minna Koskenvuo, Anna Pegoraro, Hermann Einsele, Catherine Cordonnier, Hans H Hirsch
Objectives: To define guidelines for BK polyomavirus (BKPyV)-associated haemorrhagic cystitis (BKPyV-HC) after paediatric and adult HSCT. Methods: Review of English literature and evidence-based recommendations by expert consensus. Results: BKPyV-HC occurs in 8%-25% of paediatric and 7%-54% of adult recipients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Diagnosis requires the triad of cystitis, macro-haematuria and high urine BKPyV loads >7 log 10 copies/mL, and exclusion of other relevant aetiologies...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188306/epidemiology-biology-and-therapy-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-conclusions-from-the-eu-project-immomec
#13
REVIEW
Jürgen C Becker, Andreas Stang, Axel Zur Hausen, Nicole Fischer, James A DeCaprio, Richard W Tothill, Rikke Lyngaa, Ulla Kring Hansen, Cathrin Ritter, Paul Nghiem, Christopher K Bichakjian, Selma Ugurel, David Schrama
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive, often lethal neuroendocrine cancer. Its carcinogenesis may be either caused by the clonal integration of the Merkel cell polyomavirus into the host genome or by UV-induced mutations. Notably, virally-encoded oncoproteins and UV-induced mutations affect comparable signaling pathways such as RB restriction of cell cycle progression or p53 inactivation. Despite its low incidence, MCC recently received much attention based on its exquisite immunogenicity and the resulting major success of immune modulating therapies...
November 30, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186254/merkel-cell-carcinoma-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient
#14
Heliana Freitas de Oliveira Góes, Caren Dos Santos Lima, Maria Cláudia de Almeida Issa, Flávio Barbosa Luz, Luciana Pantaleão, José Gabriel Miranda da Paixão
Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.
May 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186062/viral-oncology-molecular-biology-and-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Uyen Ngoc Mui, Christopher T Haley, Stephen K Tyring
Oncoviruses are implicated in approximately 12% of all human cancers. A large number of the world's population harbors at least one of these oncoviruses, but only a small proportion of these individuals go on to develop cancer. The interplay between host and viral factors is a complex process that works together to create a microenvironment conducive to oncogenesis. In this review, the molecular biology and oncogenic pathways of established human oncoviruses will be discussed. Currently, there are seven recognized human oncoviruses, which include Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1), Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), and Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180096/differentiating-merkel-cell-carcinoma-of-lymph-nodes-without-a-detectable-primary-skin-tumor-from-other-metastatic-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-the-electhip-criteria
#16
Thibault Kervarrec, Julia Zaragoza, Pauline Gaboriaud, Amélie Le Gouge, Agnès Beby-Defaux, Yannick Le Corre, Eva Hainaut-Wierzbiecka, Francois Aubin, Guido Bens, Patrick Michenet, Hervé Maillard, Antoine Touzé, Mahtab Samimi, Serge Guyétant
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma MCC) can present as a cutaneous tumor or a lymph node without primary tumor MCCWP). MCCWP can be misinterpreted on histologic examination as lymph node metastasis LNM) from other neuroendocrine carcinomas LNMNECs). However, this distinction is crucial for therapeutic management. OBJECTIVE: To determine the discriminative criteria for differential diagnosis between MCCWP, LNM from cutaneous MCC and LNMNECs. METHODS: Clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical data expression of cytokeratin AE1/AE3, 7, 19, 20; chromogranin A, thyroid transcription factor-1 [TTF-1]) and presence of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus MCPyV) immunohistochemistry and PCR) were compared in patients with MCCWP n=17), LNM from cutaneous MCC n=11) and LNMNEC n=20: lung, n=8; thyroid, n=7; digestive tract, n=3; other, n=2)...
November 24, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167345/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-infection-of-animal-dermal-fibroblasts
#17
Wei Liu, Nathan A Krump, Margo MacDonald, Jianxin You
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus to be associated with human cancer. Mechanistic studies attempting to fully elucidate MCPyV oncogenic mechanisms have been hampered by the lack of animal models for MCPyV infection. In this study, we examined the infectability of MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus, MCPyV recombinant virion, and several MCPyV chimeric viruses in dermal fibroblasts isolated from various model animals, including mouse (Mus musculus), rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas), common woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), red-chested mustached tamarin (Saguinus labiatus), and tree shrew (Tupaia Belangeri)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161422/prevalence-and-genetic-variability-of-human-polyomaviruses-6-and-7-in-healthy-skin-among-asymptomatic-individuals
#18
Yumiko Hashida, Tomonori Higuchi, Shigenobu Matsuzaki, Kimiko Nakajima, Shigetoshi Sano, Masanori Daibata
Background: Despite the pathogenetic potential of human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6) and human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7), they have been found in the normal skin of healthy individuals. However, little is known about the prevalence, infection levels, and geographical variations of these polyomaviruses in the skin. Methods: Using skin swabs from 470 participants aged 2-98 years, we estimated the prevalence of copy numbers of HPyV6 and HPyV7 with respect to age and ethnicity...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#19
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156086/impact-of-low-level-bk-polyomavirus-viremia-on-intermediate-term-renal-allograft-function
#20
Johannes Korth, Marek Widera, Sebastian Dolff, Hana Guberina, Anja Bienholz, Alexandra Brinkhoff, Olympia Evdoxia Anastasiou, Andreas Kribben, Ulf Dittmer, Jens Verheyen, Benjamin Wilde, Oliver Witzke
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV)-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) is a significant cause of premature renal transplant failure. High-level BKPyV viremia is predictive for PyVAN, however, low-level BKPyV viremia does not necessarily exclude the presence of PyVAN. As data are limited whether or not low-level BKPyV viremia has an effect on intermediate-term graft outcome, this study analyzes the impact of low-level BKPyV viremia on intermediate-term graft function and outcome compared to high-level viremia and non-viremic patients...
November 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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