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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052131/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-a-new-dna-virus-associated-with-human-cancer
#1
Margo MacDonald, Jianxin You
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV or MCV) is a novel human polyomavirus that has been discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive skin cancer. MCPyV infection is widespread in the general population. MCPyV-associated MCC is one of the most aggressive skin cancers, killing more patients than other well-known cancers such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Currently, however, there is no effective drug for curing this cancer. The incidence of MCC has tripled over the past two decades...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045859/role-of-condensing-particles-in-polymer-confinement-a-model-for-virus-packed-minichromosomes
#2
Sanjin Marion, Carmen San Martín, Antonio Šiber
Confined mixtures of a polymer and nonspecifically binding particles (condensers) are studied as models for viruses containing double-stranded DNA (polymer) and condensing proteins (particles). We explore a model in which all interactions between the packed content (polymer and particles) and its confinement are purely repulsive, with only a short-range attraction between the condensers and polymer to simulate binding. In the range of physical parameters applicable to viruses, the model predicts reduction of pressure in the system effected by the condensers, despite the reduction in free volume...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044559/discovery-and-characterization-of-novel-trans-spliced-products-of-human-polyoma-jc-virus-late-transcripts-from-pml-patients
#3
A Sami Saribas, Julia DeVoto, Akhil Golla, Hassen S Wollebo, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Although the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), was isolated almost a half century ago, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing its biology remains highly elusive. JCV infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a fatal brain disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunocompromised individuals including AIDS. It has a small circular DNA genome (∼ 5 kb) and generates two primary transcripts from its early and late coding regions, producing several predicted alternatively spliced products mainly by cis-splicing...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028833/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-recruits-mycl-to-the-ep400-complex-to-promote-oncogenesis
#4
Jingwei Cheng, Donglim Esther Park, Christian Berrios, Elizabeth A White, Reety Arora, Rosa Yoon, Timothy Branigan, Tengfei Xiao, Thomas Westerling, Alexander Federation, Rhamy Zeid, Benjamin Strober, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, James E Bradner, Myles Brown, Peter M Howley, Megha Padi, Michael P Washburn, James A DeCaprio
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) frequently contains integrated copies of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA that express a truncated form of Large T antigen (LT) and an intact Small T antigen (ST). While LT binds RB and inactivates its tumor suppressor function, it is less clear how ST contributes to MCC tumorigenesis. Here we show that ST binds specifically to the MYC homolog MYCL (L-MYC) and recruits it to the 15-component EP400 histone acetyltransferase and chromatin remodeling complex. We performed a large-scale immunoprecipitation for ST and identified co-precipitating proteins by mass spectrometry...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025381/adenovirus-infection-as-a-cause-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-and-allograft-dysfunction-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient
#5
Michelle Saliba, Hala Kfoury Assouf, Souodod Abbas, Pierre Abi Hanna, Gaby Kamel, Antoine Barbari
With the recent introduction of more potent modern immunosuppressive regimens in solid-organ transplant, new types of viral infections such as adenovirus are emerging as a potential cause for graft dysfunction and loss. We report a case of 41-year-old male patient with end-stage renal disease from recurrent kidney stones who underwent kidney transplant from a deceased 12-year-old female donor. He developed adenoviral infection with acute cystitis, microscopic hematuria, and necrotizing interstitial nephritis associated with graft dysfunction within the first month of the postoperative period...
October 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020348/kinetics-of-double-stranded-dna-viremia-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#6
Joshua A Hill, Bryan T Mayer, Hu Xie, Wendy M Leisenring, Meei-Li Huang, Terry Stevens-Ayers, Filippo Milano, Colleen Delaney, Keith R Jerome, Danielle M Zerr, Garrett Nichols, Michael Boeckh, Joshua T Schiffer
Background: Improved understanding of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus kinetics after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) would facilitate development of therapeutic strategies. Methods: We tested weekly plasma samples from 404 patients through day 100 after allogeneic HCT for cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), HHV-6A, BK polyomavirus (BKV), adenovirus (AdV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using quantitative PCR. Episodes lasting ≤1 week were defined as blips and >1 week as persistent...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991223/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-small-t-antigen-induces-genome-instability-by-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-targeting
#7
H J Kwun, J A Wendzicki, Y Shuda, P S Moore, Y Chang
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/onc.2017.277.
October 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989857/jc-polyomavirus-attachment-and-entry-potential-sites-for-pml-therapeutics
#8
Colleen L Mayberry, Christian D S Nelson, Melissa S Maginnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a significant human pathogen that causes an asymptomatic infection in the kidney in the majority of the population. In immunosuppressed individuals, the virus can become reactivated and spread to the brain, causing the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). There are currently limited treatment options for this fatal disease. Attachment to receptors and entry into host cells are the initiating events in JCPyV infection and therefore an attractive target for therapeutics to prevent or treat PML...
September 2017: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984241/identification-of-the-same-polyomavirus-species-in-different-african-horseshoe-bat-species-is-indicative-of-short-range-host-switching-events
#9
Michael Carr, Gabriel Gonzalez, Michihito Sasaki, Serena E Dool, Kimihito Ito, Akihiro Ishii, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Aaron S Mweene, Emma C Teeling, William W Hall, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are considered to be highly host-specific in different mammalian species, with no well-supported evidence for host-switching events. We examined the species diversity and host specificity of PyVs in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp.), a broadly distributed and highly speciose mammalian genus. We annotated six PyV genomes, comprising four new PyV species, based on pairwise identity within the large T antigen (LTAg) coding region. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed two instances of highly related PyV species, one in each of the Alphapolyomavirus and Betapolyomavirus genera, present in different horseshoe bat host species (Rhinolophus blasii and R...
October 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980390/treatment-for-presumed-bk-polyomavirus-nephropathy-and-risk-of-urinary-tract-cancers-among-kidney-transplant-recipients-in-the-united-states
#10
Gaurav Gupta, Sarat Kuppachi, Roberto S Kalil, Christopher B Buck, Charles F Lynch, Eric A Engels
Recent case series describe detection of BK polyomavirus (BKV) in urinary tract cancers in kidney transplant recipients, suggesting that BKV could contribute to the development of these cancers. We assessed risk for urinary tract cancers in kidney recipients with or without treatment for presumed BKV nephropathy (tBKVN) using data from the United States Transplant Cancer Match Study (2003-2013). Among 55,697 included recipients, 2015 (3.6%) were reported with tBKVN. Relative to the general population, incidence was similarly elevated (approximately 4...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980225/merkel-cell-carcinoma-of-the-buccal-mucosa-and-lower-lip
#11
Mohammed N Islam, Hardeep Chehal, Molly Housley Smith, Sarah Islam, Indraneel Bhattacharyya
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon relatively aggressive neuroendocrine dermal neoplasm first described in 1972 as a tumor of the sun exposed skin. Although most MCC affect the skin of the head and neck, rare primarily oral mucosal cases have been documented. Merkel cells are nondendritic neuroendocrine cells that are found not only in the skin but also the oral mucosa and give rise to MCC. Neuroendocrine cells may be found as aggregates in organs or as diffuse or isolated cells within organs and their epithelial lining...
October 4, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976209/avelumab-and-other-recent-advances-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#12
Praveen K Bommareddy, Howard L Kaufman
Merkel-cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer that occurs in the elderly, is associated with UV radiation and immunosuppression. Initial treatment consists of wide excision with adjuvant radiation. Although the tumor is sensitive to chemotherapy, long-term survival is unusual and there had been no US FDA-approved drugs prior to 2017. The recognition that MCC is associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus occurs more commonly in immune-compromised patients and tumors express PD-L1 suggested testing immunotherapy...
October 4, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975841/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-and-monoclonal-antibodies-a-review
#13
Chandrashekar Bohra, Lubomir Sokol, Samir Dalia
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a viral infection predominantly seen in patients with HIV infection. However, with the increased use of monoclonal antibodies (MAB) for various lymphoproliferative disorders, we are now seeing this infection in non-HIV patients on drugs such as natalizumab, rituximab, and so on. The aim of this article is to review the relationship between the occurrence of PML and MAB used in the treatment of hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Review of articles from PubMed-indexed journals which study PML in relation to the use of MAB...
October 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968776/archetype-jc-polyomavirus-prevails-in-a-rare-case-of-jc-polyomavirus-nephropathy-and-in-stable-renal-transplant-recipients-with-jc-polyomavirus-viruria
#14
Hanna M Seppälä, Ilkka T Helanterä, Pia Ks Laine, Irmeli T Lautenschlager, Lars G Paulín, Timo J Jahnukainen, Petri Ov Auvinen, Eeva Auvinen
Background: JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is reactivated in approximately 20% of renal transplant recipients and it may rarely cause JCPyV-associated nephropathy (JCPyVAN). Whereas progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy of the brain is caused by rearranged neurotropic JCPyV, little is known about viral sequence variation in JCPyVAN due to the rarity of this condition. Methods: Using single-molecule real-time sequencing, characterization of full-length JCPyV genomes from urine and plasma of one JCPyVAN patient and twenty stable renal transplant recipients with JCPyV viruria was attempted...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967228/characterization-of-the-human-dna-gut-virome-across-populations-with-different-subsistence-strategies-and-geographical-origin
#15
Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Stephanie L Schnorr, Matteo Soverini, Sara Quercia, Monica Barone, Andrea Castagnetti, Elena Biagi, Giorgio Gallinella, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
It is a matter of fact that the human gut microbiome also includes a non-bacterial fraction represented by eukaryotic cells and viruses. To further explore the gut microbiome variation in human populations, here we characterized the human DNA viral community from publicly available gut metagenome datasets from human populations with different geographical origin and lifestyle. In particular, such datasets encompass microbiome information from two western urban societies (USA and Italy), as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer communities (the Hadza from Tanzania and Matses from Peru) and one pre-agricultural tribe (Tunapuco from Peru)...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965121/survey-of-ki-wu-mw-and-stl-polyomavirus-in-cancerous-and-non-cancerous-lung-tissues
#16
Eszter Csoma, László Bidiga, Gábor Méhes, Melinda Katona, Lajos Gergely
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The pathogenesis of the human polyomavirus (PyV) KI, WU, MW, and STL has not been elucidated yet. Respiratory transmission is suggested, but the site of the replication, tissue, and cell tropism is not clarified. KIPyV and WUPyV DNA and/or antigen were detected in normal lung tissues previously by others. In fact, a KIPyV DNA sequence was found in lung cancer samples. Up to date, there is no publication about the DNA prevalence of MWPyV and STLPyV neither in normal nor in cancerous lung tissues...
September 29, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961284/aggressive-merkel-cell-carcinoma-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient
#17
Jasmine Obioha, Sheryl Miller
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive cutaneous tumor that commonly occurs in sun-exposed sites. It has a tendency for rapid growth, local recurrence, lymph node invasion, and distant metastases. Risk factors include immunosuppression, advanced age, exposure to UV radiation, and infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with rapidly aggressive MCC 6 years after liver transplantation.
August 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960348/low-viral-load-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-in-iranian-patients-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-is-it-clinically-important
#18
Elham Mohebbi, Zahra Noormohamadi, Habib Sadeghi-Rad, Farzin Sadeghi, Yousef Yahyapour, Farzam Vaziri, Ayoub Rahimi, Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani, Saman Mehrabi, Seyed D Siadat, Mohammad R Noori-Daloii, Abolfazl Fateh
Recent studies show that the human Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) may be involved in causing cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of MCPyV on the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In total, 50 paraffin-embedded HNSCC biopsy samples and 50 adjacent non-cancerous samples were evaluated for the presence of MCPyV DNA and RNA. Among patients, the five most frequent histopathologic sites were the tongue (22.0%), lip (16.0%), submandibular (14.0%), cheek (14.0%), and throat (14...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959124/higher-expression-of-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-is-significantly-associated-with-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-negative-merkel-cell-carcinomas
#19
Michiko Matsushita, Takeshi Iwasaki, Daisuke Nonaka, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Keiko Nagata, Masako Kato, Yukisato Kitamura, Kazuhiko Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs), clinically aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancers, are divided into Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-positive and -negative tumors, which show different clinicopathological features and may develop through different mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Aberrant expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) as a genomic modulator was demonstrated through pathogen-related NF-κB signal in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer, adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-1), hepatoma (HCV), and Burkitt lymphoma (EBV)...
September 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937781/-lymph-node-metastasis-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-without-known-cutaneous-primary-case-report
#20
Arpád Szabó, Igor Richter, Dana Frydrychová, Martina Saláková, Tomáš Jirásek
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumor with an aggressive clinical course. In most cases it is associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. Exceptionally, the tumor can present as a lymph node metastasis without a discernible cutaneous primary. In this report we present the case of a 42 year-old man with inguinal lymphadenopathy, histologically consistent with Merkel cell carcinoma. Tumor cells expressed immunohistochemically chromogranin-A, synaptophysin and displayed dot-like positivity for cytokeratin 20...
2017: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
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