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Gordon G Carmichael
Murine polyomavirus (MPyV) infects mouse cells and is highly oncogenic in immunocompromised hosts and in other rodents. Its genome is a small, circular DNA molecule of just over 5000 base pairs and it encodes only seven polypeptides. While seemingly simply organized, this virus has adopted an unusual genome structure and some unusual uses of cellular quality control pathways that, together, allow an amazingly complex and varied pattern of gene regulation. In this review we discuss how MPyV leverages these various pathways to control its life cycle...
October 17, 2016: Viruses
Allison Ducharme-Smith, Ben Z Katz, Amy E Bobrowski, Carl L Backer, Elfriede Pahl
BKV infection and nephropathy complicate pediatric HTx, but the incidence and time course of the disease are unknown. We assessed the incidence of BKV infection and its association with kidney dysfunction in pediatric HTx recipients. A single center prospective study compared pediatric (<18 years) HTx recipients, with and without BKV infection, who received an allograft between September 2013 and December 2014. Screening of urine for BKV was performed prior to transplant, and at week 1, and at months 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months post-transplantation...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Parnian Ahmadi Moghaddam, Kristine M Cornejo, Lloyd Hutchinson, Keith Tomaszewicz, Karen Dresser, April Deng, Patrick OʼDonnell
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare primary cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor that typically occurs on the head and neck of the elderly and follows an aggressive clinical course. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been identified in up to 80% of cases and has been shown to participate in MCC tumorigenesis. Complete spontaneous regression of MCC has been rarely reported in the literature. We describe a case of a 79-year-old man that presented with a rapidly growing, 3-cm mass on the left jaw. An incisional biopsy revealed MCC...
November 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Ashraf Kariminik, Ramin Yaghobi, Shahriar Dabiri
OBJECTIVES: It has been hypothesized that BK polyomavirus infection leads to nephropathy in kidney transplant patients via various plausible mechanisms, such as stimulation of chemokines. The CXCL11 gene may also play a role in BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy. Our aim was to compare expression levels of CXCL11 in BK polyomavirus-infected versus noninfected kidney transplant patients with nephropathy and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 58 kidney transplant patients with the risk of BK polyomavirus infection; these patients were subgrouped as BK polyomavirus-infected (23 patients) and noninfected (35 patients)...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Hanneke de Kort, Kirstin M Heutinck, Jurjen M Ruben, Alessa E Valverde da Silva, Katja C Wolthers, Jörg Hamann, Ineke J M Ten Berge
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKV)-associated nephropathy is a threat to kidney allograft survival affecting up to 15% of renal transplant patients. Previous studies revealed that tubular epithelial cells (TEC) show a limited response towards BKV infection. Here we investigated the interplay between BKV and TEC in more detail. In particular, we questioned whether BKV suppresses and/or evades antiviral responses. METHODS: Human primary tubular epithelial cells (TEC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with BKV Dunlop strain or other viruses...
October 17, 2016: Transplantation
A L F Gouvêa, R I J Cosendey, F R Carvalho, R B Varella, C F de Souza, P F Lopes, A A Silva, M C Rochael, H P de Moraes, J R Lugon, J R Almeida
BACKGROUND: Urine monitoring programs represent an important strategy for early diagnosis of reactivation of BK polyomavirus (BKV) in kidney transplant recipients. This study analyzes a BKV urine screening model in kidney transplant patients. METHODS: Urinary screening for BKV reactivation was performed by urinary decoy cell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests in samples from 32 consecutive kidney transplant patients, collected in a 6-month follow-up period...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Paul F Lambert
Genetically engineered mice (GEMs) have provided valuable insights into the carcinogenic properties of various human tumor viruses, which, in aggregate, are etiologically associated with over 15% of all human cancers. This review provides an overview of seminal discoveries made through the use of GEM models for human DNA tumor viruses. Emphasis is placed on the discoveries made in the study of human papillomaviruses, Merkel cell carcinoma-associated polyomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, because GEMs have contributed extensively to our understanding of how these DNA tumor viruses directly contribute to human cancers...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Nicole Ben Salem, Fabian H Leendertz, Bernhard Ehlers
We identified with PCR and sequencing the full genomes of the recently discovered Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 8 and Piliocolobus badius polyomavirus 2 in a western chimpanzee and a western red colobus free-ranging in Taï National Park of Côte d'Ivoire.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
Gabriel Godinho Pinto, Jose Antonio T Poloni, Liane N Rotta, Raymund R Razonable, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
Urine cytology and qPCR in blood and urine are commonly used to screen renal transplant recipients for polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN). Few studies, however, have directly compared these two diagnostic tests, in terms of their performance to predict PVAN. This was a systematic review in which adult (≥ 18 years old) renal transplant recipients were studied. A structured Pubmed search was used to identify studies comparing urine cytology and/or qPCR in urine and plasma samples for detecting PVAN with renal biopsy as the gold standard for diagnosis...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
C Warnke, M P Wattjes, O Adams, H-P Hartung, R Martin, T Weber, M Stangel
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of immunosuppressed patients caused by the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). Due to the elevated risk in patients treated with natalizumab for multiple sclerosis (MS) and also treatment with other biologicals for different indications, the relevance of PML has increased in recent years. This article summarizes the published knowledge on the biology and pathogenesis of PML with a focus on the role of cerebrospinal fluid diagnostics in the work-up for PML and the current PML case definition...
October 11, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Linda Cook
Over the last 10 years, the number of identified polyomaviruses has grown to more than 35 subtypes, including 13 in humans. The polyomaviruses have similar genetic makeup, including genes that encode viral capsid proteins VP1, 2, and 3 and large and small T region proteins. The T proteins play a role in viral replication and have been implicated in viral chromosomal integration and possible dysregulation of growth factor genes. In humans, the Merkel cell polyomavirus has been shown to be highly associated with integration and the development of Merkel cell cancers...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Michiel C van Aalderen, Ester B M Remmerswaal, Kirstin M Heutinck, Anja Ten Brinke, Mariet C W Feltkamp, Neelke C van der Weerd, Karlijn A M I van der Pant, Frederike J Bemelman, René A W van Lier, Ineke J M Ten Berge
Polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) frequently reactivates in immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and may lead to graft loss due to BKPyV-induced interstitial nephritis (BKVN). Little is known on the differentiation of CD8+ T cells targeting BKPyV in RTRs. Here we investigated whether BKPyV-specific CD8+ T cell differentiation differs in RTRs with varying degrees of BKPyV reactivation and/or BKVN. Using combinatorial encoding with tetramers carrying BKPyV major capsid protein (VP1) and large T antigen protein (LTAG) epitopes, we investigated CD8+ T cell responses to BKPyV in longitudinally obtained PBMC samples from 46 HLA-A02-positive RTRs and 20 healthy adults...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Aurore Barthélemy, Nicolas Bouvier, Renaud Verdon, Valérie Chatelet, Bruno Hurault de Ligny
We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient whose initial kidney transplant failed because of BK polyomavirus-induced nephropathy, and who underwent a second transplantation 3 years later. BK viruria was detected 1 day after transplantation. After 1 month, BK viremia developed along with a donor-specific antibody. After decreasing tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid and 2 courses of intravenous immunoglobulins, BK viremia and donor-specific antibody permanently disappeared, with stable renal function...
September 26, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Jiju Mani, Lei Wang, Angela G Hückelhoven, Anita Schmitt, Alma Gedvilaite, Nan Jin, Christian Kleist, Anthony D Ho, Michael Schmitt
Human JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCV/BKV) can establish a latent infection without any clinical symptoms in healthy individuals. In immunocompromised hosts infection or reactivation of JCV and BKV can cause lethal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and hemorrhagic cystitis, respectively. Vaccination with JCV/BKV derived antigen epitope peptides or adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells would constitute an elegant approach to clear virus-infected cells. Furthermore, donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) is another therapeutic approach which could be helpful for patients with JCV/BKV infections...
October 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Walter N Dehority, Megan M Eickman, Kurt C Schwalm, Stephen M Gross, Gary P Schroth, Stephen A Young, Darrell L Dinwiddie
Unbiased, deep sequencing of a nasal specimen from an otherwise healthy 13 month-old boy hospitalized in intensive care revealed high gene expression and the complete genome of a novel isolate of KI polyomavirus (KIPyV). Further investigation detected minimal gene expression of additional viruses, suggesting that KIPyV was potentially the causal agent. Analysis of the complete genome of isolate NMKI001 revealed it is different from all previously reported genomes and contains two amino acid differences as compared to the closest virus isolate, Stockholm 380 (EF127908)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Therese Högfeldt, Crystal Jaing, Kevin Mc Loughlin, James Thissen, Shea Gardner, Abeer A Bahnassy, Baback Gharizadeh, Joachim Lundahl, Anders Österborg, Anna Porwit, Abdel-Rahman N Zekri, Hussein M Khaled, Håkan Mellstedt, Ali Moshfegh
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in adults, accounts for approximately 30-40% of newly diagnosed lymphomas worldwide. Environmental factors, such as viruses and bacteria, may contribute to cancer development through chronic inflammation and the integration of oncogenes, and have previously been indicated in cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer and lymphoproliferative disorders. In the present study, the presence of microbial agents was analyzed in the lymphoma tissue of patients with activated B-cell like (ABC) DLBCL...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Jae-Bum Jun, Yunsuk Choi, Hawk Kim, Sun Ho Lee, Joseph Jeong, Jiwon Jung
To date, only 1 case of BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) encephalitis combined with transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy has been reported in a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) recipient. We report the case of a HCT recipient who developed thrombotic microangiopathy and subsequent BKPyV encephalitis. She died despite treatment with cidofovir, ciprofloxacin, and intravenous immunoglobulin without improvement in mental status. Early suspicion of BKPyV encephalitis in a HCT recipient presenting with altered mentality and hemorrhagic cystitis is important...
October 1, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Deanna Saylor, Arun Venkatesan
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV). The disease occurs virtually exclusively in immunocompromised individuals, and, prior to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, was seen most commonly in the setting of HIV/AIDS. More recently, however, the incidence of PML in HIV-uninfected persons has increased with broader use of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory medications utilized in a variety of systemic and neurologic autoimmune disorders...
November 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Georges Mourad, Jean-Emmanuel Serre, Cyrielle Alméras, Olivia Basel, Valérie Garrigue, Vincent Pernin, Moglie Le Quintrec
Infections and malignancies are the expected complications of immunosuppressive therapy, which non-specifically impairs cellular and humoral immune responses in renal transplant recipients. Infections were usually frequent and severe during the early post-transplant period (first year). Recent diagnostic methods (molecular biology) and availability of new antivirals, antifungal and antibiotic drugs made rapid diagnosis and systematic preventive strategies much easier and this resulted in a significant reduction of infections and infectious death in this population...
September 24, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
J Comerlato, F Souza-Campos, T Souza-Arantes, M I Roos-Kulmann, M Trindade-Oliveira, F Rosado-Spilki, A P Guedes-Frazzon, P M Roehe, A C Franco
The human polyomaviruses JC and BK (JCPyV and BKPyV) are ubiquitous, species-specific viruses that belong to the family Polyomaviridae. These viruses are known to be excreted in human urine, and they are potential indicators of human wastewater contamination. In order to assess the distribution of both JCPyV and BKPyV in urban water samples collected from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and from a canalized water stream of Porto Alegre, Brazil, two nested-PCR assays were optimized and applied to the samples collected...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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