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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077648/human-papillomavirus-16-e6-up-regulates-apobec3b-via-the-tead-transcription-factor
#1
Seiichiro Mori, Takamasa Takeuchi, Yoshiyuki Ishii, Takashi Yugawa, Tohru Kiyono, Hiroshi Nishina, Iwao Kukimoto
: The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) underlies the genetic heterogeneity of several human cancers including cervical cancer, which is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We previously identified a region within the A3B promoter that is activated by the viral protein HPV16 E6 in human keratinocytes. Here, we discovered three sites recognized by the TEAD family of transcription factors within this region of the A3B promoter. Reporter assays in HEK293 cells showed that exogenously expressed TEAD4 induced A3B promoter activation through binding to these sites...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063344/reducing-persistent-polyomavirus-infection-increases-functionality-of-virus-specific-memory-cd8-t-cells
#2
Qingsong Qin, Matthew Lauver, Saumya Maru, Eugene Lin, Aron E Lukacher
Mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV) causes a smoldering persistent infection in immunocompetent mice. To lower MuPyV infection in acutely and persistently infected mice, and study the impact of a temporal reduction in viral loads on the memory CD8 T cell response, we created a recombinant MuPyV in which a loxP sequence was inserted into the A2 strain genome upstream of the early promoter and another loxP sequence was inserted in cis into the intron shared by all three T antigens. Using mice transgenic for tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase, we demonstrated that reduction in MuPyV load during persistent infection was associated with differentiation of virus-specific CD8 T cells having a superior recall response...
January 4, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049147/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-exhibits-dominant-control-of-the-tumor-genome-and-transcriptome-in-virus-associated-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#3
Gabriel J Starrett, Christina Marcelus, Paul G Cantalupo, Joshua P Katz, Jingwei Cheng, Keiko Akagi, Manisha Thakuria, Guilherme Rabinowits, Linda C Wang, David E Symer, James M Pipas, Reuben S Harris, James A DeCaprio
: Merkel cell polyomavirus is the primary etiological agent of the aggressive skin cancer Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Recent studies have revealed that UV radiation is the primary mechanism for somatic mutagenesis in nonviral forms of MCC. Here, we analyze the whole transcriptomes and genomes of primary MCC tumors. Our study reveals that virus-associated tumors have minimally altered genomes compared to non-virus-associated tumors, which are dominated by UV-mediated mutations. Although virus-associated tumors contain relatively small mutation burdens, they exhibit a distinct mutation signature with observable transcriptionally biased kataegic events...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040372/human-polyomavirus-6-and-7-are-associated-with-pruritic-and-dyskeratotic-dermatoses
#4
Khang D Nguyen, Eunice E Lee, Yangbo Yue, Jiri Stork, Lumir Pock, Jeffrey P North, Travis Vandergriff, Clay Cockerell, Gregory A Hosler, Diana V Pastrana, Christopher B Buck, Richard C Wang
BACKGROUND: Human polyomavirus (HPyV)6 and HPyV7 are shed chronically from human skin. HPyV7, but not HPyV6, has been linked to a pruritic skin eruption of immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether biopsy specimens showing a characteristic pattern of dyskeratosis and parakeratosis might be associated with polyomavirus infection. METHODS: We screened biopsy specimens showing "peacock plumage" histology by polymerase chain reaction for HPyVs...
December 28, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039910/bk-polyomavirus-genomic-integration-and-large-t-antigen-expression-evolving-paradigms-in-human-oncogenesis
#5
Daniel J Kenan, Piotr A Mieczkowski, Eva Latulippe, Isabelle Côté, Harsharan K Singh, Volker Nickeleit
Human polyomaviruses are ubiquitous, with primary infections typically occurring during childhood and subsequent latency that may last a lifetime. Polyomavirus-mediated disease has been described in immunocompromised patients; its relationship to oncogenesis is poorly understood. Here we present deep sequencing data from a high grade BK virus-associated tumor expressing large T antigen. The carcinoma arose in a kidney allograft six years after transplantation. We identified a novel genotype-1a BK polyomavirus (termed "Chapel Hill BK polyomavirus-2″) that was integrated into the BRE gene in chromosome 2 of tumor cells...
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036142/jc-polyomavirus-nephropathy-a-rare-cause-of-transplant-dysfunction-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#6
Doyle Yang, Brandon Keys, David Conti, Llewellyn Foulke, Kathleen Stellrecht, Linda Cook, Reynold I Lopez-Soler
JC polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (JC-PVAN) is a rare but challenging cause of renal dysfunction. We report JC-PVAN in a renal allograft recipient and highlight the obstacles in definitive diagnosis of this disease entity. A deceased-donor renal transplant recipient was diagnosed with JC polyomavirus nephritis 4 years after transplantation. Immunosuppressive agents were subsequently reduced, resulting in an initial stabilization of renal function. We present this interesting case and discuss the challenges with diagnosing and treating this rare entity...
December 30, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035816/retargeting-polyomavirus-like-particles-to-cancer-cells-by-chemical-modification-of-capsid-surface
#7
Jirina Zackova Suchanova, Jitka Neburkova, Hana Spanielova, Jitka Forstova, Petr Cigler
Virus-like particles based on polyomaviruses (PVLPs) are promising delivery devices for various cargoes, including nucleic acids, imaging probes, and therapeutic agents. In biological environments, the major coat protein VP1 interacts with ubiquitously distributed sialic acid residues, and therefore PVLPs show a broad tropism. For selective targeting, appropriate engineering of the PVLP surface is needed. Here, we describe a chemical approach to retarget PVLPs to cancer cells displaying abnormally high levels of transferrin receptor...
December 30, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030755/epidemiology-of-infections-following-haploidentical-peripheral-blood-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#8
Michael Slade, Scott Goldsmith, Rizwan Romee, John F DiPersio, Erik R Dubberke, Peter Westervelt, Geoffrey L Uy, Steven J Lawrence
BACKGROUND: The use of T-cell replete haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplant (haplo-HCT) has increased substantially since the introduction of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) regimens. Limited data exist concerning infectious complications of haplo-HCT utilizing mobilized peripheral blood (PB) hematopoietic cells. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients at our institution undergoing PB haplo-HCT with PTCy between June 2009 and June 2015...
November 7, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028546/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-rat-polyomavirus-2-in-a-colony-of-x-scid-rats-by-p-pit-assay
#9
Lora H Rigatti, Tuna Toptan, Joseph T Newsome, Patrick S Moore, Yuan Chang
Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are known to infect a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates and are associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancers, particularly in immune-suppressed hosts. A novel polyomavirus, designated rat polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2), was identified from a breeding colony of rats having X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. Using a human panpolyomavirus immunohistochemistry test (P-PIT), RatPyV2 was initially detected in the parotid salivary gland of a colony member. Rolling circle amplification using DNA from harderian and parotid glands identified a novel 5...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019062/complete-resolution-of-trichodysplasia-spinulosa-in-a-pediatric-renal-transplant-patient-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Lauren P Coogle, Kristen E Holland, Cynthia Pan, Scott K Van Why
TS of immunosuppression is a rare, disfiguring dermatologic condition caused by TS-associated polyomavirus in immunosuppressed patients. It is difficult to treat, with no clearly described approach to resolve the condition completely and safely. We report a child with a renal transplant who developed TS and was treated with significant reduction in immunosuppression and transient use of cidofovir cream. The combined approach, primarily with significant long-term reduction in immunosuppression guided by monitoring BK viremia in our patient, led to complete resolution of TS without recurrence or graft rejection by 5 years after transplant...
December 25, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012275/emc1-dependent-stabilization-drives-membrane-penetration-of-a-partially-destabilized-non-enveloped-virus
#11
Parikshit Bagchi, Takamasa Inoue, Billy Tsai
Destabilization of a non-enveloped virus generates a membrane transport-competent viral particle. Here we probe polyomavirus SV40 endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-cytosol membrane transport, a decisive infection step where destabilization initiates this non-enveloped virus for membrane penetration. We find that a member of the ER membrane protein complex (EMC) called EMC1 promotes SV40 ER membrane transport and infection. Surprisingly, EMC1 does so by using its predicted transmembrane residue D961 to bind to and stabilize the membrane-embedded partially destabilized SV40, thereby preventing premature viral disassembly...
December 24, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007703/immunohistochemistry-is-rarely-justified-for-the-diagnosis-of-viral-infections
#12
Isaac H Solomon, Jason L Hornick, Alvaro C Laga
OBJECTIVES: To determine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the diagnosis of viral infections in surgical pathology specimens lacking characteristic viral cytopathic effects. METHODS: Five years of cases at an academic medical center were reviewed for the use of IHC to detect cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), adenovirus, or polyomavirus (ie, BK or JC). RESULTS: In total, 1,636 viral IHC stains were ordered on 1,099 specimens from 957 cases...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004598/natalizumab-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-new-insights
#13
Serena Delbue, Manola Comar, Pasquale Ferrante
Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the α4 chain of the very late activating antigen 4 and α4β7 integrins, present on the leukocytes surface, used as monotherapy for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It substantially reduces relapse rate and the accumulation of disability, but its use is associated with a very adverse event, that is the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS, due to the lytic replication of the human polyomavirus JC...
December 22, 2016: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000050/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-igg-antibody-levels-are-associated-with-progression-to-aids-among-hiv-infected-individuals
#14
Rouhollah Vahabpour, Maryam Nasimi, Niloofar Naderi, Mostafa Salehi-Vaziri, Nasir Mohajel, Farzin Sadeghi, Hossein Keyvani, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari
The association of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in immunocompromised individuals has been revealed in a number of surveys. The study of MCPyV specific antibody titers and viral loads in such patients has a great attraction for research groups interested in viral reactivation. In this cross-sectional study to evaluate MCPyV antibody titer, DNA prevalence and viral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we examined 205 HIV-1 infected patients and 100 un-infected controls...
December 20, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998284/the-glucose-transporter-glut1-is-required-for-erbb2-induced-mammary-tumorigenesis
#15
Elizabeth A Wellberg, Stevi Johnson, Jessica Finlay-Schultz, Andrew S Lewis, Kristina L Terrell, Carol A Sartorius, E Dale Abel, William J Muller, Steven M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Altered tumor cell metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer; however, the precise role for glucose in tumor initiation is not known. GLUT1 (SLC2A1) is expressed in breast cancer cells and is likely responsible for avid glucose uptake observed in established tumors. We have shown that GLUT1 was necessary for xenograft tumor formation from primary mammary cells transformed with the polyomavirus middle-T antigen but that it was not necessary for growth after tumors had formed in vivo, suggesting a differential requirement for glucose depending on the stage of tumorigenesis...
December 20, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997580/natalizumab-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-multiple-sclerosis-findings-from-an-italian-independent-registry
#16
Luca Prosperini, Nicola de Rossi, Cristina Scarpazza, Lucia Moiola, Mirco Cosottini, Simonetta Gerevini, Ruggero Capra
BACKGROUND: The monoclonal antibody natalizumab (NTZ) is a highly effective treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, this drug is associated with increased risk of developing Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic infection of central nervous system (CNS) caused by the John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV). OBJECTIVE: To describe the 12-month clinical course of 39 patients with MS (28 women, 11 men) who developed NTZ-related PML after a mean exposure of 39 infusions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996135/cover-image-detection-of-hair-follicle-associated-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-in-an-immunocompromised-host-with-follicular-spicules-and-alopecia
#17
K Nemeth, A Gorog, E Mezey, D Pinter, E Kuroli, J Harsing, L Kovacs, M Fischer, P Rady, P Sillo, S Tyring, S Karpati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993945/human-polyomavirus-dna-detection-in-keratoacanthoma-and-spitz-naevus-no-evidence-for-a-causal-role
#18
Linnea Haeggblom, Joar Franzén, Anders Näsman
Keratoacanthomas (KA) and Spitz naevus (SN) are both lesions with unknown aetiology; therefore, the possibility of a viral involvement, more specifically the involvement of human polyomaviruses (HPyV), was investigated. In total, 22 cases of KA and 25 cases of SN were tested for the presence of HPyVs. DNA was extracted and amplified by multiplex PCR and thereafter tested with a multiplex bead-based assay for HPyVs (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV, TSPyV, HPyV6, 7 and 9) and two primate viruses (SV40 and LPyV)...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993823/polyomavirus-nephropathy-after-kidney-transplantation
#19
Benjamin Seront, Selda Aydin, Martine De Meyer, Nada Kanaan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990673/trichodysplasia-spinulosa-in-a-7-year-old-boy-managed-using-physical-extraction-of-keratin-spicules
#20
Michael Barton, Suing Lockhart, Robert Sidbury, Richard Wang, Heather Brandling-Bennett
Trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS) is an uncommon skin disease characterized by a folliculocentric papular eruption and keratin spine formation, classically appearing on the central face and ears. It occurs in immunosuppressed patients and is linked to a viral etiology. Diagnostic tests including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are available for detection of the TS-associated polyomavirus. Effective treatment options include topical cidofovir and oral valganciclovir. We present a case diagnosed using PCR with skin scrapings and treated using physical extraction of the keratin spicules...
December 19, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
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