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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815213/identification-of-rab18-as-an-essential-host-factor-for-bk-polyomavirus-infection-using-a-whole-genome-rna-interference-screen
#1
Linbo Zhao, Michael J Imperiale
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a human pathogen first isolated in 1971. BKPyV infection is ubiquitous in the human population, with over 80% of adults worldwide being seropositive for BKPyV. BKPyV infection is usually asymptomatic; however, BKPyV reactivation in immunosuppressed transplant patients causes two diseases, polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis. To establish a successful infection in host cells, BKPyV must travel in retrograde transport vesicles to reach the nucleus. To make this happen, BKPyV requires the cooperation of host cell proteins...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806976/quantitative-detection-of-human-malawi-polyomavirus-in-nasopharyngeal-aspirates-sera-and-feces-in-beijing-china-using-real-time-taqman-based-pcr
#2
Fen-Lian Ma, Dan-di Li, Tian-Li Wei, Jin-Song Li, Li-Shu Zheng
BACKGROUND: Human Malawi polyomavirus (MWPyV) was discovered in 2012, but its prevalence and clinical characteristics are largely unknown. METHODS: We used real-time TaqMan-based PCR to detect MWPyV in the feces (n = 174) of children with diarrhea, nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 887) from children with respiratory infections, and sera (n = 200) from healthy adults, and analyzed its clinical characteristics statistically. All the MWPyV-positive specimens were also screened for other common respiratory viruses...
August 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805990/absence-of-jc-polyomavirus-jcpyv-in-early-post-transplant-jcpyv-nephropathy-a-case-report
#3
Chitimaporn Janphram, Suchin Worawichawong, Sinee Disthabanchong, Vasant Sumethkul, Porpon Rotjanapan
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV)-associated nephropathy (JCPyVAN) occurs in < 3% of PVAN cases after renal transplantation. We report the first confirmed case to our knowledge of JCPyVAN diagnosed by kidney biopsy in the early 6 months post transplant in Thailand. In this case report, recovery of renal allograft function was not observed after reduction of immunosuppressive agents and administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and cidofovir. Despite persistent JCPyV viruria, no significant further decline in allograft function was documented at 15 months post transplant...
August 14, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802497/update-on-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Paul W Harms
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy. Merkel cell polyomavirus, a tumorigenic DNA virus, is present in most MCC tumors, with implications for tumor biology, diagnosis, and management. Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive tumors have a high burden of UV-signature mutations, similar to melanoma. The histopathologic diagnosis of MCC requires immunohistochemistry to exclude morphologically similar entities. Therapies for advanced disease are currently lacking. Here, the features of MCC are reviewed, including recent molecular discoveries with implications for improved therapy for advanced disease...
September 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802095/the-diagnostic-utility-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-immunohistochemistry-in-a-fine-needle-aspirate-of-metastatic-merkel-cell-carcinoma-of-unknown-primary-to-the-pancreas
#5
Long Li, Kyle Molberg, Naga Cheedella, Joel Thibodeaux, Stacy Hinson, Elena Lucas
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin tumor with a high tendency for metastases. We report a case of MCC initially presenting as axillary and pancreatic metastases. A 33-year-old HIV-positive Hispanic male presented with a history of a rapidly growing axillary mass. A needle core biopsy demonstrated an epithelioid neoplasm composed of small to medium-sized cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear molding, and frequent mitotic figures. A subsequent PET scan revealed a 1.5 cm FDG avid mass in the pancreas...
August 12, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800720/jc-virus-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-living-donor-liver-transplant-a-rare-case
#6
Archana Rastogi, Natasha Gulati, Chhagan Bihari, Ashok Chaudhary, Kalpana Bansal, Shridhar Sasturkar, Shalini Thapar, Viniyendra Pamecha
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by polyoma JC virus is a rare and severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It occurs in immunocompromised patients and is scarcely reported in liver transplant recipients. Brain biopsy demonstrating demyelination with presence of foamy macrophages, relative preservation of axons, astrogliosis, and typical polyomavirus inclusions in the enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei is essential for diagnosis. Here, we report a case of JC virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a living-donor liver transplant recipient who was transplanted for hepatitis C virus-related decompensated cirrhosis...
August 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800155/epigenetic-analysis-of-sv40-minichromosomes
#7
Lata Balakrishnan, Barry Milavetz
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is one of the best-characterized members of the polyomavirus family of small DNA tumor viruses. It has a small genome of 5243 bp and utilizes cellular proteins for its molecular biology, with the exception of the T-antigen protein, which is coded by the virus and is involved in regulating transcription and directing replication. Importantly, SV40 exists as chromatin in both the virus particle and intracellular minichromosomes. These facts, combined with high yields of virus and minichromosomes following infection and ease of manipulation, have made SV40 an extremely useful model to study all aspects of eukaryotic molecular biology...
August 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793172/tropomyosin-receptor-kinase-a-expression-on-merkel-cell-carcinoma-cells
#8
Ulrike Wehkamp, Sophie Stern, Sandra Krüger, Axel Hauschild, Christoph Röcken, Friederike Egberts
Importance: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine skin tumor frequently associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus. Immune checkpoint therapy showed remarkable results, although not all patients are responsive to this therapy. Anti-tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)-targeted treatment has shown promising results in several tumor entities. Objective: To determine TrkA expression in MCC as a rationale for potential targeted therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series study investigated the MCC specimens of 55 patients treated at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015...
August 9, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782456/a-naturally-transmitted-epitheliotropic-polyomavirus-pathogenic-in-immunodeficient-rats-characterization-transmission-and-preliminary-epidemiologic-studies
#9
Cynthia Besch-Williford, Patricia Pesavento, Shari Hamilton, Beth Bauer, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Tung Phan, Eric Delwart, Robert Livingston, Susan Cushing, Rie Watanabe, Stephen Levin, Diana Berger, Matthew Myles
We report the identification, pathogenesis, and transmission of a novel polyomavirus in severe combined immunodeficient F344 rats with null Prkdc and interleukin 2 receptor gamma genes. Infected rats experienced weight loss, decreased fecundity, and mortality. Large basophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed in epithelium of the respiratory tract, salivary and lacrimal glands, uterus, and prostate gland. Unbiased viral metagenomic sequencing of lesioned tissues identified a novel polyomavirus, provisionally named Rattus norvegicus polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2), which clustered with Washington University (WU) polyomavirus in the Wuki clade of the Betapolyomavirus genus...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763479/expression-of-merkelcell-polyomavirus-mcpyv-large-t-antigen-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma-lymph-node-metastases-predicts-poor-outcome
#10
Georg Haymerle, Stefan Janik, Alexandra Fochtmann, Johannes Pammer, Helga Schachner, Lucas Nemec, Michael Mildner, Roland Houben, Matthaeus Ch Grasl, Boban M Erovic
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MCPyV in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) primaries versus lymph node metastasis and to evaluate possible prognostic factors. METHODS: Samples of MCC primaries and lymph node metastases were stained immunohistochemically for the MCPyV large T-antigen and expression was compared to patients´ clinical outcome. RESULTS: 41 MCC patients were included. 33 (61%) out of 54 specimens were MCPyV-positive in the immunohistochemistry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759053/the-eukaryotic-gut-virome-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-new-clues-in-enteric-graft-versus-host-disease
#11
Jérôme Legoff, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Jerome Bouquet, Marie Robin, Samia N Naccache, Séverine Mercier-Delarue, Scot Federman, Erik Samayoa, Clotilde Rousseau, Prescillia Piron, Nathalie Kapel, François Simon, Gérard Socié, Charles Y Chiu
Much attention has been focused on the role of the bacterial microbiome in human health, but the virome is understudied. Although previously investigated in individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases or solid-organ transplants, virome dynamics in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enteric graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain unexplored. Here we characterize the longitudinal gut virome in 44 recipients of HSCT using metagenomics. A viral 'bloom' was identified, and significant increases were demonstrated in the overall proportion of vertebrate viral sequences following transplantation (P = 0...
July 31, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757888/rhodiolae-kirliowii-radix-et-rhizoma-and-crataegus-pinnatifida-fructus-extracts-effectively-inhibit-bk-virus-and-jc-virus-infection-of-host-cells
#12
San-Yuan Chen, Ru-Hsiou Teng, Meilin Wang, Pei-Lain Chen, Mien-Chun Lin, Cheng-Huang Shen, Chun-Nun Chao, Ming-Ko Chiang, Chiung-Yao Fang, Deching Chang
The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729262/genome-sequence-of-canine-polyomavirus-in-respiratory-secretions-of-dogs-with-pneumonia-of-unknown-etiology
#13
Eric Delwart, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Patricia A Pesavento, Marko Estrada, M Alexis Seguin, Christian M Leutenegger
We report here the first canine polyomavirus genome, identified by metagenomics in respiratory secretions of two dogs with severe pneumonia, which tested negative for all canine respiratory pathogens except Mycoplasma cynos The isolate, Canis familiaris polyomavirus 1 (DogPyV-1), is a beta polyomavirus whose closest known LT antigen relatives are primate polyomaviruses.
July 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727230/urothelial-cell-carcinoma-after-bk-polyomavirus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-cohort-study-of-veterans
#14
Ralph Rogers, Reginald Gohh, Amanda Noska
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) reactivation is a common clinical occurrence in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Several other polyomaviruses have been implicated as pathogens with a direct role in the development of malignancies, raising the question of whether BKPyV might also be oncogenic. METHODS: This study is the first retrospective, multicenter cohort study evaluating the relative risk for urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) associated with BKPyV infection among KTR, and was conducted among veterans who underwent transplantation between 2000 and 2009...
July 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717398/preclinical-evaluation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-triggered-dendritic-cells-expressing-the-viral-oncogenic-driver-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-for-therapeutic-vaccination
#15
Kerstin F Gerer, Michael Erdmann, Sine R Hadrup, Rikke Lyngaa, Lena-Marie Martin, Reinhard E Voll, Beatrice Schuler-Thurner, Gerold Schuler, Niels Schaft, Stefanie Hoyer, Jan Dörrie
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but very aggressive skin tumor that develops after integration of a truncated form of the large T-antigen (truncLT) of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) into the host's genome. Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor antigens is an active form of immunotherapy, which intends to direct the immune system towards tumors which express the respective vaccination antigens. METHODS: Cytokine-matured monocyte-derived DCs of healthy donors and MCC patients were electroporated with mRNA encoding the truncLT...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704770/detection-of-oncogenic-viruses-in-water-environments-by-a-luminex-based-multiplex-platform-for-high-throughput-screening-of-infectious-agents
#16
P Di Bonito, M Iaconelli, T Gheit, M Tommasino, S Della Libera, L Bonadonna, G La Rosa
Recent studies documented the detection of viruses strongly associated with human cancer in urban sewages and other water environments worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of human oncogenic viruses in environmental samples (sewage, river, marine, and pool/spa water) using highly sensitive and specific multiplex bead-based assays (Luminex technology). A total of 33 samples were analysed for 140 oncogenic viral agents, including mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs), human polyomaviruses (HPyV), human herpesviruses (HHV) and mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697828/-a-molecular-epidemiological-study-of-ki-polyomavirus-and-wu-polyomavirus-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-infection-in-tianjin-china
#17
Shu-Xiang Lin, Wei Wang, Wei Guo, Hong-Jiang Yang, Bai-Cheng Ma, Yu-Lian Fang, Yong-Sheng Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of KI polyomavirus (KIPyV) and WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) with acute respiratory infection in children in Tianjin, China. METHODS: A total of 3 730 nasopharyngeal secretions were collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection in Tianjin Children's Hospital from January 2011 to December 2013. Viral nucleic acid was extracted, and virus infection (KIPyV and WUPyV) was determined by PCR. Some KIPyV-positive and WUPyV-positive PCR products were subjected to sequencing...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693804/reviewing-the-current-evidence-supporting-early-b-cells-as-the-cellular-origin-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
C M Sauer, A M Haugg, E Chteinberg, D Rennspiess, V Winnepenninckx, E-J Speel, J C Becker, A K Kurz, A Zur Hausen
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly malignant skin cancer characterized by early metastases and poor survival. Although MCC is a rare malignancy, its incidence is rapidly increasing in the U.S. and Europe. The discovery of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has enormously impacted our understanding of its etiopathogenesis and biology. MCCs are characterized by trilinear differentiation, comprising the expression of neuroendocrine, epithelial and B-lymphoid lineage markers. To date, it is generally accepted that the initial assumption of MCC originating from Merkel cells (MCs) is unlikely...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681977/detection-and-quantification-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-analysis-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-cases-from-1977-to-2015
#19
Marta E Álvarez-Argüelles, Santiago Melón, Susana Rojo, Ana Fernandez-Blázquez, Jose Antonio Boga, Ana Palacio, Blanca Vivanco, María de Oña
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in skin lesions of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). METHODS: MCPyV was quantified using quantitative Real-Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) in 34 paraffinized MCC samples (resected/biopsied) originally taken between 1977 and 2015, and 6 non-MCC samples. RESULTS: In 31 (91.2%) MCC-individuals, MCPyV was detected. No virus was observed in any non-MCC tumour. Average age at diagnosis was 78...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679298/prevalence-of-cutaneous-viral-infections-in-incident-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-detected-among-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#20
Shalaka S Hampras, Frederick L Locke, Julio C Chavez, Nishit S Patel, Anna R Giuliano, Kyle Miller, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino, Dana E Rollison
The role of cutaneous viral infections in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), among chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and blood and marrow transplant (BMT) patients is not established. CLL (n = 977) and BMT (n = 3587) patients treated at the Moffitt Cancer Center were included in a retrospective cohort study. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and human polyomavirus (HPyV) DNA were examined in a subset of incident SCC tumors. Five-year cumulative incidence of NMSC was 1...
July 6, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
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