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A Beaufrère, B Bessières, M Bonnière, M Driessen, C Alfano, T Couderc, M Thiry, N Thelen, M Lecuit, T Attié-Bitach, M Vekemans, Y Ville, L Nguyen, M Leruez-Ville, F Encha-Razavi
BACKGROUND: The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and the associated increased prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil underline the impact of viral infections on embryo-fetal development. The aim of the present study is to provide a detailed clinical and histopathological study of the fetal disruption caused by the ZIKV, with a special focus on the associated neuropathological findings. METHODS: A detailed feto-placental examination, as well as neuropathological and neurobiological studies were performed on three fetuses collected after pregnancy termination between 22 to 25 weeks of gestation (WG), because brain malformations associated with a maternal and fetal ZIKV infection was diagnosed...
July 18, 2018: Brain Pathology
Bruno Stankoff, Emilie Poirion, Matteo Tonietto, Benedetta Bodini
The biological mechanisms driving disability worsening in multiple sclerosis (MS) are only partly understood.. Monitoring changes in lesion load on MRI has a limited predictive value on the development of clinical disability, and there is an essential need for novel imaging markers specific for the main candidate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration which include failing myelin repair, innate immune cell activation and grey matter neuronal damage. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an imaging technology based on the injection of radiotracers directed against specific molecular targets and has recently allowed the selective quantification in-vivo of the key biological mechanisms relevant to MS pathophysiology...
July 18, 2018: Brain Pathology
Julia Y Q Low, Kathleen E Lacy, Robert L McBride, Russell S J Keast
Recent work suggests that humans may perceive complex carbohydrates and that their sensitivity to simple carbohydrates (i.e., glucose and sucrose) is independent from tasting complex carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to confirm whether humans could sense complex carbohydrates from a range of concentration levels; and if their oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrate relates to their BMI, liking, and consumption of complex carbohydrate-based foods using a large sample group of adults. Participants' (n = 92 females, age 23...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Chunhua Guo, Min Lei, Yong Wang, Limei Hua, Sujuan Xue, Dan Yu, Chunhua Zhang, Dawei Wang
Considerate proportion of elderly patients with a rib fracture is susceptible to pulmonary complications, especially pneumonia. We aimed to assess the effect of oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on pneumonia and pulmonary functions among elderly patients with single rib fracture. The current study including 204 eligible elderly patients with a single rib fracture was conducted. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral administration of skimmed milk containing either a commercial probiotic LcS or placebo daily for 1 mo after the fracture, followed by pneumonia assessments, pulmonary function testing including forced expiratory volume (FEV), negative inspiratory pressure (NIP), and forced vital capacity (FVC), as well as evaluation of potential adverse effects including myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, nonunion of fractured bone, or stroke...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Parag K Thaware, Sonia McKenna, Christopher C Patterson, Claire Casey, David R McCance
Context: Obesity is a global epidemic, and there is a focus on identifying markers of obesity in children with a view to prevention. Objective: We aimed to prospectively examine the association of maternal fasting lipids with adiposity in 5-7-year old offspring in a large observational study. Design: 1612 pregnant women were recruited to the Belfast centre of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study in a large tertiary maternity hospital at an average of 28 weeks gestation...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chong Hyun Suh, Ho Sung Kim, Seung Chai Jung, Choong Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim
Background: Noninvasive and accurate modality to predict Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant glioma may have great potential in routine clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for prediction of IDH mutant glioma and provide an optimal cut-off value for 2HG. Methods: A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed to identify original articles investigating the diagnostic performance of 2HG MRS up to March 20, 2018...
July 18, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Qin Zhou, Jie Zhang, Dwight A Hennessy
Background: suicide is a major public health issue in China. However, research on the impact of absolute and relative economic stats on suicide is scarce among the Chinese population, particularly rural young adults. Using a case-control psychological autopsy study design, we aimed to investigate the effect of family absolute and relative income on suicide among Chinese rural young adults and to further explore the potential mediating mechanism under these associations. Method: the information of 393 suicide cases and 416 community living controls were collected for this study...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Katherine Hadlandsmyth, Kenda R Stewart, Monica B Paez, Melissa Steffen, Molly Meth, Heather Schacht Reisinger, Hilary J Mosher
Objective: To elucidate perspectives on opioids and opioid use from hospitalized veterans with comorbid chronic pain using qualitative methods. Design: This was an analysis of individual qualitative interviews. The semistructured interview guide was developed by a hospitalist with clinical expertise in pain treatment with guidance from a medical anthropologist. Interviews aimed to understand participants' experiences of chronic pain. Setting: A Midwestern Veterans Health Administration inpatient hospital unit...
July 17, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Amy van Grieken, Lu Wang, Vivian M van de Gaar, Wilma Jansen, Hein Raat
Background: Energy-dense snacks are considered unhealthy due to their high concentrations of fat and sugar and low concentrations of micronutrients. The present study aimed to evaluate associations between family and home-related factors and children's snack consumption. We explored associations within subgroups based on ethnic background of the child. Methods: Cross-sectional data of 644 primary school children (mean age: 9.4 years, 53% girls) from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study conducted in the Netherlands were used...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Sasha-Kay V Clarke, Sherline E Brown
Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), also known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is a vector of the citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease. D. citri transmits all three known strains of the HLB pathogen: Candidatus Liberibacter africanus, Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. The study involved 92 psyllids representing the Caribbean Basin and reference samples representing countries within Asia, North America, and South America. This study was aimed at characterizing D...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Anna B Manges, Thomas W Simmons, Michael L Hutchinson
The primary aim of this study was to determine if the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse)) (Diptera: Culicidae), that vectors a number of arboviruses, is parasitized by water mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Larval water mite parasitism of adult mosquitoes has been shown to reduce mosquito fecundity and life span in the laboratory, and impact some populations in the field. Water mites have been considered for biocontrol purposes and used to age-grade mosquito populations...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Andrew Tinsley, Seyedehsan Navabi, Emmanuelle D Williams, Guodong Liu, Lan Kong, Matthew D Coates, Kofi Clarke
Background: Diseases of immune dysregulation are associated with an increased risk of viral infections, some of which may be preventable. To date, there are very limited data on the incidence and risk of influenza and related complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Furthermore, the impact of immunosuppressive medications on that risk is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and severity of influenza infections in IBD patients...
July 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
A Gunness, A Pazderska, M Ahmed, A McGowan, N Phelan, G Boran, A E Taylor, M W O'Reilly, W Arlt, K Moore, L A Behan, M Sherlock, J Gibney
STUDY QUESTION: What information does androgen profiling using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provide in reproductive-age women with Type 1 diabetes (T1D)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In T1D women, androstenedione proved most useful of the measured androgens in differentiating subgroups based on clinical phenotypes of hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The prevalence of HA and PCOS are increased in women with T1D...
July 18, 2018: Human Reproduction
Wadaka Mamai, Leanne N Lobb, Nanwintoum S Bimbilé Somda, Hamidou Maiga, Hanano Yamada, Rosemary Susan Lees, Jeremy Bouyer, Jeremie R L Gilles
Insect mass-rearing is an essential requirement for the sterile insect technique. Production at a large scale requires the development of standardized rearing procedures to produce good quality males able to compete with wild males to mate with wild females. Three sets of experiments (using trays placed on the table, the whole tray-rack system, and climate-controlled chambers) have been conducted aiming to determine the optimal water temperature and number of eggs to aliquot into each larval rearing tray to achieve the highest production of pupae...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yifan Peng, Anthony Rios, Ramakanth Kavuluru, Zhiyong Lu
Mining relations between chemicals and proteins from the biomedical literature is an increasingly important task. The CHEMPROT track at BioCreative VI aims to promote the development and evaluation of systems that can automatically detect the chemical-protein relations in running text (PubMed abstracts). This work describes our CHEMPROT track entry, which is an ensemble of three systems, including a support vector machine, a convolutional neural network, and a recurrent neural network. Their output is combined using majority voting or stacking for final predictions...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Sabine Friedrich, Pauline Y Ng, Katharina Platzbecker, Sara M Burns, Valerie Banner-Goodspeed, Christian Weimar, Balachundhar Subramaniam, Timothy T Houle, Deepak L Bhatt, Matthias Eikermann
Aims: Pre-operatively diagnosed patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic stroke within 30 days after surgery. This study aimed to assess the PFO-attributable ischaemic stroke risk beyond the perioperative period. Methods and results: This observational study of adult patients without history of stroke undergoing non-cardiac surgery with general anaesthesia examined the association of PFO with ischaemic stroke 1 and 2 years after surgery using multivariable logistic regression...
July 17, 2018: European Heart Journal
Cui Li, Peng Wang, Antony van der Ent, Miaomiao Cheng, Haibo Jiang, Thea Lund Read, Enzo Lombi, Caixian Tang, Martin D de Jonge, Neal W Menzies, Peter M Kopittke
Background and Aims: The pathways whereby foliar-applied nutrients move across the leaf surface remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the pathways by which foliar-applied Zn moves across the sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaf surface, considering the potential importance of the cuticle, stomata and trichomes. Methods: Using synchrotron-based X-ray florescence microscopy and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), the absorption of foliar-applied ZnSO4 and nano-ZnO were studied in sunflower...
July 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Ewa Zwierzynska, Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Agnieszka Wiesner, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Topiramate causes the inhibition of alcohol consumption in addicts but the mechanism of this action has not been fully understood yet. Nowadays, it seems that memory may have a role in the development of dependence. In this study, the impact of topiramate and ethanol on the bioelectric activity of the brain in rabbits and on spatial memory in rats was evaluated. Short summary: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of co-administration of topiramate and ethanol on bioelectric activity of the rabbits' brain and on spatial memory in rats...
July 18, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Ruben Sanchez-Garcia, C O S Sorzano, J M Carazo, Joan Segura
Motivation: Protein-Protein Interactions (PPI) are essentials for most cellular processes and thus, unveiling how proteins interact is a crucial question that can be better understood by identifying which residues are responsible for the interaction. Computational approaches are orders of magnitude cheaper and faster than experimental ones, leading to proliferation of multiple methods aimed to predict which residues belong to the interface of an interaction. Results: We present BIPSPI, a new machine learning-based method for the prediction of partner-specific protein-protein interaction sites...
July 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
Yang Bai, Guanghong Han, Kaimin Guo, Lili Yu, Xiadong Du, Ying Xu
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a common cause of acute renal failure in many clinical settings. Our study aimed to elucidate the role of lentiviral vector-mediated KSR1 gene silencing in inflammatory factor expression and proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) in a rat model of I/R injury. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for I/R model establishment and subject to different treatments, followed by the measurement of neurological severity score (NSS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, 47-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP47), KSR1, and factors related to the Ras/MAPK pathway, as well as cell apoptosis...
July 17, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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