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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723887/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-poractant-alfa-supplemented-with-budesonide-for-safe-and-effective-intratracheal-administration
#1
Francesca Ricci, Chiara Catozzi, Francesca Ravanetti, Xabier Murgia, Francesco D'Aló, Natalia Macchidani, Elisa Sgarbi, Valentina Di Lallo, Federica Saccani, Marisa Pertile, Antonio Cacchioli, Silvia Catinella, Gino Villetti, Maurizio Civelli, Francesco Amadei, Franco Stellari Fabio, Barbara Pioselli, Fabrizio Salomone
BACKGROUND: The intratracheal (IT) administration of budesonide using surfactant as a vehicle has been shown to reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the in vitro characteristics and in vivo safety and efficacy of the extemporaneous combination of budesonide and poractant alfa. METHODS: The stability, minimum surface tension, and viscosity of the preparation were evaluated by means of HPLC, Wilhelmy balance, and Rheometer, respectively...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710045/management-of-pediatric-atlantoaxial-rotatory-subluxation-with-a-simple-hand-made-cervical-traction-device-doing-more-with-less
#2
Mohammad Sadegh Masoudi, Nima Derakhshan, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand, Tayebeh Sadeghpoor
Atlanto-axial (C1- C2) joint is accountable for up to two third of total axial craniocervical rotation. Its major role in pivotal rotation of cervical spine makes it more vulnerable to a certain type of injury known as atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation (AARS). Management of AARS is based on the Fielding classification which includes closed reduction and immobilization and cervical fusion in unstable cases. There are several cervical traction devices including the Gardner-Wells tongs and halter traction device...
July 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700566/enhancing-pediatric-clinical-trial-feasibility-through-the-use-of-bayesian-statistics
#3
Robin A Huff, Jeff D Maca, Mala Puri, Earl W Seltzer
BACKGROUND: Pediatric clinical trials commonly experience recruitment challenges, including limited numbers of patients and investigators, inclusion/exclusion criteria that further reduce the patient pool, and a competitive research landscape created by pediatric regulatory commitments. To overcome these challenges, innovative approaches are needed. METHODS: This article explores the use of Bayesian statistics to improve pediatric trial feasibility, using pediatric type 2 diabetes as an example...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699846/safety-and-effectiveness-of-tadalafil-in-pediatric-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-subgroup-analysis-based-on-japan-post-marketing-surveillance
#4
Hiroyoshi Yamazaki, Noriko Kobayashi, Masanori Taketsuna, Koyuki Tajima, Nahoko Suzuki, Masahiro Murakami
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of tadalafil in pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: This is an observational surveillance of PAH patients receiving tadalafil in the contracted sites. We performed a subgroup analysis of 391 pediatric PAH patients (<18 years) who were included from 1,704 total patients in this surveillance. Safety was assessed from the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discontinuations due to adverse events (AEs), and serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs)...
July 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665933/preventing-harmful-effects-of-epileptic-seizures-on-cerebrovascular-functions-in-newborn-pigs-does-sex-matter
#5
Jianxiong Liu, Massroor Pourcyrous, Alex L Fedinec, Charles W Leffler, Helena Parfenova
BACKGROUND: The potential contribution of sex-related variables to cerebrovascular functions in neonates remains elusive. Newborn piglets provide a translationally relevant model for studying the effects of seizures in the neonatal brain. The present study investigated whether sex differences contribute to cerebrovascular functions in healthy and epileptic newborn pigs. METHODS: Epileptic seizures were induced in female and male newborn pigs by bicuculline. An antioxidant drug, the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule CORM-A1, was administered enterally before or during seizures...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661955/tablet-based-intervention-for-reducing-children-s-preoperative-anxiety-a-pilot-study
#6
Cheryl H T Chow, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt, Norman Buckley
OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a novel tablet-based application, Story-Telling Medicine (STM), in reducing children's preoperative anxiety. METHODS: Children (N = 100) aged 7 to 13 years who were undergoing outpatient surgery were recruited from a local children's hospital. This study comprised 3 waves: Waves 1 (n = 30) and 2 (n = 30) examined feasibility, and Wave 3 (n = 40) examined the acceptability of STM and compared its effect on preoperative anxiety to Usual Care (UC)...
July 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604755/physical-exercise-intervention-at-school-improved-hepcidin-inflammation-and-iron-metabolism-in-overweight-and-obese-children-and-adolescents
#7
Susana Coimbra, Cristina Catarino, Henrique Nascimento, Ana Inês Alves, Ana Filipa Medeiros, Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha, Elísio Costa, Petronila Rocha-Pereira, Luísa Aires, André Seabra, Jorge Mota, Helena Ferreira Mansilha, Carla Rêgo, Alice Santos-Silva, Luís Belo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is often associated with iron deficiency in children and adolescents. We aimed to study the effect of 8-month physical exercise (PE) intervention in hepcidin and other markers of inflammation and in iron status in overweight/obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-three overweight/obese children and adolescents participated in the 8-month longitudinal study; they were divided in two groups according to their participation in an after-school PE program: PE (n=44) and control (n=29) groups...
June 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599334/-cyclodestructive-procedures-to-lower-intraocular-pressure-a-review
#8
Drazen Jurjevic, Jens Funk, Marc Töteberg-Harms
The only therapy for glaucoma, for which there is sufficient evidence, is the lowering of intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressure reduction can be achieved by an improvement in outflow or a reduction of aqueous humor production. Surgically, a reduction of aqueous humor production can be achieved by cyclodestructive procedures. This article provides a brief summary of the different cyclodestructive procedures. The efficacy of cyclophotocoagulation is well documented. The risk profile has been reduced by changes in the laser protocols...
June 9, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594520/pediatric-metacarpal-fractures
#9
Jenna Godfrey, Roger Cornwall
Metacarpal fractures account for 10% to 35% of all pediatric hand fractures. Pediatric metacarpal fractures commonly occur in patients aged 13 to 16 years, with most injuries sustained during sports activities. Pseudoepiphyses can be confused with metacarpal fractures; however, a careful physical examination can help physicians distinguish the two. Thumb metacarpal base fractures that involve the physis warrant special attention. Thumb metacarpal base fractures with lateral metaphyseal fragments and pediatric Bennett fracture variants (Salter-Harris type III and type IV fractures) are unstable and require surgical management...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574980/diagnostics-for-neonatal-sepsis-current-approaches-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Pui-YingIroh Tam, Catherine M Bendel
Progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from neonatal sepsis. However, diagnosis continues to rely primarily on conventional microbiologic techniques, which can be inaccurate. The objective of this review is to provide the clinician with an overview of the current information available on diagnosing this condition. We review currently available diagnostic approaches for documenting neonatal sepsis, and also describe novel approaches for diagnosing infection in neonates that are under development and investigation...
June 2, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567283/dyslipidemia-management-in-overweight-or-obese-adolescents-a-mixed-methods-clinical-trial-of-motivational-interviewing
#11
Nita Chahal, Janet Rush, Cedric Manlhiot, Katherine M Boydell, Ahlexxi Jelen, Brian W McCrindle
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle management for dyslipidemic adolescents often occurs in the context of family-centered care, which necessitates adaptation of counseling strategies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for lifestyle behavior change for dyslipidemic adolescents in a dyad with a parent versus alone. METHODS: A total number of 32 adolescents were randomized 1:1 to receive a series of motivational interviewing sessions either together with a parent or alone for a 6-month intervention, with both quantitative and qualitative assessment of outcomes...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493861/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-and-neuropsychological-development-in-pre-school-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Maribel Casas, Joan Forns, David Martínez, Mònica Guxens, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Jesus Ibarluzea, Nerea Lertxundi, Mario Murcia, Marisa Rebagliato, Adonina Tardon, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BackgroundMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity may impair infant neuropsychological development, but it is unclear whether intrauterine or confounding factors drive this association.MethodsWe assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with neuropsychological development in 1,827 Spanish children. At 5 years, cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed using McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms using the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test...
June 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481642/micronutrient-therapy-for-violent-and-aggressive-male-youth-an-open-label-trial
#13
Jessica L Hambly, Kelly Francis, Sohil Khan, Kristen S Gibbons, William J Walsh, Brett Lambert, Chris Testa, Alison Haywood
OBJECTIVES: Pharmacotherapy for problematic aggressive and violent behavior disorders in male children and adolescents is associated with significant adverse events. Treatments with more acceptable risk-benefit ratios are critically needed. Micronutrient intervention will be investigated as an alternative to bridge the therapeutic gap in the management of these behaviors. METHODS: Males aged 4-14 who displayed ongoing violent and aggressive behaviors received micronutrient intervention containing alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), biotin, chromium, pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P), pyridoxine (vitamins B6), selenium, and zinc, in a 16-week open-label trial...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473460/corneal-dose-reduction-using-a-bismuth-coated-latex-shield-over-the-eyes-during-brain-spect-ct
#14
Norikazu Matsutomo, Masaaki Fukunaga, Onishi Hideo, Tomoaki Yamamoto
Objective: This study aimed to determine whether a bismuth-coated latex shield (B-shield) could protect the eyes during brain SPECT/CT. Methods: A B-shield containing the heavy metal bismuth (0.15 mm lead equivalent) was placed over a cylindrical phantom and the eyes of a three-dimensional brain phantom filled with Tc-99m solution. Subsequently, phantoms with and without the B-shield were compared using SPECT/CT. The CT parameters were 30-200 mA and 130 kV. The dose reduction achieved by the B shield was measured using a pencil-shaped ionization chamber...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471070/performing-a-preliminary-hazard-analysis-applied-to-administration-of-injectable-drugs-to-infants
#15
Nadia Hfaiedh, Sofiane Kabiche, Catherine Delescluse, Issa-Bella Balde, Sophie Merlin, Sandra Carret, Loïc de Pontual, Jean-Eudes Fontan, Joël Schlatter
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Errors in hospitals during the preparation and administration of intravenous drugs to infants and children have been reported to a rate of 13% to 84%. This study aimed to investigate the potential for hazardous events that may lead to an accident for preparation and administration of drug injection in a pediatric department and to describe a reduction plan of risks. METHODS: The preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) method was implemented by a multidisciplinary working group over a period of 5 months (April-August 2014) in infants aged from 28 days to 2 years...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436549/atrial-undersensing-secondary-to-quiet-timer-blanking-in-pediatric-and-congenital-heart-disease-patients
#16
Johannes C von Alvensleben, Michael Schaffer, Caitlin Brateng, Kathryn K Collins
BACKGROUND: Atrial undersensing despite normal atrial lead parameters and high amplitude electrograms has been described in adult patients as a consequence of atrial amplifier saturation. Repetitive inputs cause amplifier ringing and undersensing occurs as a consequence of quiet timer blanking. High amplitude ventricular electrograms can also result in atrial blanking secondary to cross-chamber effect. This has not been described in pediatric patients or epicardial pacing systems and specific risk factors are not known...
April 24, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399118/feasibility-and-physiological-effects-of-non-invasive-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-niv-nava-in-preterm-infants
#17
Christopher Gibu, Phillip Cheng, Raymond J Ward, Benjamin Castro, Gregory P Heldt
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilator Assist (NIV-NAVA) was introduced to our clinical practice via a pilot and a randomized observational study to assess its safety, feasibility, and short term physiological effects. METHODS: The pilot protocol applied NIV-NAVA to 11 infants on nasal CPAP, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), or nasal IMV (NIMV), in multiple 2-4 h periods of NIV-NAVA for comparison. This provided the necessary data to design a randomized, controlled observational cross-over study in 8 additional infants to compare the physiological effects of NIV-NAVA to NIMV during 2-hour steady state conditions...
April 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376078/the-expression-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-axis-components-in-infantile-hemangioma-tissue-and-the-impact-of-propranolol-treatment
#18
James R Dornhoffer, Ting Wei, Haihong Zhang, Emily Miller, Mario A Cleves, Gresham T Richter
BackgroundPropranolol's mechanism of action for controlling infantile hemangioma (IH) remains unclear. We hypothesize that this nonselective beta antagonist downregulates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) axis components, preventing angiogenic substrate induction of IH.MethodsIH tissue and serum were collected from children with propranolol-treated or -untreated IH during surgery. Normal skin and serum from demographically matched children were used as controls. Real-time PCR and western blot quantified RAA components in proliferative (n=10), involuting (n=10), propranolol-treated (n=12) IH, and normal specimens (n=11)...
July 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365895/does-proton-therapy-have-a-future-in-cns-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Stephanie E Combs
Proton therapy is characterized by certain physical properties leading to a reduction in integral dose. As proton therapy becomes more widely available, the ongoing discussion on the real indications for proton therapy becomes more important. In the present article, data on proton therapy for tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is summarized and discussed in view of modern photon treatments. Still today, no randomized controlled trials are available confirming any clinical benefit of protons in CNS tumors...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355205/interaction-between-maternal-caffeine-intake-during-pregnancy-and-cyp1a2-c164a-polymorphism-affects-infant-birth-size-in-the-hokkaido-study
#20
Seiko Sasaki, Mariko Limpar, Fumihiro Sata, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Reiko Kishi
BackgroundCaffeine, 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, is widely consumed by women of reproductive age. Although caffeine has been proposed to inhibit fetal growth, previous studies on the effects of caffeine on infant birth size have yielded inconsistent findings. This inconsistency may result from failure to account for individual differences in caffeine metabolism related to polymorphisms in the gene for CYP1A2, the major caffeine-metabolizing enzyme.MethodsFive hundred fourteen Japanese women participated in a prospective cohort study in Sapporo, Japan, from 2002 to 2005, and 476 mother-child pairs were included for final analysis...
July 2017: Pediatric Research
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