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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911732/the-warburg-effect-80-years-on
#1
REVIEW
Michelle Potter, Emma Newport, Karl J Morten
Influential research by Warburg and Cori in the 1920s ignited interest in how cancer cells' energy generation is different from that of normal cells. They observed high glucose consumption and large amounts of lactate excretion from cancer cells compared with normal cells, which oxidised glucose using mitochondria. It was therefore assumed that cancer cells were generating energy using glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and that the mitochondria were dysfunctional. Advances in research techniques since then have shown the mitochondria in cancer cells to be functional across a range of tumour types...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910086/higher-vs-lower-haemoglobin-threshold-for-transfusion-in-septic-shock-subgroup-analyses-of-the-triss-trial
#2
S L Rygård, L B Holst, J Wetterslev, P I Johansson, A Perner
BACKGROUND: Using a restrictive transfusion strategy appears to be safe in sepsis, but there may be subgroups of patients who benefit from transfusion at a higher haemoglobin level. We explored if subgroups of patients with septic shock and anaemia had better outcome when transfused at a higher vs. a lower haemoglobin threshold. METHODS: In post-hoc analyses of the full trial population of 998 patients from the Transfusion Requirements in Septic Shock (TRISS) trial, we investigated the intervention effect on 90-day mortality in patients with severe comorbidity (chronic lung disease, haematological malignancy or metastatic cancer), in patients who had undergone surgery (elective or acute) and in patients with septic shock as defined by the new consensus definition: lactate above 2 mmol/l and the need for vasopressors to maintain a mean arterial pressure above 65 mmHg...
December 2, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908730/mtor-activation-is-critical-for-betulin-treatment-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells
#3
Wenlong Cheng, Shiqi Ji, Haijian Zhang, Zhixing Han, Qingjun Liu, Jianwen Wang, Hao Ping
Betulin, a natural product isolated from the bark of the birch trees, exhibits multiple anticancer effects. Activation of mTOR signaling pathway has been found in numerous cancers, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, we attempted to study whether mTOR signaling was essential for betulin to treat RCC. Based on cell survival and colony formation assays, we found that mTOR hyperactive RCC cell line 786-O cells were more sensitive to betulin treatment compared with mTOR-inactive Caki-2 cells. Knockdown of TSC2 in Caki-2 cells had similar results to 786-O cells, and mTOR silencing in 786-O cells rescued the inhibitory effect of betulin, indicating that betulin inhibited RCC cell proliferation in an mTOR-dependent manner...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905861/sodium-bisulfite-pyrosequencing-revealed-that-developmental-exposure-to-environmental-contaminant-mixtures-does-not-affect-dna-methylation-of-dna-repeats-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Daniel Desaulniers, Cathy Cummings-Lorbetskie, Nanqin Li, Gong-Hua Xiao, Leonora Marro, Nasrin Khan, Karen Leingartner
Hypomethylation of DNA repeats has been linked to diseases and cancer predisposition. Human studies suggest that higher blood concentrations of environmental contaminants (EC) correlate with levels of hypomethylation of DNA repeats in blood. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of in utero and/or lactational exposure to EC on the methylation of DNA repeats (LINE-1 and identifier element) in Sprague-Dawley rat pups at birth, at postnatal day (PND) 21, and in adulthood (PND78-86). From gestation day 0 to PND20, dams were exposed to a mixture "M" of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg), at 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900006/the-effect-of-activated-m%C3%AF-1-on-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-mediated-killing-of-gastric-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#5
Wu Xia, Sun Han, Zhang Bao, Jia Fangyuan, Wu Ping
A clear understanding of the interactions between classically activated macrophages (Mϕ1) and γδT cells may improve current therapeutic approaches, including that of immunotherapy for treating certain types of cancer. The present study aimed to expand the current knowledge by showing the effect of culture supernatants of Mϕ1 on the proliferation, cell surface marker expression and tumor suppression effects of γδT cells, and by exploring the potential mechanisms involved. In vitro, Mϕ1 were cultured by GM-CSF and IFN-γ...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898288/prospective-validation-of-objective-prognostic-score-for-advanced-cancer-inpatients-in-south-korea-a-multicenter-study
#6
Seok Joon Yoon, Sang-Yeon Suh, Yong Joo Lee, Jeanno Park, Sunwook Hwang, Sanghee Shiny Lee, Hong Yup Ahn, Su-Jin Koh, Keon Uk Park
BACKGROUND: Objective Prognostic Score (OPS) was developed as an easy and simple prognosticating tool in South Korea. It has been validated retrospectively in a single center in South Korea. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate the OPS prospectively for advanced cancer inpatients in South Korea using a multicenter study. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTING/SUBJECTS: We enrolled 243 advanced cancer patients admitted in five palliative care units in South Korea from May 2013 till March 2015...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898282/comparative-fingerprinting-of-the-human-microbiota-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Emanuel Vamanu, Diana Pelinescu, Ionela Sarbu
Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are associated with changes in the human gut microbiota. To better understand the relationships between diet, disease, and the colonic microbiome, we used the in vitro GIS1 system and repetitive element palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) to determine the microbial fingerprints in individuals with these diseases and compared them with the fingerprints in healthy controls. Clear differences were apparent in the three groups...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895777/cryptotanshinone-inhibits-lung-tumor-growth-by-increasing-cd4-t-cell-cytotoxicity-through-activation-of-the-jak2-stat4-pathway
#8
Yonghong Man, Le Yang, Dongxian Zhang, Yongyi Bi
Cryptotanshinone is one of the fat-soluble phenanthrene quinone components. In vitro studies have shown that tanshinone compounds can inhibit the proliferation of various tumor cells and affect cell cycle distribution. The aim of the present study was to better understand the effect of cryptotanshinone on the inhibition of small cell lung cancer by cytotoxic cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) T cells through activation of the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (JAK2/STAT4) pathway...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894844/the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-activity-in-cultured-primary-astrocytes-is-strongly-accelerated-by-the-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-tyrphostin-23
#9
Michaela C Hohnholt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Helle S Waagepetersen, Ralf Dringen
Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, we incubated primary rat astrocyte cultures with [U-(13)C]glucose in the absence or the presence of 100 μM T23 for 2 h and analyzed the (13)C metabolite pattern. These incubation conditions did not compromise cell viability and confirmed that the presence of T23 doubled glycolytic lactate production...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894063/loss-of-glutaredoxin-3-impedes-mammary-lobuloalveolar-development-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#10
Khanh Pham, Jie Dong, Xiqian Jiang, Ying Qu, Han Yu, Yisheng Yang, Walter Olea, Juan C Marini, Lawrence Chan, Jin Wang, Xander H T Wehrens, Xiaojiang Cui, Yi Li, Darryl L Hadsell, Ninghui Cheng
Mammalian glutaredoxin 3 (Grx3) has been shown to be important for regulating cellular redox homeostasis in the cell. Our previous studies indicate that Grx3 is significantly overexpressed in various human cancers including breast cancer and demonstrate that Grx3 controls cancer cell growth and invasion by regulating ROS and NF-κB signaling pathways. However, it remains to be determined whether Grx3 is required for normal mammary gland development and how it contributes to epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo In the present study, we examined Grx3 expression in different cell types within the developing mouse mammary gland (MG) and found enhanced expression of Grx3 at pregnancy and lactation stages...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890529/mass-spectrometry-analysis-shows-the-biosynthetic-pathways-supported-by-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-highly-invasive-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Phatchariya Phannasil, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Khanti Rattanapornsompong, Charles F Burant, Sarawut Jitrapakdee, Michael J MacDonald
We recently showed that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is up-regulated in human breast cancer tissue and its expression is correlated with the late stages of breast cancer and tumor size [Phannasil et al., PloS One 10, e0129848, 2015]. In the current study we showed that PC enzyme activity is much higher in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 than in less invasive breast cancer cell lines. We generated multiple stable PC knockdown cell lines from the MDA-MB-231 cell line and used mass spectrometry with (13)C6-glucose and (13)C5-glutamine to discern the pathways that use PC in support of cell growth...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888711/preoperative-monocyte-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-peripheral-blood-predicts-stages-metastasis-and-histological-grades-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#12
Jiangdong Xiang, Lina Zhou, Xing Li, Wei Bao, Taizhong Chen, Xiaowei Xi, Yinyan He, Xiaoping Wan
PURPOSE: The monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) has been shown to be associated with the prognosis of various solid tumors. This study sought to evaluate the important value of the MLR in ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 133 ovarian cancer patients and 43 normal controls were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' demographics were analyzed along with clinical and pathologic data. The counts of peripheral neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets were collected and used to calculate the MLR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)...
November 23, 2016: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886704/position-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-vegetarian-diets
#13
Vesanto Melina, Winston Craig, Susan Levin
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage...
December 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882349/the-airway-epithelium-undergoes-metabolic-reprogramming-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-lung-cancer
#14
S M Jamshedur Rahman, Xiangming Ji, Lisa J Zimmerman, Ming Li, Bradford K Harris, Megan D Hoeksema, Irina A Trenary, Yong Zou, Jun Qian, Robbert J C Slebos, Jennifer Beane, Avrum Spira, Yu Shyr, Rosana Eisenberg, Daniel C Liebler, Jamey D Young, Pierre P Massion
The molecular determinants of lung cancer risk remain largely unknown. Airway epithelial cells are prone to assault by risk factors and are considered to be the primary cell type involved in the field of cancerization. To investigate risk-associated changes in the bronchial epithelium proteome that may offer new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer, proteins were identified in the airway epithelial cells of bronchial brushing specimens from risk-stratified individuals by shotgun proteomics...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881737/rankl-rank-from-bone-loss-to-the-prevention-of-breast-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Verena Sigl, Laundette P Jones, Josef M Penninger
RANK and RANKL, a receptor ligand pair belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family, are the critical regulators of osteoclast development and bone metabolism. Besides their essential function in bone, RANK and RANKL have also been identified as the key factors for the formation of a lactating mammary gland in pregnancy. Mechanistically, RANK and RANKL link the sex hormone progesterone with stem cell expansion and proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Based on their normal physiology, RANKL/RANK control the onset of hormone-induced breast cancer through the expansion of mammary progenitor cells...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880818/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-small-t-antigen-promotes-pro-glycolytic-metabolic-perturbations-required-for-transformation
#16
Christian Berrios, Megha Padi, Mark A Keibler, Donglim Esther Park, Vadim Molla, Jingwei Cheng, Soo Mi Lee, Gregory Stephanopoulos, John Quackenbush, James A DeCaprio
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is an etiological agent of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive skin cancer. The MCPyV small tumor antigen (ST) is required for maintenance of MCC and can transform normal cells. To gain insight into cellular perturbations induced by MCPyV ST, we performed transcriptome analysis of normal human fibroblasts with inducible expression of ST. MCPyV ST dynamically alters the cellular transcriptome with increased levels of glycolytic genes, including the monocarboxylate lactate transporter SLC16A1 (MCT1)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879376/the-fractionated-toona-sinensis-leaf-extract-induces-apoptosis-of-human-osteosarcoma-cells-and-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-a-murine-xenograft-model
#17
Chung-Hwan Chen, Ching-Ju Li, I-Chun Tai, Xiao-Hui Lin, Hseng-Kuang Hsu, Mei-Ling Ho
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is a malignant bone tumor prevalent in adolescents with poor prognosis. Toona sinensis showed potent antiproliferation effect on lung, melatonin, ovary, colon, and liver cancers. However, the effects of the species on osteosarcoma cells are rarely investigated. RESULTS: In this study, we found fraction 1 of Toona sinensis leaf (TSL-1) resulted in inhibition of cell viability in MG-63, Saos-2, and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, while it only caused a moderate suppressive effect on normal osteoblasts...
November 21, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879277/eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-5a2-promotes-metabolic-reprogramming-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#18
Ting-Ting Cao, Shu-Hai Lin, Li Fu, Zhi Tang, Chi-Ming Che, Li-Yi Zhang, Xiao-Yan Ming, Teng-Fei Liu, Xu-Ming Tang, Bin-Bin Tan, Di Xiang, Feng Li, On-Yee Chan, Dan Xie, Zongwei Cai, Xin-Yuan Guan
Reprogramming of intracellular metabolism is common in liver cancer cells. Understanding the mechanisms of cell metabolic reprogramming may present a new basis for liver cancer treatment. In our previous study we reported that a novel oncogene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) promotes tumorigenesis under hypoxic condition. Here, we aim to investigate the role of EIF5A2 in cell metabolic reprogramming during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. In this study, we reported that the mRNA level of EIF5A2 was up-regulated in 59/105 (56...
November 22, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878249/ets-1-a-potential-target-of-glycolysis-for-metabolic-therapy-by-regulating-glucose-metabolism-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
Xiu Zhang, Dan Wu, Mohanad Aldarouish, Xiaodong Yin, Chunyan Li, Cailian Wang
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies of all types of cancer due to lack of early symptoms and its resistance to conventional therapy. In our previous study, we have shown that v‑ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog‑1 (ETS‑1) promote cell migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the function of ETS‑1 in regulation of glycolysis and autophagy during progression of pancreatic cancer has not been defined yet. In this study, we sought to identify the potential role for silencing ETS‑1 in reducing the expression of glucose transporter‑1 (GLUT‑1) to disturb glycolysis through alteration of 'Warburg effect', by which could result in AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, autophagy induction and reduction of cell viability...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878243/different-functions-of-akt1-and-akt2-in-molecular-pathways-cell-migration-and-metabolism-in-colon-cancer-cells
#20
Sara Häggblad Sahlberg, Anja C Mortensen, Jakob Haglöf, Mikael K R Engskog, Torbjörn Arvidsson, Curt Pettersson, Bengt Glimelius, Bo Stenerlöw, Marika Nestor
AKT is a central protein in many cellular pathways such as cell survival, proliferation, glucose uptake, metabolism, angiogenesis, as well as radiation and drug response. The three isoforms of AKT (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) are proposed to have different physiological functions, properties and expression patterns in a cell type-dependent manner. As of yet, not much is known about the influence of the different AKT isoforms in the genome and their effects in the metabolism of colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, DLD-1 isogenic AKT1, AKT2 and AKT1/2 knockout colon cancer cell lines were used as a model system in conjunction with the parental cell line in order to further elucidate the differences between the AKT isoforms and how they are involved in various cellular pathways...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
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