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Dermatopathology molecular

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717008/-hints-in-the-horn-diagnostic-clues-in-the-stratum-corneum
#1
José Carlos Cardoso, Ophelia Veraitch, Raffaele Gianotti, Gerardo Ferrara, Carlo F Tomasini, Manuraj Singh, Iris Zalaudek, Catherine M Stefanato
The stratum corneum or horny layer is the uppermost layer of the epidermis, and is mainly responsible for the skin's barrier function. In spite of its complexity at the ultrastructural and molecular level, the features accessible to visualization on conventional histology are relatively limited. Nevertheless, knowledge of subtle clues that one may observe in the stratum corneum can prove useful in a wide range of situations in dermatopathology. We herein review a selection of common and rare entities in which the horny layer may reveal significantly important hints for the diagnosis...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512181/approach-to-cutaneous-lymphoid-infiltrates-when-to-consider-lymphoma
#2
REVIEW
Yann Vincent Charli-Joseph, Michelle Gatica-Torres, Laura Beth Pincus
Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500958/mucin-as-a-diagnostic-clue-in-dermatopathology
#3
Angel Fernandez-Flores, Marcela Saeb-Lima
Mucins are high-molecular weight glycoproteins typically found in normal skin in small amounts. There are several reports regarding different types of cutaneous mucinosis. In this report, we discuss mucins in dermatopathology as a diagnostic clue of some well-known entities and some less frequent cutaneous diseases. We also emphasize mucin as a sign in the differential diagnosis between conditions that show histopathological overlap. Lastly, we discuss the locations and circumstances in which mucin could be considered almost normal or physiological...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408703/recent-advances-in-molecular-genetics-of-melanoma-progression-implications-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Iwei Yeh
According to the multi-step carcinogenesis model of cancer, initiation results in a benign tumor and subsequent genetic alterations lead to tumor progression and the acquisition of the hallmarks of cancer. This article will review recent discoveries in our understanding of initiation and progression in melanocytic neoplasia and the impact on diagnostic dermatopathology.
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102343/a-diagnostic-algorithm-for-atypical-spitzoid-tumors-guidelines-for-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-assessment
#5
Jeong Hee Cho-Vega
Atypical spitzoid tumors are a morphologically diverse group of rare melanocytic lesions most frequently seen in children and young adults. As atypical spitzoid tumors bear striking resemblance to Spitz nevus and spitzoid melanomas clinically and histopathologically, it is crucial to determine its malignant potential and predict its clinical behavior. To date, many researchers have attempted to differentiate atypical spitzoid tumors from unequivocal melanomas based on morphological, immonohistochemical, and molecular diagnostic differences...
July 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004944/proliferation-indices-correlate-with-diagnosis-and-metastasis-in-diagnostically-challenging-melanocytic-tumors
#6
Rami N Al-Rohil, Jonathan L Curry, Carlos A Torres-Cabala, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Doina Ivan, Phyu P Aung, Genevieve F Lyons, Roland L Bassett, Victor G Prieto, Michael T Tetzlaff
The diagnosis of melanocytic lesions remains a formidable challenge in dermatopathology. For diagnostically challenging lesions, ancillary tests are available to inform the diagnosis, including immunohistochemistry and molecular testing (particularly fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]). However, the test result that most robustly informs the diagnosis remains controversial. Thirty-seven diagnostically challenging melanocytic lesions from our consultation service were reviewed. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and second-generation FISH results (NeoGenomics; probes 6p25, 8q24, 11q13, 9p21, and centromere 9) were correlated with the final consensus diagnosis and clinical follow-up using logistic regression and Fisher exact test...
July 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26838535/spitz-nevi-atypical-spitzoid-neoplasms-and-spitzoid-melanoma
#7
REVIEW
Daniel C Zedek, Timothy H McCalmont
Spitz nevi and melanoma represent benign and malignant counterparts commonly coupled in the same differential diagnosis. The precise distinction between the two entities remains an ongoing challenge in dermatopathology and surgical pathology. In past years, considerable work has been devoted to the assembly of criteria to permit exact diagnosis. Although diagnostic accuracy has improved, many lesions remain challenging to classify based solely upon conventional microscopic criteria. In this article, the clinical and histopathological attributes of Spitz nevi and spitzoid melanoma are reviewed...
September 2009: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26768665/%C3%AE-np63-regulates-il-33-and-il-31-signaling-in-atopic-dermatitis
#8
J M Rizzo, A Oyelakin, S Min, K Smalley, J Bard, W Luo, J Nyquist, E Guttman-Yassky, T Yoshida, A De Benedetto, L A Beck, S Sinha, R-A Romano
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease with no well-delineated cause or effective cure. Here we show that the p53 family member p63, specifically the ΔNp63, isoform has a key role in driving keratinocyte activation in AD. We find that overexpression of ΔNp63 in transgenic mouse epidermis results in a severe skin phenotype that shares many of the key clinical, histological and molecular features associated with human AD. This includes pruritus, epidermal hyperplasia, aberrant keratinocyte differentiation, enhanced expression of selected cytokines and chemokines and the infiltration of large numbers of inflammatory cells including type 2  T-helper cells - features that are highly representative of AD dermatopathology...
June 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26556042/species-identification-of-dermatophytes-in-paraffin-embedded-biopsies-with-a-new-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-targeting-the-internal-transcribed-spacer-2-region-and-comparison-with-histopathological-features
#9
J C Eckert, B Ertas, T M Falk, D Metze, A Böer-Auer
BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is a very common skin infection with a broad clinical spectrum. Biopsies are often used to confirm the diagnosis, especially when the clinical presentation is unusual. Not uncommonly, organisms are hard to find even with periodic acid-Schiff stains. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for dermatophytes can be used in such cases. OBJECTIVES: To test a new PCR assay allowing species identification of dermatophytes on paraffin-embedded biopsies, and to reassess histopathological criteria for diagnosis of dermatophytosis...
April 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26272630/orthokeratotic-bowen-disease-a-histopathologic-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-study
#10
Munir H Idriss, Rachita Misri, Almut Böer-Auer
BACKGROUND: Some examples of Bowen disease lack the characteristic broad parakeratosis making their histopathologic diagnosis particularly difficult in small and incomplete biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The archives of our dermatopathology laboratory were searched for cases of Bowen disease with >75% orthokeratosis (orthokeratotic Bowen disease) and classic Bowen disease (>25% parakeratosis). Selected specimens were evaluated histopathologically, using immunohistochemical stains (CK10, CK7, Bcl-2, p16 and Ki-67) and by DNA amplification/sequencing for human papilloma virus (HPV) subtypes...
January 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25663184/-history-of-dermatopathology
#11
P Meister
Hebra in Vienna and later Unna in Hamburg are considered to be the protagonists of academic dermatopathology in the German-speaking literature. Whereas the former used a chiefly macroscopic approach to an academic classification, the concepts of the latter were based on microscopic observations. In contrast to pathologists, who in the nineteenth century were dominated by Virchow and his teachings, dermatologists as well as microscopically active gynecologists already applied histological findings for diagnostics and subsequent therapy...
February 2015: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25593912/update-on-molecular-pathology-of-cutaneous-melanocytic-lesions-what-is-new-in-diagnosis-and-molecular-testing-for-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Adriana C H van Engen-van Grunsven, Heidi Kusters-Vandevelde, Patricia J T A Groenen, Willeke A M Blokx
In this article, we give an update on recent findings regarding molecular pathology in cutaneous melanocytic tumors. The focus lies on use of genetics in the diagnosis of distinct subtypes of spitzoid tumors that are often characterized by specific phenotypic-genotypic alterations that can frequently be recognized by adequate histological examination. Typical illustrating cases are given in order to increase recognition of these lesions in daily dermatopathology practice. New molecular findings in the pathogenesis of congenital melanocytic tumors and neurocutaneous melanosis are reviewed...
2014: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25211036/tissue-tropism-pathology-and-pathogenesis-of-enterovirus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Atis Muehlenbachs, Julu Bhatnagar, Sherif R Zaki
Enteroviruses are very common and cause infections with a diverse array of clinical features. Enteroviruses are most frequently considered by practising pathologists in cases of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated infections in neonates and infants. Congenital infections have been reported and transplacental transmission is thought to occur. Although skin biopsies during hand, foot and mouth disease are infrequently obtained, characteristic dermatopathological findings can be seen...
January 2015: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25143223/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-rich-variants-of-pityriasis-lichenoides-and-lymphomatoid-papulosis-benign-cutaneous-disorders-to-be-distinguished-from-aggressive-cutaneous-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-lymphomas
#14
M E Martinez-Escala, M Sidiropoulos, J Deonizio, P Gerami, M E Kadin, J Guitart
BACKGROUND: T cells with a γδ phenotype have been associated with aggressive lymphomas. Yet, inflammatory skin disorders and low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders have rarely been described with a predominant γδ T-cell infiltrate. OBJECTIVES: To review our experience and determine the clinical relevance of the γδ T-cell phenotype in lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) and pityriasis lichenoides (PL). METHODS: A retrospective dermatopathology file review looking for LyP and PL characterized by a γδ T-cell phenotype was performed...
February 2015: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25035383/the-molecular-fingerprint-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-and-its-effect-on-the-langerhans-cell-population-in-squamous-cell-carcinomas-of-the-genital-skin
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jose M Rios-Yuil, Norma E Herrera-Gonzalez, Jose L Aguilar-Faisal, Eleazar Lara-Padilla, Patricia Mercadillo-Perez, Luis M Moreno-Lopez, Alejandro K Marquez-Ramirez, Azael Saldana-Patino, Ivan Rubio-Gayosso
BACKGROUND: Information is scarce about the presence of molecular alterations related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin and about the effect of this infection in the number of Langerhans cells present in these tumors. AIMS: To determine the presence of HPV in genital skin squamous cell carcinomas and to see the relationship between HPV infection and changes in the expression of Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67), p53 protein (p53), retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and E-cadherin and to alterations in Langerhans cell density, if any...
July 2014: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23900164/infectious-panniculitides-an-update
#16
REVIEW
A Perasole
Very few areas in the realm of diagnostic dermatopathology may be so challenging both for the dermatologist and the histopathologist as are those related to panniculitis, because of their frequent overlapping microscopical patterns and uncertain etiology. Classically, a dicotomic taxonomy key has been proposed according the prevalent involvement of subcutaneous septa or lobules of the inflammation, presence or absence of vasculitis and type of vessel involved, but exceptions to this approach do occur and overlapping forms are sometimes encountered...
August 2013: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23608451/what-s-new-in-prognostication-of-melanoma-in-the-dermatopathology-laboratory
#17
REVIEW
Haider K Bangash, Alison Romegialli, Soheil S Dadras
With the advent of genetic and epigenetic research, molecular techniques could someday be used to discriminate nevus from melanoma so that ambiguous melanocytic lesions could be more accurately classified or that prognostication could be improved in melanoma patients. That promised day might be closer than realized. The last 20 years of research in cytogenetic and genetic alterations in melanoma have culminated in defined chromosomal lesions discriminating benign from malignant melanocytic tumors. Exploiting these differences, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can reproducibly discriminate unequivocal melanomas from melanocytic nevi with high sensitivity and specificity...
May 2013: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23494095/-fundamentals-of-histology
#18
A Böer-Auer, D Metze
Very commonly skin biopsies are crucial for the correct diagnosis of patients with skin diseases. The dermatopathology report is an important tool for communication between the clinical dermatologist and the dermatopathologist. This article explains the method of histopathological assessment of skin biopsies and summarizes the most important criteria for diagnosis of common skin diseases. The application of additional histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular biological methods is elucidated. The clinical dermatologist requires basic knowledge of dermatopathology to decide on the appropriate biopsy procedure...
March 2013: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23273924/dermatopathology-update
#19
M T Fernández-Figueras, L Puig
This past year has seen a wealth of new developments in dermatopathology that appear to herald the dawning of a new era. Advances in molecular biology and the simplification of techniques have put molecular tests within reach of routine clinical practice and led to a radical change in our approach to lesions such as melanoma; in the future, the genetic characterization of these lesions will be an essential requirement for establishing diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Technological innovations have also reached dermatology departments: the introduction of ultrasound scans has propitiated the use of fine-needle aspiration cytology, which allows samples to be stained and studied immediately, thereby facilitating diagnosis of superficial and lymph-node lesions, and allowing staging of tumors such as melanoma...
April 2013: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23174495/molecular-diagnosis-of-infection-related-cancers-in-dermatopathology
#20
REVIEW
Melissa Pulitzer
The association between viruses and skin cancer is increasingly recognized in a number of neoplasms, that is, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma, as well as hematolymphoid malignancies such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and NK/T-cell lymphoma (nasal type) and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Molecular assays are increasingly used to diagnose and manage these diseases. In this review, molecular features of tumor viruses and related host responses are explored...
December 2012: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
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