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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797873/radiographic-and-computed-tomographic-evaluation-of-bone-union-after-medial-opening-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy-with-filling-gap
#1
Hideo Kobayashi, Yasushi Akamatsu, Ken Kumagai, Yoshihiro Kusayama, Tomoyuki Saito
BACKGROUND: We evaluated bone union and remodelling in patients undergoing opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) with bone gaps filled with beta-tricalcium phosphate. We examined the effectiveness of radiography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of bone union and remodelling, and investigated whether lateral hinge fractures affected bone union. METHODS: Sixty-six cases underwent OWHTO with a combination of a TomoFix plate and a bone substitute...
August 7, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796721/mechanisms-predisposing-factors-and-prognosis-of-intraoperative-vertebral-subluxation-during-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-surgical-correction-of-thoracolumbar-kyphosis-secondary-to-ankylosing-spondylitis
#2
Bang-Ping Qian, Sai-Hu Mao, Jun Jiang, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors, and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in patients with AS with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine...
August 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792122/acceleration-of-fracture-healing-by-overexpression-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-in-the-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#3
Hongliang Zhang, Alexander Kot, Yu-An E Lay, Fernando A Fierro, Haiyan Chen, Nancy E Lane, Wei Yao
In this study, we engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to over-express basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and evaluated its effects on fracture healing. Adipose-derived mouse MSCs were transduced to express bFGF and green fluorescence protein (ADSC(bFGF) -GFP). Closed-femoral fractures were performed with osterix-mCherry reporter mice of both sexes. The mice received 3 × 10(5) ADSCs transfected with control vector or bFGF via intramuscular injection within or around the fracture sites. Mice were euthanized at days 7, 14, and 35 to monitor MSC engraftment, osteogenic differentiation, callus formation, and bone strength...
August 9, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780668/new-anabolic-therapies-for-osteoporosis
#4
REVIEW
Salvatore Minisola, Cristiana Cipriani, Marco Occhiuto, Jessica Pepe
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and qualitative structural abnormalities of bone tissue, leading to increased bone fragility that results in fractures. Pharmacological therapy is aimed at decreasing the risk of fracture, mainly correcting the imbalance between bone resorption and formation at the level of bone remodeling units. Anabolic therapy has the capability to increase bone mass to a greater extent than traditional antiresorptive agents. The only currently available drug licensed is parathyroid hormone 1-34 (teriparatide); new drugs are on the horizon, targeting the stimulation of bone formation, and therefore improving bone mass, structure and ultimately skeletal strength...
August 5, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777474/mast-cells-are-critical-regulators-of-bone-fracture-induced-inflammation-and-osteoclast-formation-and-activity
#5
Jochen Kroner, Anna Kovtun, Julia Kemmler, Joanna J Messmann, Gudrun Strauss, Sebastian Seitz, Thorsten Schinke, Michael Amling, Johanna Kotrba, Jan Dudeck, Anne Dudeck, Anita Ignatius
Mast cells, important sensor and effector cells of the immune system, may influence bone metabolism as their number is increased in osteoporotic patients. They are also present during bone fracture healing with currently unknown functions. Using a novel c-Kit-independent mouse model of mast cell deficiency, we demonstrated that mast cells did not affect physiological bone turnover. However, they triggered local and systemic inflammation after fracture by inducing release of inflammatory mediators and the recruitment of innate immune cells...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747741/the-microdamage-and-expression-of-sclerostin-in-peri-implant-bone-under-one-time-shock-force-generated-by-impact
#6
Xiaoou Diao, Zhirui Li, Baili An, Haitao Xin, Yulu Wu, Kai Li, Fan Feng, Chenyun Dou
Osseointegration is the key to implant stability and occlusal support. Biomechanical response and remodeling of peri-implant bone occurs under impact loading. Sclerostin participates in bone formation and resorption through Wnt and RANKL pathways. However the mechanism of microdamage and expression of sclerostin in peri-implant bone under impact load is still unclear. In present study, specific impact forces were applied to the implants with favorable osseointegration in rabbits. The microdamage of peri-implant bone and the expression of sclerostin, β-catenin and RANKL during the process of bone damage and remodeling were investigated by micro-CT, histology, immunofluorescence and RT-qPCR analysis...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735663/histological-features-of-the-distal-third-metacarpal-bone-in-thoroughbred-racehorses-with-and-without-lateral-condylar-fractures
#7
M J Pinilla, C A Tranquille, A S Blunden, Y M Chang, T D H Parkin, R C Murray
A detailed histopathological study of the distal third metacarpal bone of Thoroughbred racehorses was undertaken to characterize lesions observed previously on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The bones were selected and grouped on the basis of MRI features. Representative sections in different planes were processed for histopathology. All lesions observed in the articular cartilage (AC) and subchondral bone (SCB) were recorded and graded with a scoring system, based partially on the Osteoarthritis Research Society International grading system...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735560/promotion-of-fracture-healing-by-conjugated-linoleic-acid-in-rats
#8
Zhongshu Shan, Zong-Ping Luo, Xiaozhong Shen, Liang Chen
BACKGROUND: The ability of fracture healing in Tibetans is significantly superior to Chinese Hans, which may attribute to factors from diet, altitude to physical conditions. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an important ingredient in Tibetan diet, playing a role in antioxidation, antiatherosclerosis, and decrease in body fat accumulation.  Methods: This study further quantified CLA effect in fracture healing in rats using combined structural evaluation (X-ray and micro-computed tomography), biomechanical test, and histological examination...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727345/-denosumab-in-clinical-practice-beware-before-during-and-after
#9
Olivier Lamy, Elena Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Delphine Stoll, Bérengère Aubry-Rozier
Denosumab is a very effective treatment of osteoporosis, easy to use and very well tolerated. Due to some associated risks, a close clinical follow-up is necessary. Before the first injection, it is necessary to correct hypocalcaemia or vitamin D deficiency when present. Calcemia has to be followed in case of renal insufficiency. Injections of denosumab should be done scrupulously every 6 months (± 3 weeks). Discontinuation of denosumab is associated with a severe rebound effect characterized by increased markers of bone remodeling, a rapid decrease of bone density values, and a risk of multiple spontaneous vertebral fractures...
April 19, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720305/ecto-5-nucleotidase-cd73-regulates-bone-formation-and-remodeling-during-intramembranous-bone-repair-in-aging-mice
#10
Vivian Bradaschia-Correa, Anne M Josephson, Alexander J Egol, Matthew M Mizrahi, Kevin Leclerc, Jason Huo, Bruce N Cronstein, Philipp Leucht
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) generates adenosine, an osteoblast activator and key regulator of skeletal growth. It is unknown, however, if CD73 regulates osteogenic differentiation during fracture healing in adulthood, and in particular how CD73 activity regulates intramembranous bone repair in the elderly. Monocortical tibial defects were created in 46-52-week-old wild type (WT) and CD73 knock-out mice (CD73(-/-)) mice. Injury repair was analyzed at post-operative days 5, 7, 14 and 21 by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) histochemistry...
July 4, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718007/-basic-principles-of-fracture-healing
#11
REVIEW
Valentin Rausch, Dominik Seybold, Matthias Königshausen, Manfred Köller, Thomas A Schildhauer, Jan Geßmann
BACKGROUND: In contrast to other tissues, bone has the remarkable ability to heal without scarring. After union of the fracture, the remodeled bone ideally does not differ from the original bone, especially in terms of biomechanical properties. The healing of a fracture resembles the embryonic development of bone. Depending on the biomechanical properties of the fracture, bone heals directly or indirectly, which refers to the formation of cartilage as a step before new bone appears...
August 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714404/current-and-emerging-strategies-in-osteoporosis-management
#12
Stefka Ivanova, Liliya Vasileva
The abnormal loss of bone tissue is defined as osteoporosis. Increased risk of fractures, low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and biomechanical properties of the bone tissue characterize this pathological condition. Physiologically bone undergoes a continuous remodeling process involving balance between the activity of osteoblast and osteoclast. Disruption in this balanced condition increases the risk of osteoporosis. Both sexes are affected, but with higher prevalence in women after menopause...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705523/early-volumetric-changes-after-vertical-augmentation-of-the-atrophic-posterior-mandible-with-interpositional-block-graft-versus-onlay-bone-graft-a-retrospective-radiological-study
#13
Antonio Barone, Paolo Toti, Giovan-Battista Menchini-Fabris, Pietro Felice, Saverio Marchionni, Ugo Covani
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate volumetric and clinical outcomes of atrophic posterior mandibles treated with inlay or onlay bone grafting techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In posterior mandibles, alveolar ridges were treated either with interpositional equine cancellous bone block (inlay group) or with onlay autogenous bone block (onlay group). Bone volumes at baseline and at 4 months after surgery were measured by computed tomography. RESULTS: A total of 20 subjects were enrolled in the present study: 10 in the inlay group and 10 in the onlay group...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704409/soluble-activin-type-iib-receptor-improves-fracture-healing-in-a-closed-tibial-fracture-mouse-model
#14
Tero Puolakkainen, Petri Rummukainen, Jemina Lehto, Olli Ritvos, Ari Hiltunen, Anna-Marja Säämänen, Riku Kiviranta
Fractures still present a significant burden to patients due to pain and periods of unproductivity. Numerous growth factors have been identified to regulate bone remodeling. However, to date, only the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are used to enhance fracture healing in clinical settings. Activins are pleiotropic growth factors belonging to the TGF-β superfamily. We and others have recently shown that treatment with recombinant fusion proteins of activin receptors greatly increases bone mass in different animal models by trapping activins and other ligands thus inhibiting their signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693327/in-situ-examination-of-osteoblast-biomineralization-on-sulfonated-polystyrene-modified-substrates-using-fourier-transform-infrared-microspectroscopy
#15
Yizhi Meng, Meghan E Faillace, Kathryn Dorst, Samantha J Palmaccio, Lisa M Miller, Yi-Xian Qin
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder that is characterized by the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) resulting in increased risk of fracture. However, it has been shown that BMD is not the only indicator of fracture risk, as the strength of bone depends on a number of factors, including bone mass, architecture and material properties. Physiological mineral deposition requires the formation of a properly developed extracellular matrix (ECM), which recruits calcium and phosphate ions into the synthesis of apatite crystals...
July 10, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686698/flow-velocity-driven-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-silk-fibroin-scaffolds-a-combined-experimental-and-computational-approach
#16
Jolanda Rita Vetsch, Duncan Colin Betts, Ralph Müller, Sandra Hofmann
Mechanical loading plays a major role in bone remodeling and fracture healing. Mimicking the concept of mechanical loading of bone has been widely studied in bone tissue engineering by perfusion cultures. Nevertheless, there is still debate regarding the in-vitro mechanical stimulation regime. This study aims at investigating the effect of two different flow rates (vlow = 0.001m/s and vhigh = 0.061m/s) on the growth of mineralized tissue produced by human mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on 3-D silk fibroin scaffolds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684072/surgery-first-approach-in-orthognathic-surgery-psychological-and-biological-aspects-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Sebastian Zingler, Emad Hakim, Dominic Finke, Monika Brunner, Daniel Saure, Jürgen Hoffmann, Christopher J Lux, Ralf Erber, Robin Seeberger
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this pilot study was to investigate psychological and biological changes after application of a surgery-first orthognathic treatment approach. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 9 patients (6 women and 3 men; mean age 26.7 years) suffering from skeletal Class II and III deformities was conducted. Skeletal changes from pre-to post-treatment were analyzed based on data acquired by use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Psychological changes were analyzed using the orthognathic quality of life (OQLQ) questionnaire, Sense of Coherence 29-item scale (SOC-29) and longitudinal day-to-day questionnaire...
August 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681227/high-incidence-of-early-subtrochanteric-lateral-cortical-atrophy-after-hip-arthroplasty-using-bone-conserving-short-stem
#18
Yoon Je Cho, Chan Il Bae, Wan Keun Yoon, Young Soo Chun, Kee Hyung Rhyu
PURPOSE: Load transfer to the bone is believed to be more physiological around the short stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, we found unusual bony remodeling around the shortened tapered stem. This study was performed to investigate the extent and frequency of this phenomenon and to find the possible risk factors of it. METHODS: Among 121 consecutive THA using the same short stem, 80 THAs were enrolled. Radiographic measurements were made using anteroposterior (AP) radiographs taken immediately and at two years after surgery...
July 5, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679368/non-vascularised-fibula-grafts-for-reconstruction-of-segmental-and-hemicortical-bone-defects-following-meta-diaphyseal-tumour-resection-at-the-extremities
#19
Ulrich Lenze, Stefanie Kasal, Fritz Hefti, Andreas Heinrich Krieg
BACKGROUND: The reconstruction of meta-/diaphyseal bone defects following bone tumour resection is challenging, and biological treatment options should be applied whenever possible, especially in benign lesions and early stage sarcomas. We aimed to evaluate the results of segmental (SR) and hemicortical reconstructions (HR) at the extremities using non-vascularised fibula grafts. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 36 patients who were treated with non-vascularised fibula reconstructions (15 SR, 21 HR) after bone tumour resection (15 malignant, 21 benign)...
July 5, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667435/using-osteoporosis-therapies-in-combination
#20
REVIEW
Michael R McClung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to update evidence regarding the use of osteoporosis drugs in sequence or in combination to optimize increases in bone mass and strength. RECENT FINDINGS: Simultaneous use of denosumab plus teriparatide produces larger increases in BMD than does monotherapy. The use of bisphosphonates or denosumab after teriparatide results in progressive gains in BMD. When switching from bisphosphonates and especially denosumab to teriparatide, an overlap of 6-12 months may prevent the transient loss of BMD in cortical sites...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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