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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911229/c-2-arteriovenous-fistula-presenting-as-a-pathologic-hangman-s-fracture-case-report
#1
Rajeev D Sen, Carolina Gesteira Benjamin, Howard A Riina, Donato Pacione
The authors report on an 81-year-old woman with a pathologic hangman's fracture secondary to a complex arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The patient presented with severe, unremitting neck pain and was found to have fractures bilaterally through the pars interarticularis of C-2 with significant anterior subluxation of C-2 over C-3 along with widening of the left transverse foramen. Due to an abnormally appearing left vertebral artery (VA) on CT angiography, the patient underwent conventional angiography, which revealed a complex AVF stemming from the left VA at the level of C-2 with dilated posterior cervical veins and a large venous varix...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900532/mir-148a-the-epigenetic-regulator-of-bone-homeostasis-is-increased-in-plasma-of-osteoporotic-postmenopausal-women
#2
Ajda Bedene, Simona Mencej Bedrač, Lea Ješe, Janja Marc, Peter Vrtačnik, Janez Preželj, Tomaž Kocjan, Tilen Kranjc, Barbara Ostanek
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a prevalent skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in bone fragility and low-trauma fractures. Imaging techniques are routinely used to detect low bone mass; however, they are unable to identify deterioration of bone quality. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as regulators of bone remodelling and potentially also as a new class of sensitive biomarkers of bone health to aid in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of osteoporosis...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889558/the-periosteal-microcirculation-in-health-and-disease-an-update-on-clinical-significance
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Szabó, Ágnes Janovszky, Levente Pócs, Mihály Boros
Apart from its nutritive functions, the periosteum critically affects bone regeneration via its stem/osteoprogenitor cell content. Normal healing after bone fractures, trauma-orthopedic interventions and invasive dental procedures is critically linked to the reestablishment of the periosteal microcirculation, but the reconstruction, replacement or repair of lost tissues may also be performed with autologous periosteum. Besides the initiation of cell differentiation during bone repair and remodeling processes, the periosteum together with the endosteum plays significant roles in the pathogenesis of both hormone-related and trauma-induced osteoporotic alterations in the bone metabolism...
November 23, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882078/debridement-in-chronic-osteomyelitis-with-benign-osteopetrosis-a-case-report
#4
Yu-Ping Liu, Xiang-Hua Lin, Man-Yun Yan, Bao-Quan Lin, Ming-Ying Zhuo
Osteopetrosis is a rare bone disease caused by metabolic imbalances as a result of genetic mutations. For instance, autosomal dominant osteopetrosis is caused by a missense mutation of the C1CN7 gene. This was first reported in 1904 and is thought to be caused by osteoclastic dysfunction and an impaired bone resorption ability. An accumulation of cortical bone mass during the remodeling of the medullary bone may increase the bone density and give rise to a hard marble consistency. Osteopetrosis can be divided into benign and malignant forms; however, no curative treatment exists for benign osteopetrosis...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871408/the-biology-of-bone-and-ligament-healing
#5
REVIEW
Jessica A Cottrell, Jessica Cardenas Turner, Treena Livingston Arinzeh, J Patrick O'Connor
This review describes the normal healing process for bone, ligaments, and tendons, including primary and secondary healing as well as bone-to-bone fusion. It depicts the important mediators and cell types involved in the inflammatory, reparative, and remodeling stages of each healing process. It also describes the main challenges for clinicians when trying to repair bone, ligaments, and tendons with a specific emphasis on Charcot neuropathy, fifth metatarsal fractures, arthrodesis, and tendon sheath and adhesions...
December 2016: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870687/when-is-it-ok-to-use-a-splint-versus-cast-and-what-remodeling-can-one-expect-for-common-pediatric-forearm-fractures
#6
Robert S Runyon, Shevaun M Doyle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of common pediatric forearm fractures, clarify the descriptions used to identify and thereby appropriately treat them with a splint or cast, and explain osseous remodeling that is unique to the skeletally immature. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature addresses the gap in standard treatment protocols. There is variability in the management of pediatric forearm fractures because of the multiple subspecialty physicians that care for children's fractures and a lack of well established guidelines...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867890/bone-turnover-markers-emerging-tool-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#7
REVIEW
Sahana Shetty, Nitin Kapoor, Joseph Dian Bondu, Nihal Thomas, Thomas Vizhalil Paul
Bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes constant remodeling throughout the life span. Bone turnover is balanced with coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates leading to continuous remodeling of bone. A study of bone turnover markers (BTMs) provides an insight of the dynamics of bone turnover in many metabolic bone disorders. An increase in bone turnover seen with aging and pathological states such as osteoporosis leads to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and thus contributes to an increase in the risk of fracture independent of low bone mineral density (BMD)...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861131/management-of-open-lower-extremity-wounds-with-concomitant-fracture-using-a-porcine-urinary-bladder-matrix
#8
Bruce A Kraemer, Scott E Geiger, Oliver A Deigni, John Tracy Watson
BACKGROUND: Open wounds of the distal third of the leg and foot with exposed bone, fractures, and hardware are challenging wounds for which to achieve stable coverage. The orthopedic advances in lower extremity fracture management over the last 30 years have allowed a rethinking of the standard operative approach to close these complex wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ability of extracellular matrix (ECM) products to facilitate constructive remodeling of a wound seemed a reasonable approach for treatment, especially in patients who are often poor surgical candidates for more advanced reconstructive procedures...
November 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844306/biocompatibility-of-calcium-phosphate-bone-cement-with-optimised-mechanical-properties-an-in-vivo-study
#9
Iwan Palmer, John Nelson, Wolfgang Schatton, Nicholas J Dunne, Fraser Buchanan, Susan A Clarke
This work establishes the in vivo performance of modified calcium phosphate bone cements for vertebroplasty of spinal fractures using a lapine model. A non-modified calcium phosphate bone cement and collagen-calcium phosphate bone cements composites with enhanced mechanical properties, utilising either bovine collagen or collagen from a marine sponge, were compared to a commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Conical cement samples (8 mm height × 4 mm base diameter) were press-fit into distal femoral condyle defects in New Zealand White rabbits and assessed after 5 and 10 weeks...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836774/peroxidase-enzymes-inhibit-osteoclast-differentiation-and-bone-resorption
#10
Vasilios Panagopoulos, Vasilios Liapis, Irene Zinonos, Shelley Hay, Damien A Leach, Wendy Ingman, Mark O DeNichilo, Gerald J Atkins, David M Findlay, Andrew C W Zannettino, Andreas Evdokiou
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are heme-containing enzymes, well known for their antimicrobial activity, are released in abundance by innate immune infiltrates at sites of inflammation and injury. We have discovered new and previously unrecognised roles for heme peroxidases in extracellular matrix biosynthesis, angiogenesis, and bone mineralisation, all of which play an essential role in skeletal integrity. In this study we used in vitro models of osteoclastogenesis to investigate the effects of heme peroxidase enzymes on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing activity, pertinent to skeletal development and remodelling...
November 9, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818743/the-clinical-contribution-of-cortical-porosity-to-fragility-fractures
#11
REVIEW
Åshild Bjørnerem
Cortical bone is not compact; rather it is penetrated by many Haversian and Volkmann canals for blood supply. The lining of these canals are the intracortical bone surfaces available for bone remodeling. Increasing intracortical bone remodeling increases cortical porosity. However, cortical bone loss occurs more slowly than trabecular loss due to the fact that less surface per unit of bone matrix volume is available for bone remodeling. Nevertheless, most of the bone loss over time is cortical because cortical bone constitutes 80% of the skeleton, and the relative proportion of trabecular bone diminishes with advancing age...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813043/-distal-forearm-fractures-in-children-and-adolescents-frequency-and-health-care-provision-in-germany
#12
J Höfer, F Hoffmann, G Glaeske, K Sauer
Background: Despite their frequent occurrence, there are no standardized recommendations for treating distal forearm fractures in growing children. Due to the marked remodelling capacity, conservative therapy is the first choice treatment of fractures in children. However, there are concerns that the possibilities of conservative treatments are often underestimated. Information on the health care situation in Germany on this issue is scarce. Methods: The present study is based on routine data of a German Health Insurance fund, the Gmünder ErsatzKasse (GEK)...
November 3, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793404/load-adaptive-bone-remodeling-simulations-reveal-osteoporotic-microstructural-and-mechanical-changes-in-whole-human-vertebrae
#13
Sandro D Badilatti, Patrik Christen, Ian Parkinson, Ralph Müller
Osteoporosis is a major medical burden and its impact is expected to increase in our aging society. It is associated with low bone density and microstructural deterioration. Treatments are available, but the critical factor is to define individuals at risk from osteoporotic fractures. Computational simulations investigating not only changes in net bone tissue volume, but also changes in its microstructure where osteoporotic deterioration occur might help to better predict the risk of fractures. In this study, bone remodeling simulations with a mechanical feedback loop were used to predict microstructural changes due to osteoporosis and their impact on bone fragility from 50 to 80 years of age...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785555/clinical-and-radiologic-outcomes-of-arthroscopic-suture-bridge-repair-for-the-greater-tuberosity-fractures-of-the-proximal-humerus
#14
Jong-Hun Ji, Jae-Jung Jeong, Young-Yul Kim, Se-Won Lee, Do-Yeol Kim, Sang-Eun Park
PURPOSE: To report the clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopic suture bridge repair for the GT fractures of the shoulder joint. METHODS: From March 2008 to July 2013, we performed arthroscopic suture bridge repair of the GT fractures displaced more than 5 mm superiorly or posteriorly, but less than 2 cm in 40 cases [20 men, 20 women; mean age, 56 (27-80) years] with the average 32 (24-48) months follow-up. At the final follow-up, clinical (ASES, UCLA, SST, KSS score and range of motions) and radiological outcomes using post-operative MRI or CT scan were evaluated...
October 26, 2016: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779163/effects-of-roughly-focused-extracorporeal-shock-waves-therapy-on-the-expressions-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-osteoprotegerin-in-osteoporotic-fracture-in-rats
#15
Hai-Ming Huang, Xiao-Lin Li, Shu-Qiang Tu, Xiao-Feng Chen, Chang-Chun Lu, Liang-Hua Jiang
BACKGROUND: Roughly focused extracorporeal shock waves therapy (ESWT) is characterized by a wide focal area, a large therapy zone, easy positioning, and less pain during treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of roughly focused ESWT on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in osteoporotic fractures in rats. METHODS: Seventy-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 3 months old, were divided into sham-operated group (n = 6) and an ovariectomized (OVX) group (n = 66)...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736819/efficacy-of-fu-yuan-capsule-in-the-healing-of-fractures-of-the-lower-end-of-the-radius-in-a-rabbit-model
#16
Wei Wei, Biao-Fang Wei, Jian Cai, Wei He, Lin Wan, Ying Guan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the efficacy of Fu-Yuan Capsule in the healing of fractures of the lower end of the radius in a rabbit model. METHODS: After establishing a rabbit fracture model, all animals were randomly divided into the model group (n = 24), the Fu-Yuan Capsule group (n = 24), and the Shenyang Hongyao group (n = 24). The X-ray was applied to observe the course of fracture healing at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment. Haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to determine the histological change and the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)...
October 14, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736021/irreversible-deterioration-of-cortical-and-trabecular-microstructure-associated-with-breastfeeding
#17
Åshild Bjørnerem, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Xiaofang Wang, Minh Bui, Susan P Walker, Roger Zebaze, Ego Seeman
Estrogen deficiency associated with menopause is accompanied by an increase in the rate of bone remodeling and the appearance of a remodeling imbalance; each of the greater number of remodeling transactions deposits less bone than was resorbed, resulting in microstructural deterioration. The newly deposited bone is also less completely mineralized than the older bone resorbed. We examined whether breastfeeding, an estrogen-deficient state, compromises bone microstructure and matrix mineral density. Distal tibial and distal radial microarchitecture were quantified using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in 58 women before, during, and after breastfeeding and in 48 controls during follow-up of 1 to 5 years...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731505/osteogenic-differentiation-of-periosteal-cells-during-fracture-healing
#18
REVIEW
Tao Wang, Xinping Zhang, Daniel D Bikle
Five to ten percent of fractures fail to heal normally leading to additional surgery, morbidity, and altered quality of life. Fracture healing involves the coordinated action of stem cells primarily coming from the periosteum which differentiate into the chondrocytes and osteoblasts, forming first the soft (cartilage) callus followed by the hard (bone) callus. These stem cells are accompanied by a vascular invasion that appears critical for the differentiation process and which may enable the entry of osteoclasts necessary for the remodeling of the callus into mature bone...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720852/intermittent-nitrate-use-and-risk-of-hip-fracture
#19
Devyani Misra, Christine Peloquin, Douglas P Kiel, Tuhina Neogi, Na Lu, Yuqing Zhang
PURPOSE: Nitrates, commonly used antianginal medications, also have a beneficial effect on bone remodeling and bone density, particularly with intermittent use. However, their effect on fracture risk is not clear. We examined the relation of short-acting nitrate use (proxy for intermittent use) with the risk of hip fracture in a large cohort of older adults with ischemic heart disease. METHODS: Participants aged 60 years or more with ischemic heart disease and without a history of hip fracture from The Health Improvement Network, an electronic medical records database in the United Kingdom, were included...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716740/high-levels-of-periostin-correlate-with-increased-fracture-rate-diffuse-mri-pattern-abnormal-bone-remodeling-and-advanced-disease-stage-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-symptomatic-multiple-myeloma
#20
E Terpos, D Christoulas, E Kastritis, T Bagratuni, M Gavriatopoulou, M Roussou, A Papatheodorou, E Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, N Kanellias, C Liakou, I Panagiotidis, M Migkou, P Kokkoris, L A Moulopoulos, M A Dimopoulos
Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is implicated in the biology of normal bone remodeling and in different cancer cell growth and metastasis. However, there is no information on the role of periostin in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, we evaluated periostin in six myeloma cell lines in vitro; in the bone marrow plasma and serum of 105 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients and in the serum of 23 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 33 smoldering MM (SMM) patients, 30 patients at the plateau phase post-first-line therapy, 30 patients at first relapse and 30 healthy controls...
October 7, 2016: Blood Cancer Journal
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