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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631442/osteoblast-migration-in-vertebrate-bone
#1
Antonia Thiel, Marie K Reumann, Adele Boskey, Johannes Wischmann, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Philipp Mayer-Kuckuk
Bone formation, for example during bone remodelling or fracture repair, requires mature osteoblasts to deposit bone with remarkable spatial precision. As osteoblast precursors derive either from circulation or resident stem cell pools, they and their progeny are required to migrate within the three-dimensional bone space and to navigate to their destination, i.e. to the site of bone formation. An understanding of this process is emerging based on in vitro and in vivo studies of several vertebrate species. Receptors on the osteoblast surface mediate cell adhesion and polarization, which induces osteoblast migration...
June 19, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630637/evaluation-of-circulating-srage-in-osteoporosis-according-to-bmi-adipokines-and-fracture-risk-a-pilot-observational-study
#2
Emanuela Galliera, Monica Gioia Marazzi, Carmine Gazzaruso, Pietro Gallotti, Adriana Coppola, Tiziana Montalcini, Arturo Pujia, Massimiliano M Corsi Romanelli
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic disease based on age-dependent imbalance between the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent studies on the pathogenesis of this disease identified that bone remodelling impairment, at the base of osteoporotic bone fragility, could be related to protein glycation, in association to oxidative stress. The glycation reactions lead to the generation of glycation end products (AGEs) which, in turn, accumulates into bone, where they binds to the receptor for AGE (RAGE)...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629592/measurement-and-clinical-utility-of-%C3%AE-ctx-in-serum-and-plasma
#3
Stephen A P Chubb, Samuel D Vasikaran
Biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM) are released during bone remodeling and can be measured in blood or urine as noninvasive surrogate markers for the bone remodeling rate. The C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) is released during bone resorption and is specific to bone tissue. Assays have been developed to measure βCTX in blood and in urine; most current use of βCTX measurement for research and in clinical practice is performed on a blood sample. Method-specific differences for serum and plasma βCTX have led to initiatives to standardize or harmonize βCTX commercial assays...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622604/tissue-engineered-hypertrophic-chondrocyte-grafts-enhanced-long-bone-repair
#4
Jonathan Bernhard, James Ferguson, Bernhard Rieder, Patrick Heimel, Thomas Nau, Stefan Tangl, Heinz Redl, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Bone has innate ability to regenerate following injury. However, large and complex fractures exceed bone's natural repair capacity and result in non-unions, requiring external intervention to facilitate regeneration. One potential treatment solution, tissue-engineered bone grafts, has been dominated by recapitulating intramembranous ossification (bone formation by osteoblasts), although most serious bone injuries heal by endochondral ossification (bone formation by remodeling of hypertrophic cartilaginous anlage)...
September 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595566/a-systemic-review-of-the-sources-of-adult-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-suitability-in-musculoskeletal-applications
#5
Rhiannon Nancarrow-Lei, Pouya Mafi, Reza Mafi, Wasim Khan
Background: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were first isolated from bone marrow by Friedenstein in 1976. These cells were clonogenic, non-haematopoietic, and able to replicate extensively in vitro. The fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have grown dramatically since their inception. In the decades since, MSCs have been identified from mesoderm-, endoderm- and ectoderm-derived tissues. In light of our ageing population, the need for effective cell-based therapies for tissue repair and regeneration is ever-expanding...
June 8, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594521/pediatric-distal-radius-fractures
#6
Karan Dua, Joshua M Abzug, Andrea Sesko Bauer, Roger Cornwall, Theresa O Wyrick
Distal radius fractures are the most common orthopaedic injury that occur in the pediatric population. The annual incidence of distal radius fractures has increased as a result of earlier participation in sporting activities, increased body mass index, and decreased bone mineral density. Most distal radius fractures are sustained after a fall onto an outstretched arm that results in axial compression on the extremity or from direct trauma to the extremity. Physeal fractures of the distal radius are described based on the Salter-Harris classification system...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594520/pediatric-metacarpal-fractures
#7
Jenna Godfrey, Roger Cornwall
Metacarpal fractures account for 10% to 35% of all pediatric hand fractures. Pediatric metacarpal fractures commonly occur in patients aged 13 to 16 years, with most injuries sustained during sports activities. Pseudoepiphyses can be confused with metacarpal fractures; however, a careful physical examination can help physicians distinguish the two. Thumb metacarpal base fractures that involve the physis warrant special attention. Thumb metacarpal base fractures with lateral metaphyseal fragments and pediatric Bennett fracture variants (Salter-Harris type III and type IV fractures) are unstable and require surgical management...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593359/guided-growth-for-valgus-deformity-correction-of-knees-in-a-girl-with-osteopetrosis-a-case-report
#8
Dmitry Popkov
Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (Albers-Schönberg disease) classically displays the radiographic signs of osteosclerosis. The main ADO complications involve the skeleton: low-impact bone fractures, scoliosis and hip osteoarthritis. Management of osteopetrosis-related orthopedic problems is a surgical challenge due to increased bone density. The healing process is very slow in these patients because of bone remodeling defects related to osteoblast function failure. In case of bone deformities, a realignment method should be appropriated to osteopetrosis conditions...
June 7, 2017: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591104/myeloma-bone-disease-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#9
Elizabeth K O'Donnell, Noopur S Raje
Bone involvement manifesting as osteolytic bone disease (OBD) or osteopenia is one of the defining features of multiple myeloma (MM). Osteolytic lesions develop in nearly 90% of patients with MM, and these are frequently complicated by skeleton-related events (SREs) such as severe bone pain, pathologic fractures, vertebral collapse, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression. SREs have a negative effect on patients' quality of life and affect their long-term outcomes, including survival. In MM, the delicate balance between bone formation and bone destruction is perturbed...
April 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590066/the-roles-of-signaling-pathways-in-bone-repair-and-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Maryam Majidinia, Bahman Yousefi
Regenerative medicine has sparked interest in potential strategies for bone repair. Bone defects are widespread and could be caused by trauma, congenital malformations, infections, and surgery. Although bone has a large self-healing capacity, some defects or fractures are too big to regenerate. To regenerate bone structures which can be used for treatment of patients, bone growth must be induced by a number of bioactive implantable materials, cell types and intracellular and extracellular molecular signaling pathways...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585620/-treatment-of-bone-metastases-bisphosphonates-and-denosumab
#11
László Landherr, Tamás Nagykálnai
Some disseminated tumor cells (as "seeds") feel well in the skeletal tissue, as a "soil", but the humoral crosstalk between tumor cells and bone cells disrupts the normal bone homeostasis (remodeling), which leads to a vicious circle, the multiple bone metastatic disease. The tumor cells could stimulate bone resorption, bone neo-formation or both, characteristic of the primary tumor. This usually incurable condition involves serious consequences, as fractures, pain, surgeries, irradiations, plegias, hypercalcemia, etc...
June 6, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580394/intraskeletal-variation-in-human-cortical-osteocyte-lacunar-density-implications-for-bone-quality-assessment
#12
Randee L Hunter, Amanda M Agnew
Osteocytes and their lacunocanalicular network have been identified as the regulator of bone quality and function by exerting extensive influence over metabolic processes, mechanical adaptation, and mineral homeostasis. Recent research has shown that osteocyte apoptosis leads to a decrease in bone quality and increase in bone fragility mediated through its effects on remodeling. The purpose of this study is to investigate variation in cortical bone osteocyte lacunar density with respect to major factors including sex, age, and intracortical porosity to establish both regional and systemic trends...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578392/an-appropriate-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-expression-level-during-the-remodeling-phase-is-required-for-improved-bone-fracture-healing-in-mice
#13
Quanwei Bao, Sixu Chen, Hao Qin, Jianquan Feng, Huayu Liu, Daocheng Liu, Ang Li, Yue Shen, Yufeng Zhao, Junfeng Li, Zhaowen Zong
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a dominant role in bone repair. However, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the remodeling phase during bone fracture healing is currently unknown. In the present study, β-catenin was activated at different levels or deleted in mice at the late stage of fracture healing, and the effects on healing quality were investigated. Deletion of β-catenin disturbed bone remodeling, as confirmed by increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation, and significantly decreased bone strength compared with wildtype mice...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534995/low%C3%A2-level-mechanical-vibration-enhances-osteoblastogenesis-via-a-canonical-wnt-signaling%C3%A2-associated-mechanism
#14
Heqi Gao, Mingming Zhai, Pan Wang, Xuhui Zhang, Jing Cai, Xiaofei Chen, Guanghao Shen, Erping Luo, Da Jing
Osteoporosis is a skeletal metabolic disease characterized by reduced bone mass and a high susceptibility to fractures, in which osteoblasts and osteoclasts are highly involved in the abnormal bone remodeling processes. Recently, low‑magnitude, high‑frequency whole‑body vibration has been demonstrated to significantly reduce osteopenia experimentally and clinically. However, the underlying mechanism regarding how osteoblastic activity is altered when bone tissues adapt to mechanical vibration remains elusive...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531321/cortical-bone-size-deficit-in-adult-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Charlotte Verroken, Wout Pieters, Loïc Beddeleem, Stefan Goemaere, Hans-Georg Zmierczak, Samyah Shadid, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Bruno Lapauw
CONTEXT: The increased fracture risk associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remains unexplained by traditional risk factors such as low areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Nonetheless, few data exist on other determinants of bone strength in T1DM, including volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone geometry. OBJECTIVE: We compared areal and volumetric bone parameters and cortical bone geometry in adult T1DM patients and gender- and age-matched controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study including 64 adult T1DM patients (38 men, 41...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527581/nuclear-receptors-in-skeletal-homeostasis
#16
Hao Zuo, Yihong Wan
Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors that can be activated by lipophilic ligands. They are fundamental regulators of development, reproduction, and energy metabolism. In bone, nuclear receptors enable bone cells, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, to sense their dynamic microenvironment and maintain normal bone development and remodeling. Our views of the molecular mechanisms in this process have advanced greatly in the past decade. Drugs targeting nuclear receptors are widely used in the clinic for treating patients with bone disorders such as osteoporosis by modulating bone formation and resorption rates...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517958/distance-of-translation-as-a-predictor-of-failure-of-fixation-in-paediatric-supracondylar-fractures
#17
P Holland, A Highcock, C Bruce
INTRODUCTION This study investigates the influence of incomplete reduction of supracondylar fractures on the incidence of loss of reduction requiring reoperation MATERIALS AND METHODS A review of 107 consecutive patients presenting with supracondylar fractures treated with closed reduction and Kirschner wire stabilisation, between January 2011 and March 2013, was conducted. The mean age was 5 years (range 10 months to 12 years). Pre-, intra- and postoperative radiographs were reviewed. All patients who had failure of fixation requiring revision surgery were identified...
May 18, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515495/the-failure-envelope-concept-applied-to-the-bone-dental-implant-system
#18
R Korabi, K Shemtov-Yona, A Dorogoy, D Rittel
Dental implants interact with the jawbone through their common interface. While the implant is an inert structure, the jawbone is a living one that reacts to mechanical stimuli. Setting aside mechanical failure considerations of the implant, the bone is the main component to be addressed. With most failure criteria being expressed in terms of stress or strain values, their fulfillment can mean structural flow or fracture. However, in addition to those effects, the bony structure is likely to react biologically to the applied loads by dissolution or remodeling, so that additional (strain-based) criteria must be taken into account...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507534/stress-and-alterations-in-bones-an-interdisciplinary-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Pia-Maria Wippert, Michael Rector, Gisela Kuhn, Karin Wuertz-Kozak
Decades of research have demonstrated that physical stress (PS) stimulates bone remodeling and affects bone structure and function through complex mechanotransduction mechanisms. Recent research has laid ground to the hypothesis that mental stress (MS) also influences bone biology, eventually leading to osteoporosis and increased bone fracture risk. These effects are likely exerted by modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, resulting in an altered release of growth hormones, glucocorticoids and cytokines, as demonstrated in human and animal studies...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499311/evaluation-of-bone-mineral-density-in-children-with-type-i-diabetes-mellitus-and-relationship-to-serum-levels-of-osteopontin
#20
Forough Saki, Abdolkarim Sheikhi, Gholam Hosein Ranjbar Omrani, Hamid Karimi, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavinasab
Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fracture due to the osteoblast and osteoclast malfunction. Osteopontin (OPN) as the major non-collagenous bone matrix protein is produced by osteoblasts and osteoclasts and involve in bone resorption, formation and remodeling. To evaluate the serum levels of OPN, bone mineral density (BMD) and correlation in patients with T1DM this study was designed. In this case-control study, 87 children with T1DM and 87 age/sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled...
May 12, 2017: Drug Research
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