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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443253/bone-modeling-remodeling-and-skeletal-health-in-children-and-adolescents-mineral-accrual-assessment-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Chiara Maggioli, Stefano Stagi
The modeling and remodeling process of the bone is fundamental to maintaining its integrity and mechanical properties. Many physical and biochemical factors during childhood and adolescence are crucially important for the development of healthy bones. Systemic conditions, such as hormonal status, nutrition, physical inactivity, or many pharmacological treatments, as well as a local variation in the load, can influence bone turnover and, consequently, the attainment of a proper peak bone mass. However, many diseases affecting children and adolescents can be associated with a reduction in bone accrual or a loss of bone mass and quality, which leads to an increased risk of fracture over one's life...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434032/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-basic-biology
#2
REVIEW
Beata Lecka-Czernik
Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Ann Schwartz (DOI: 10...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432379/high-resolution-tomography-based-quantification-of-cortical-porosity-and-cortical-thickness-at-the-surgical-neck-of-the-humerus-during-aging
#3
Tobias Helfen, Christoph M Sprecher, Ursula Eberli, Boyko Gueorguiev, Peter E Müller, Robert G Richards, Florian Schmidutz
Fractures of the proximal humerus are highly related to age and osteoporotic bone remodeling. Previous studies have highlighted the cortex as a major side of the bone loss, but the microstructural changes of the humerus have not been evaluated entirely. Sixty-four (n = 64) humeri of a representative collective (18-100 years) were scanned with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (82 µm). Bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone volume fraction (Tb.BV/TV), cortical thickness (Ct...
April 21, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425622/targeted-disruption-of-nf1-in-osteocyte-increases-fgf23-and-osteoid-with-osteomalacia-like-bone-phenotype
#4
Nobuhiro Kamiya, Ryosuke Yamaguchi, Olumide Aruwajoye, Audrey Kim, Gen Kuroyanagi, Matthew Phipps, Naga Suresh Adapala, Jian Q Feng, Harry K W Kim
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, OMIM 162200), caused by NF1 gene mutations, exhibits multi-system abnormalities including skeletal deformities in humans. Osteocytes play critical roles in controlling bone modeling and remodeling. However, the role of neurofibromin, the protein product of the NF1 gene, in osteocytes is largely unknown. This study investigated the role of neurofibromin in osteocytes by disrupting Nf1 under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (Nf1 cKO) mice displayed serum profile of a metabolic bone disorder with an osteomalacia-like bone phenotype...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409214/-fractures-of-the-upper-limbs-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#5
P P Schmittenbecher
Fractures of the upper limbs are frequent and often need operative treatment in addition to a well-indicated conservative management. This depends on the maturity of the nearest growth plate and the local remodeling potential, which is dependent on age. Following conventional x‑ray imaging an individual prognostic growth analysis leads to the therapeutic decision. Around the elbow and the shaft of the forearm, criteria are stricter than near the shoulder or wrist. Gilchrist or Desault bandages as well as braces are adequate for most subcapital and humeral shaft fractures...
April 13, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407060/role-of-osteoblast-gi-signaling-in-age-related-bone-loss-in-female-mice
#6
Susan M Millard, Liping Wang, Lalita Wattanachanya, Dylan O'Carroll, Aaron J Fields, Joyce Pang, Galateia Kazakia, Jeffrey C Lotz, Robert A Nissenson
Age-related bone loss is an important risk factor for fractures in the elderly, resulting from an imbalance in bone remodeling mainly due to decreased bone formation. We have previously demonstrated that endogenous G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-driven Gi signaling in osteoblasts (Obs) restrains bone formation in mice during growth. Here, we launched a longitudinal study to test the hypothesis that Gi signaling in Obs restrains bone formation in aging mice, thereby promoting bone loss. Our approach was to block Gi signaling in maturing Obs by the induced expression of the catalytic subunit of pertussis toxin (PTX) after the achievement of peak bone mass...
April 12, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403946/vitamin-k-and-osteoporosis-myth-or-reality
#7
REVIEW
Andrea Palermo, Dario Tuccinardi, Luca D'Onofrio, Mikiko Watanabe, Daria Maggi, Anna Rita Maurizi, Valentina Greto, Raffaella Buzzetti, Nicola Napoli, Paolo Pozzilli, Silvia Manfrini
Vitamin K is a liposoluble vitamin. The predominant dietary form, phylloquinone or vitamin K1, is found in plants and green vegetables; whereas menaquinone, or vitamin K2, is endogenously synthesized by intestinal bacteria and includes several subtypes that differ in side chain length. Aside from its established role in blood clotting, several studies now support a critical function of vitamin K in improving bone health. Vitamin K is in fact required for osteocalcin carboxylation that in turn regulates bone mineral accretion; it seems to promote the transition of osteoblasts to osteocytes and also limits the process of osteoclastogenesis...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399348/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-osteoporosisin-postmenopausal-women-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Ivan Raška, Mária Rašková, Vít Zikán, Jan Škrha
OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are at increased risk of fractures. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis and osteoporosis related fractures in postmenopausal women with T2DM. METHODS: A total of 112 postmenopausal women with T2DM and 171 control nondiabetic women received a standardized questionnaire on osteoporosis risk factors, and were evaluated for bone mineral density (BMD, by using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), biochemical markers of bone and glucose metabolism, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and its gene polymorphisms (rs1800625 or rs2070600)...
March 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393275/traumatic-multiple-cervical-spine-injuries-in-a-patient-with-osteopetrosis-and-its-management
#9
Ashok Keshav Rathod, Rakesh Padmakar Dhake, Mandar Deepak Borde
STUDY DESIGN: Single case report. OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE: To report multiple level fractures of cervical spine in a patient with osteopetrosis and its management. Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited condition characterized by defective remodeling resulting in hard and brittle bones with diffuse osteosclerosis. Fractures of spine are rare as compared to the common long bone fractures. We report a case of traumatic multiple level fractures of cervical spine in osteopetrosis and its management which has rarely been reported in the literature before, if any...
April 9, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387374/klotho-preservation-via-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-attenuates-chronic-kidney-disease-associated-bone-injury-in-mice
#10
Wenjun Lin, Yanning Li, Fang Chen, Shasha Yin, Zhihong Liu, Wangsen Cao
Bone loss and increased fracture are the devastating outcomes of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) resulting from Klotho deficit-related mineral disturbance and hyperparathyroidism. Because Klotho down-regulation after renal injury is presumably affected by aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities, here we assess whether HDAC inhibition prevents Klotho loss and attenuates the CKD-associated bone complication in a mouse model of CKD-MBD. Mice fed adenine-containing diet developed the expected renal damage, a substantial Klotho loss and the deregulated key factors causally affecting bone remodeling, which were accompanied by a marked reduction of bone mineral density...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386879/evaluation-of-fracture-risk-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Pablo Antonio Ureña Torres, Martine Cohen-Solal
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with mineral and bone disorders (MBD) that are now considered as a syndrome. Bone fragility and a four to tenfold increased rate of skeletal fractures are often reported in CKD patients. The evaluation of the risk of these fractures in CKD patients should explore the same risk factors identified for the general population including low body weight, menopause, personal and familial history of osteoporosis, chronic inflammatory diseases, and corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this article is to provide a critical review of the tools used for the evaluation of bone loss and the risk of fracture in CKD patients, ranging from the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), fracture risk assessment (Frax™), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQTC), to circulating biomarkers of bone metabolism including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and some collagen type 1-related molecules indicators of bone remodeling...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381451/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-genetic-regulation-of-bone-formation-from-monogenic-to-complex-bone-disorders
#12
Eveline Boudin, Wim Van Hul
Throughout life, bone is continuously remodelled to be able to fulfil its multiple functions. The importance of strictly regulating the bone remodelling process, which is defined by the sequential actions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, is shown by a variety of disorders with abnormalities in bone mass and strength. The best known and most common example of such a disorder is osteoporosis which is marked by a decreased bone mass and strength that consequently results in an increased fracture risk. As osteoporosis is a serious health problem, a large amount of studies focusses on elucidating the aetiology of the disease as well as on the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of osteoporotic patients...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381439/tumor-stroma-interactions-in-bone-metastasis-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#13
Hanqiu Zheng, Wenyang Li, Yibin Kang
Metastasis and associated complications are the major cause of death for cancer patients. The incidence of bone metastasis is among the highest in cancers arising from breast, prostate, and lung. Common skeletal-related events caused by bone metastasis include aberrant bone remodeling (osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed), bone pain, fracture, spinal cord compression, and life-threatening hypercalcemia. It is now known that interactions between tumor cells and bone stroma lie at the core of major steps of bone-metastasis progression...
April 5, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377983/variability-of-in-vivo-linear-microcrack-accumulation-in-the-cortex-of-elderly-human-ribs
#14
Amanda M Agnew, Victoria M Dominguez, Paul W Sciulli, Sam D Stout
Excessive accumulation of microdamage in the skeleton in vivo is believed to contribute to fragility and risk of fracture, particularly in the elderly. Current knowledge of how much in vivo damage accrual varies between individuals, if at all, is lacking. In this study, paired sixth ribs from five male and five female elderly individuals (76-92 years, mean age = 84.7 years) were examined using en bloc staining and fluorescent microcopy to quantify linear microcracks present at the time of death (i.e. in vivo microdamage)...
June 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374981/optimal-timing-for-nasal-fracture-manipulation-is-a-two-week-target-really-necessary-a-single-centre-retrospective-analysis-of-50-patients
#15
V Perkins, A Vijendren, M Egan, D McRae
Nasal bone fractures represent the most common isolated facial fracture and are involved in as many as 50% of facial fractures ((1)) . Its relative prominence in the centre of the face as well as its relatively thin, fragile structures makes it particularly susceptible to injury. Acute management is centred on restoring an aesthetically acceptable external nose with minimal airflow limitation. Conventional UK management typically involves assessment 5-7 days following injury, followed by closed reduction within two weeks, to avoid problems associated with fracture healing and bone remodelling ((2)) ...
April 4, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374052/stress-fractures-of-the-foot-and-ankle-part-1-biomechanics-of-bone-and-principles-of-imaging-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Jacob C Mandell, Bharti Khurana, Stacy E Smith
A stress fracture is a focal failure of bone induced by the summation of repetitive forces, which overwhelms the normal bone remodeling cycle. This review, the first of two parts, discusses the general principles of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. This includes bone structure, biomechanics of stress applied to bone, bone remodeling, risk factors for stress fracture, and general principles of imaging and treatment of stress fractures. Cortical bone and trabecular bone have a contrasting macrostructure, which leads to differing resistances to externally applied forces...
April 4, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374051/cuff-tear-arthropathy-shoulder-hemiarthroplasty-a-radiographic-outcome-study
#17
Alan S Leung, Daniel S Hippe, Alice S Ha
OBJECTIVE: Cuff tear arthropathy (CTA) head prosthesis has recently become an alternative to standard shoulder hemiarthroplasty in patients with severe cuff disease by offering an increased surface area and decreased impingement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiographic outcomes of CTA prosthesis and to correlate them with clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study of CTA hemiarthroplasties over an 11-year period, two radiologists reviewed pre-/postoperative radiographs and clinical data...
April 4, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366654/posterior-short-fusion-without-neural-decompression-using-pedicle-screws-and-spinous-process-plates-a-simple-and-effective-treatment-for-neurological-deficits-following-osteoporotic-vertebral-collapse
#18
Atsushi Nakano, Choman Ryu, Ichiro Baba, Takashi Fujishiro, Yoshiharu Nakaya, Masashi Neo
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of neurological deficits following osteoporotic vertebral collapse (OVC) is controversial, owing to complications that result from fragile bone quality. In the present study, we assessed surgical results following posterior spinal fusion without decompression. We achieved stable fusion over a short segment of the spinal column using pedicle screws and spinous process plates, maximizing the use of the preserved posterior elements. METHODS: We reviewed surgical data, perioperative complications, clinical outcomes, and radiographic data of 20 consecutively recruited patients with delayed neurological deficits following OVC, who experienced posterior short fusion without neural decompression...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361377/alveolar-ridge-preservation-with-autologous-particulated-dentin-a-case-series
#19
Silvio Valdec, Pavla Pasic, Alex Soltermann, Daniel Thoma, Bernd Stadlinger, Martin Rücker
INTRODUCTION: Ridge preservation can be performed with autologous bone, alloplastic bone substitute material or a combination of both. Dentin is similar to bone in its chemical composition. In its use as bone substitute material, it undergoes a remodelling process and transforms to bone. The presented case report introduces a technique in which the extraction socket is augmented with autologous, particulated dentin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The fractured, non-savable mesial incisor of the upper jaw was carefully extracted in axial direction...
December 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326340/organ-and-tissue-level-properties-are-more-sensitive-to-age-than-osteocyte-lacunar-characteristics-in-rat-cortical-bone
#20
Nina Kølln Wittig, Fiona Linnea Bach-Gansmo, Mie Elholm Birkbak, Malene Laugesen, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Henrik Birkedal
Modeling and remodeling induce significant changes of bone structure and mechanical properties with age. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge of the processes taking place in bone over time. The rat is a widely used animal model, where much data has been accumulated on age-related changes of bone on the organ and tissue level, whereas features on the nano- and micrometer scale are much less explored. We investigated the age-related development of organ and tissue level bone properties such as bone volume, bone mineral density, and load to fracture and correlated these with osteocyte lacunar properties in rat cortical bone...
June 2016: Bone Reports
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