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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146294/distinct-effects-of-interleukin-6-classic-and-trans-signaling-in-bone-fracture-healing
#1
Katja Prystaz, Kathrin Kaiser, Anna Kovtun, Melanie Haffner-Luntzer, Verena Fischer, Anna E Rapp, Astrid Liedert, Gudrun Strauss, Georg H Waetzig, Stefan Rose-John, Anita Ignatius
Bone healing is a complex process with closely linked phases of inflammation, regeneration, and remodeling. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) may crucially regulate this process; however, the underlying mechanisms are presently unclear. IL-6 signals are transmitted via the transmembrane glycoprotein 130 by two distinct mechanisms: classic signaling employing the membrane-anchored IL-6 receptor, and trans-signaling using its soluble form. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that IL-6 classic and trans-signaling have different functions during bone healing...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142870/intracorporeal-reduction-of-condylar-fracture-using-both-pedicled-condylar-and-seperated-ramal-fragments-after-vertical-ramal-osteotomy
#2
Il-Kyu Kim, Jun-Min Jang, Hyun-Young Cho, Ji-Hoon Seo, Dong-Hwan Lee
The aim of this study is to introduce a surgical technique that can maintain blood supply to prevent condylar resorption in the extracorporeal reduction of condylar fracture. Neither the medial pterygoid muscle on the ramal bone nor the lateral pterygoid muscle on the condylar fragment was detached after vertical ramal osteotomy. Thus, reduction was performed in the intracorporeal state. Therefore, blood supply was expected to be maintained to the fragments of both the condylar and ramal bones. On postoperative radiographs, the anatomical outline of the fractured condyle was well restored, and the occlusion was stable...
October 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129460/the-association-of-novel-polymorphisms-with-stress-fracture-injury-in-elite-athletes-further-insights-from-the-sfea-cohort
#3
Ian Varley, David C Hughes, Julie P Greeves, Trent Stellingwerff, Craig Ranson, William D Fraser, Craig Sale
OBJECTIVES: To determine, in conjunction with a wider investigation, whether 11 genetic variants in the vicinity of vitamin D, collagen and Wnt signalling pathways were associated with stress fracture injury in the Stress Fracture Elite Athlete (SFEA) cohort. DESIGN: Genotype-phenotype association study. METHODS: Self-reported stress fracture history and demographic data were recorded in 518 elite athletes, 449 male and 69 female (mean age 24...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127748/-issues-related-to-secondary-osteoporosis-associated-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-adulthood
#4
Martin Kužma, Peter Jackuliak, Zdenko Killinger, Peter Vaňuga, Juraj Payer
Growth hormone (GH) increases linear bone growth through complex hormonal reactions, mainly mediated by insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) that is produced mostly by hepatocytes under influence of GH and stimulates differentiation of epiphyseal prechondrocytes. IGF1 and GH play a key role in the linear bone growth after birth and regulation of bone remodelation during the entire lifespan. It is known that adult GH deficient (GHD) patients have decreased BMD and increased risk of low-impact fractures. Most data gathered thus far on the effect of GH replacement on bone status comprise the measurement of quantitative changes of bone mass...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121899/p21-mice-exhibit-enhanced-bone-regeneration-after-injury
#5
Priyatha Premnath, Britta Jorgenson, Ricarda Hess, Pankaj Tailor, Dante Louie, Jaymi Taiani, Steven Boyd, Roman Krawetz
BACKGROUND: p21((WAF1/CIP1/SDI1)), a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor has been shown to influence cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis; but more recently, p21 has been implicated in tissue repair. Studies on p21((-/-)) knockout mice have demonstrated results that vary from complete regeneration and healing of tissue to attenuated healing. There have however been no studies that have evaluated the role of p21 inhibition in bone healing and remodeling. METHODS: The current study employs a burr-hole fracture model to investigate bone regeneration subsequent to an injury in a p21(-/-) mouse model...
November 9, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109023/influence-of-physical-activity-on-tibial-bone-material-properties-in-laying-hens
#6
A B Rodriguez-Navarro, H M McCormack, R H Fleming, P Alvarez-Lloret, J Romero-Pastor, N Dominguez-Gasca, Tanya Prozorov, I C Dunn
Laying hens develop a type of osteoporosis that arises from a loss of structural bone, resulting in high incidence of fractures. In this study, a comparison of bone material properties was made for lines of hens created by divergent selection to have high and low bone strength and housed in either individual cages, with restricted mobility, or in an aviary system, with opportunity for increased mobility. Improvement of bone biomechanics in the high line hens and in aviary housing was mainly due to increased bone mass, thicker cortical bone and more medullary bone...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108027/local-application-of-an-ibandronate-collagen-sponge-improves-femoral-fracture-healing-in-ovariectomized-rats
#7
Jialiang Guo, Qi Zhang, Jia Li, Yansong Liu, Zhiyong Hou, Wei Chen, Lin Jin, Ye Tian, Linlin Ju, Bo Liu, Tianhua Dong, Fei Zhang, Yingze Zhang
Non-union is a major clinical problem in the healing of fractures, especially in patients with osteoporosis. The systemic administration of drugs is time consuming and large doses are demanding and act slowly, whereas local release acts rapidly, increases the quality and quantity of the bone tissue. We hypothesize that local delivery demonstrates better therapeutic effects on an osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the local application of ibandronate loaded with a collagen sponge on regulating bone formation and remodeling in an osteoporotic rat model of fracture healing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103161/multiple-vertebral-osteonecroses-k%C3%A3-mmell-s-disease-after-10%C3%A2-years-on-denosumab-is-osteocyte-apoptosis-to-blame
#8
Yves Maugars, Géraldine Bart, Pascale Guillot, Marguerite Chemel-Mary, Joëlle Glémarec, Mélanie Gahier-Penhoat, Benoit Le Goff, Christelle Darrieutort-Laffite
We report here a case of multiple vertebral osteonecroses with intrasomatic gaseous dissection (Kümmell's disease) occurring 1 year after the end of a 10-year course of denosumab treatment for osteoporosis without fractures. Histomorphometry and bone remodeling markers revealed major bone resorption and the persistence of an inhibition of bone formation. The presence of multiple empty lacunae in the bone provided evidence for high levels of osteocyte apoptosis. Osteocytes direct bone resorption (via the RANK/RANK-L/osteoprotegerin system) and formation (Wnt system, with SOST and DKK1) pathways...
November 4, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101659/bone-mechanical-function-and-the-gut-microbiota
#9
C J Hernandez
The primary function of bone in the body is to resist mechanical forces. Impairment of the mechanical performance of bone is therefore the primary clinical challenge presented by bone disease. Failure to resist forces associated with activities of daily living leads to fragility fracture. In this chapter we review the characteristics of bone that influence mechanical performance and fracture risk, how bone remodeling and modeling alter mechanically relevant characteristics of bone, and the potential for the gut microbiome to alter bone mechanical performance and risk of fragility fracture...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098361/new-agents-in-the-treatment-of-myeloma-bone-disease
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Ring, Michelle A Lawson, John A Snowden, Ingrid Jolley, Andrew D Chantry
Patients with multiple myeloma develop a devastating bone disease driven by the uncoupling of bone remodelling, excess osteoclastic bone resorption and diminished osteoblastic bone formation. The bone phenotype is typified by focal osteolytic lesions leading to pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and other catastrophic bone events such as spinal cord compression. This causes bone pain, impaired functional status, decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Early in the disease, malignant plasma cells occupy a niche environment that encompasses their interaction with other key cellular components of the bone marrow microenvironment...
November 2, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096593/energy-metabolism-of-bone
#11
Katherine J Motyl, Anyonya R Guntur, Adriana Lelis Carvalho, Clifford J Rosen
Biological processes utilize energy and therefore must be prioritized based on fuel availability. Bone is no exception to this, and the benefit of remodeling when necessary outweighs the energy costs. Bone remodeling is important for maintaining blood calcium homeostasis, repairing micro cracks and fractures, and modifying bone structure so that it is better suited to withstand loading demands. Osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes are the primary cells responsible for bone remodeling, although bone marrow adipocytes and other cells may also play an indirect role...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093746/chemical-characterization-of-wound-ointment-wo-and-its-effects-on-fracture-repair-a-rabbit-model
#12
Zhixue Ou, Qi Cheng, Yueping Chen, Tao Chen, Xiangbin Rong, Feipan Long, Xiaoyun Zhang, Qinghua Liang, Zhe Feng
Background: Wound ointment (WO), a kind of Chinese medicine, can significantly promote fracture healing. The study aimed at analyzing the chemical composition and the effects of WO on fracture of rabbits and tried to explore the corresponding molecular mechanism in cytokine. Methods: The qualitative and quantitative analysis of WO was conducted by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fifty-four Zealand mature male rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: Control group, Yunnan Baiyao (YB) group and WO group...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083359/treatment-of-dorsal-fracture-dislocation-of-the-proximal-interphalangeal-joint-using-the-ligamentotaxor-device-clinical-and-radiographic-preliminary-results
#13
Francesco Kostoris, Gianluca Canton, Emiliano Longo, Francesco Romano, Luigi Murena
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are complex injuries, often difficult to treat. Several treatment options have been described. Among them dynamic external fixation proved to be a safe technique leading to good results in many authors experience. The principles of this treatment are to avoid edema, prevent stiffness and tendon adhesions, promote joint remodelling and facilitate rehabilitation. The Ligamentotaxor® device is a simple and reproducible dynamic external fixation system that has been used in recent years to treat proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations, with favourable results...
October 18, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079514/dual-modulation-of-bone-formation-and-resorption-with-zoledronic-acid-loaded-biodegradable-magnesium-alloy-implants-improves-osteoporotic-fracture-healing-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#14
Guoyuan Li, Lei Zhang, Lei Wang, Guangyin Yuan, Kerong Dai, Jia Pei, Yongqiang Hao
Osteoporotic fracture (OPF) remains a major clinical challenge for skeletal regeneration. Impaired osteogenesis and excessive remodeling result in prolonged and poor quality of fracture healing. To augment bone formation and inhibit excessive resorption simultaneously, we constructed a biodegradable magnesium-based implant integrated with the anti-catabolic drug zoledronic acid (ZA); this implant exhibits controllable, sustained release of magnesium degradation products and ZA in vitro. The extracts greatly stimulate the osteogenic differentiation of rat-bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), while osteoclastogenesis is inhibited by ZA...
October 24, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076702/endogenous-production-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-promotes-fracture-healing-in-mice
#15
Yuhui Chen, He Cao, Dawei Sun, Changxin Lin, Liang Wang, Minjun Huang, Huaji Jiang, Zhongmin Zhang, Dadi Jin, Baiyu Zhang, Xiaochun Bai
Bone fracture is a global healthcare issue for high rates of delayed healing and nonunions. Although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is considered as a beneficial factor for bone metabolism, only few studies till date focused on the effects of n-3 PUFAs on fracture healing. In this study, we investigated the effect of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on fracture healing by measuring femur fracture repair in both fat-1 transgenic mice and WT mice. Proximal femoral fracture model was established in fat-1 transgenic mice and WT mice, respectively, and then the fracture was analyzed by using X-ray, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histological assessment at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after fixation...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075333/the-impact-of-type-2-diabetes-on-bone-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Claudia Pinheiro Sanches, Andre Gustavo Daher Vianna, Fellype de Carvalho Barreto
Diabetes complications and osteoporotic fractures are two of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in older patients and share many features including genetic susceptibility, molecular mechanisms, and environmental factors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compromises bone microarchitecture by inducing abnormal bone cell function and matrix structure, with increased osteoblast apoptosis, diminished osteoblast differentiation, and enhanced osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The linkage between these two chronic diseases creates a possibility that certain antidiabetic therapies may affect bone quality...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066534/the-effect-of-long-term-bisphosphonate-therapy-on-trabecular-bone-strength-and-microcrack-density
#17
A Jin, J Cobb, U Hansen, R Bhattacharya, C Reinhard, N Vo, R Atwood, J Li, A Karunaratne, C Wiles, R Abel
OBJECTIVES: Bisphosphonates (BP) are the first-line treatment for preventing fragility fractures. However, concern regarding their efficacy is growing because bisphosphonate is associated with over-suppression of remodelling and accumulation of microcracks. While dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning may show a gain in bone density, the impact of this class of drug on mechanical properties remains unclear. We therefore sought to quantify the mechanical strength of bone treated with BP (oral alendronate), and correlate data with the microarchitecture and density of microcracks in comparison with untreated controls...
October 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065587/endogenous-production-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-promotes-fracture-healing-in-mice
#18
Yuhui Chen, He Cao, Dawei Sun, Changxin Lin, Liang Wang, Minjun Huang, Huaji Jiang, Zhongmin Zhang, Dadi Jin, Baiyu Zhang, Xiaochun Bai
Bone fracture is a global healthcare issue for high rates of delayed healing and nonunions. Although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is considered as a beneficial factor for bone metabolism, only few studies till date focused on the effects of n-3 PUFAs on fracture healing. In this study, we investigated the effect of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on fracture healing by measuring femur fracture repair in both fat-1 transgenic mice and WT mice. Proximal femoral fracture model was established in fat-1 transgenic mice and WT mice, respectively, and then the fracture was analyzed by using X-ray, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histological assessment at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after fixation...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044725/serum-sclerostin-levels-in-adults-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-comparison-with-normal-individuals-and-response-to-teriparatide-therapy
#19
Lindsey Nicol, Ying Wang, Rosamund Smith, John Sloan, Sandesh C S Nagamani, Jay Shapiro, Brendan Lee, Eric Orwoll
Sclerostin (SOST), a glycoprotein primarily derived from osteocytes, is an important regulator of bone remodeling. Osteogenesis imperfecta ([1]) is a heritable disorder of bone characterized by low bone mass, bone fragility, recurrent fractures, and bone deformities. Altered SOST-mediated signaling may have a role in pathogenesis of type I collagen-related OI; however this has not been evaluated in humans. We measured serum SOST levels in adults with OI who were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effects of osteoanabolic therapy with teriparatide...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043479/altered-auditory-and-vestibular-functioning-in-individuals-with-low-bone-mineral-density-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Niraj Kumar Singh, Raghav Hira Jha, Aditi Gargeshwari, Prawin Kumar
Alteration in the process of bone remodelling is associated with falls and fractures due to increased bone fragility and altered calcium functioning. The auditory system consists of skeletal structures and is, therefore, prone to getting affected by altered bone remodelling. In addition, the vestibule consists of huge volumes of calcium (CaCO3) in the form of otoconia crystals and alteration in functioning calcium levels could, therefore, result in vestibular symptoms. Thus, the present study aimed at compiling information from various studies on assessment of auditory or vestibular systems in individuals with reduced bone mineral density (BMD)...
October 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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