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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326340/organ-and-tissue-level-properties-are-more-sensitive-to-age-than-osteocyte-lacunar-characteristics-in-rat-cortical-bone
#1
Nina Kølln Wittig, Fiona Linnea Bach-Gansmo, Mie Elholm Birkbak, Malene Laugesen, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Henrik Birkedal
Modeling and remodeling induce significant changes of bone structure and mechanical properties with age. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge of the processes taking place in bone over time. The rat is a widely used animal model, where much data has been accumulated on age-related changes of bone on the organ and tissue level, whereas features on the nano- and micrometer scale are much less explored. We investigated the age-related development of organ and tissue level bone properties such as bone volume, bone mineral density, and load to fracture and correlated these with osteocyte lacunar properties in rat cortical bone...
June 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325650/the-potential-role-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-in-the-cardiovascular-metabolic-skeletal-and-cognitive-effects-associated-with-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#2
REVIEW
E David Crawford, Andrew V Schally, Jehonathan H Pinthus, Norman L Block, Ferenc G Rick, Marc B Garnick, Robert H Eckel, Thomas E Keane, Neal D Shore, David N Dahdal, Thomas J R Beveridge, Dennis C Marshall
PURPOSE: To explore how follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) may contribute to cardiovascular, metabolic, skeletal, and cognitive events in men treated for prostate cancer, with various forms of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A colloquium of prostate cancer experts was convened in May 2015, to discuss the role of FSH in the development of unwanted effects associated with ADT. Subsequently, a literature review (Medline, PubMed, and relevant congress abstract databases) was performed to further explore and evaluate the collected evidence...
March 18, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323963/an-antibody-to-notch2-reverses-the-osteopenic-phenotype-of-hajdu-cheney-mutant-male-mice
#3
Ernesto Canalis, Archana Sanjay, Jungeun Yu, Stefano Zanotti
Notch receptors play a central role in skeletal development and bone remodeling. Hajdu Cheney Syndrome (HCS), a disease characterized by osteoporosis and fractures, is associated with gain-of-NOTCH2 function mutations. To study HCS, we created a mouse model harboring a point 6955C>T mutation in the Notch2 locus upstream of the proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S) and threonine (T) domain leading to a Q2319X change at the amino acid level. Notch2Q2319X heterozygous mutants exhibited cancellous and cortical bone osteopenia...
January 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323887/involvement-of-small-g-protein-rhob-in-the-regulation-of-proliferation-adhesion-and-migration-by-dexamethasone-in-osteoblastic-cells
#4
Fei Diao, Kangyao Chen, Yan Wang, Yidong Li, Weidong Xu, Jian Lu, Yu-Xia Chen
Long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of glucocorticoids (GCs) results in bone remodeling, which frequently causes osteoporosis and fracture healing retardation because of the abnormality of osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation. The mechanisms of GCs' effect on osteoblasts are largely unknown. In this present study, we found that dexamethasone (Dex) could induce the expression of the small G protein, RhoB, in mRNA and protein levels in the osteoblast-derived osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63. The up-regulation of RhoB mRNA by Dex mainly occurs at posttranscriptional level by increasing its mRNA stability through PI-3K/Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303448/parathyroid-hormone-and-parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-analogs-in-osteoporosis-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Benjamin Z Leder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review the efficacy and optimal use of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein analogs in osteoporosis treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The parathyroid hormone analog teriparatide, a potent stimulator of bone remodeling, increases hip and spine bone mineral density and reduces the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The parathyroid hormone-related protein analog, abaloparatide, also reduces fracture incidence but has pharmacological effects that differ from teriparatide, particularly in cortical bone...
March 16, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293781/greb1-genetic-variants-are-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-in-caucasians
#6
Kevin G Hegarty, Frances J Drummond, Mary Daly, Fergus Shanahan, Michael G Molloy
Gaining an understanding of factors contributing to bone quality is key to the development of effective preventative treatments for osteoporosis and reduction in osteoporotic fractures. Oestrogen is a strong regulator of bone remodelling which maintains skeletal structural integrity. The growth regulation by oestrogen in breast cancer 1 (GREB1) gene, with an as yet undefined function, is an early response gene in the oestrogen-regulated pathway. Suggestive evidence of linkage with bone mineral density (BMD) variation has been reported with D2S168, located telomeric of GREB1...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288986/bisphosphonates-and-atypical-subtrochanteric-fractures-of-the-femur
#7
N Kharwadkar, B Mayne, J E Lawrence, V Khanduja
OBJECTIVES: Bisphosphonates are widely used as first-line treatment for primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. Whilst they have proved effective in this role, there is growing concern over their long-term use, with much evidence linking bisphosphonate-related suppression of bone remodelling to an increased risk of atypical subtrochanteric fractures of the femur (AFFs). The objective of this article is to review this evidence, while presenting the current available strategies for the management of AFFs...
March 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286990/the-quest-for-new-drugs-to-prevent-osteoporosis-related-fractures
#8
REVIEW
T J de Villiers
There is a need for the development of new drugs to prevent osteoporosis-related fractures. Fractures are projected to increase and the present drugs have modest efficacy, significant side-effects and poor compliance. To illustrate the difficulties in the development of new drugs, the author reviews the fate of several drugs that have failed to gain regulatory approval. These drugs include arzoxifene, lasofoxifene, MK-5442, roncalceret and odanacatib. Romosozumab and abaloparatide are the only new drugs presently in phase-3 development...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286238/the-role-of-the-progressive-ankylosis-protein-ank-in-adipogenic-osteogenic-fate-decision-of-precursor-cells
#9
Takeshi Minashima, Martin Quirno, You Jin Lee, Thorsten Kirsch
The progressive ankylosis protein (ANK) is a transmembrane protein that transports intracellular pyrophosphate (PPi) to the extracellular milieu. In this study we show increased fatty degeneration of the bone marrow of adult ank/ank mice, which lack a functional ANK protein. In addition, isolated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from ank/ank mice showed a decreased proliferation rate and osteogenic differentiation potential, and an increased adipogenic differentiation potential compared to BMSCs isolated from wild type (WT) littermates...
March 8, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283537/increased-osteoclastogenesis-in-patients-with-vertebral-fractures-following-discontinuation-of-denosumab-treatment
#10
Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Maria P Yavropoulou, Polyzois Makras, Grigorios T Sakellariou, Foteini Papadopoulou, Spyridon Gerou, Socrates Papapoulos
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that rebound of bone remodeling is responsible for clinical vertebral fractures reported in a few patients with osteoporosis after cessation of denosumab treatment. DESIGN: In this case-control study we compared clinical and biochemical characteristics of postmenopausal women with clinical vertebral fractures 8 to 16 months after the last injection of denosumab (Dmab/Fx+, n=5) with those of treatment-naïve women with such fractures (Fx+, n=5)...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282569/new-approaches-for-cement-based-prophylactic-augmentation-of-the-osteoporotic-proximal-femur-provide-enhanced-reinforcement-as-predicted-by-non-linear-finite-element-simulations
#11
Peter Varga, Jason A Inzana, Jakob Schwiedrzik, Philippe K Zysset, Boyko Gueorguiev, Michael Blauth, Markus Windolf
BACKGROUND: High incidence and increased mortality related to secondary, contralateral proximal femoral fractures may justify invasive prophylactic augmentation that reinforces the osteoporotic proximal femur to reduce fracture risk. Bone cement-based approaches (femoroplasty) may deliver the required strengthening effect; however, the significant variation in the results of previous studies calls for a systematic analysis and optimization of this method. Our hypothesis was that efficient generalized augmentation strategies can be identified via computational optimization...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277562/role-of-cortical-bone-in-hip-fracture
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan Reeve
In this review, I consider the varied mechanisms in cortical bone that help preserve its integrity and how they deteriorate with aging. Aging affects cortical bone in two ways: extrinsically through its effects on the individual that modify its mechanical loading experience and 'milieu interieur'; and intrinsically through the prolonged cycle of remodelling and renewal extending to an estimated 20 years in the proximal femur. Healthy femoral cortex incorporates multiple mechanisms that help prevent fracture...
2017: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270766/clinical-impact-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-iron-overload-associated-bone-loss
#13
REVIEW
Viktória Jeney
Diseases/conditions with diverse etiology, such as hemoglobinopathies, hereditary hemochromatosis and menopause, could lead to chronic iron accumulation. This condition is frequently associated with a bone phenotype; characterized by low bone mass, osteoporosis/osteopenia, altered microarchitecture and biomechanics, and increased incidence of fractures. Osteoporotic bone phenotype constitutes a major complication in patients with iron overload. The purpose of this review is to summarize what we have learnt about iron overload-associated bone loss from clinical studies and animal models...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263017/diminished-bone-regeneration-after-debridement-of-posttraumatic-osteomyelitis-is-accompanied-by-altered-cytokine-levels-elevated-b-cell-activity-and-increased-osteoclast-activity
#14
Johannes M Wagner, Henriette Jaurich, Christoph Wallner, Stephanie Abraham, Mustafa Becerikli, Mehran Dadras, Kamran Harati, Vikas Duhan, Vishal Khairnar, Marcus Lehnhardt, Björn Behr
Osteomyelitis is a frequent consequence of open fractures thus representing a common bone infection with subsequent alteration of bone regeneration. Impaired bone homeostasis provokes serious variations in the bone remodeling process, thereby involving multiple inflammatory cytokines to activate bone healing. Our previously established mouse model of posttraumatic osteomyelitis provides the chance to study regulation of selected cytokines after surgical debridement of osteomyelitis thus illustrating the course of initial infectious recovery...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262693/long-term-effects-of-bisphosphonate-therapy-perforations-microcracks-and-mechanical-properties
#15
Shaocheng Ma, En Lin Goh, Andi Jin, Rajarshi Bhattacharya, Oliver R Boughton, Bhavi Patel, Angelo Karunaratne, Nghia T Vo, Robert Atwood, Justin P Cobb, Ulrich Hansen, Richard L Abel
Osteoporosis is characterised by trabecular bone loss resulting from increased osteoclast activation and unbalanced coupling between resorption and formation, which induces a thinning of trabeculae and trabecular perforations. Bisphosphonates are the frontline therapy for osteoporosis, which act by reducing bone remodelling, and are thought to prevent perforations and maintain microstructure. However, bisphosphonates may oversuppress remodelling resulting in accumulation of microcracks. This paper aims to investigate the effect of bisphosphonate treatment on microstructure and mechanical strength...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254466/impaired-rib-bone-mass-and-quality-in-end-stage-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#16
Geneviève Mailhot, Natalie Dion, Delphine Farlay, Sébastien Rizzo, Nathalie J Bureau, Valérie Jomphe, Safiétou Sankhe, Georges Boivin, Larry C Lands, Pasquale Ferraro, Louis-Georges Ste-Marie
BACKGROUND: Advancements in research and clinical care have considerably extended the life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, with this extended survival come comorbidities. One of the leading co-morbidities is CF-related bone disease (CFBD), which progresses with disease severity and places patients at high risk for fractures, particularly of the ribs and vertebrae. Evidence that CF patients with vertebral fractures had higher bone mineral density (BMD) than the nonfracture group led us to postulate that bone quality is impaired in these patients...
February 22, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253942/delayed-fracture-healing-in-diabetics-with-distal-radius-fractures
#17
S Pscherer, G H Sandmann, S Ehnert, A K Nussler, U Stöckle, T Freude
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Diabetics may have an increased fracture risk, depending on disease duration, quality of metabolic adjustment and extent of comorbidities, and on an increased tendency to fall. The aim of this retrospective one-centre study consisted in detecting differences in fracture healing between patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Data of patients with the most common fracture among older patients were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS Classification of distal radius fractures was established according to the AO classification...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252480/delayed-treatment-of-a-neonatal-type-i-monteggia-fracture-dislocation-a-case-report
#18
William R Smith, Scott H Kozin, Dan A Zlotolow
Delayed diagnosis of a Monteggia fracture-dislocation changes a straightforward, treatable injury into a complex problem. Acute neonatal injuries may be missed because of the inability to visualize the unossified skeleton on radiography, interpreted later as 'congenital' dislocations. We report the case of a 14-month-old with a neonatal Monteggia type-I fracture-dislocation secondary to birth trauma, with anterior radial head dislocation and plastic deformation of the ulna. Uniplanar external fixation was used to restore ulnar length and correct angulation, with subsequent radiocapitellar joint closed reduction...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240368/extensive-remineralization-of-large-pelvic-lytic-lesions-following-total-therapy-treatment-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#19
Meera Mohan, Rohan S Samant, Donghoon Yoon, Amy F Buros, Antonio Branca, Corey O Montgomery, Richard Nicholas, Larry J Suva, Roy Morello, Sharmilan Thanendrarajan, Carolina Schinke, Shmuel Yaccoby, Frits van Rhee, Faith E Davies, Gareth J Morgan, Maurizio Zangari
Osteolytic bone lesions are a hallmark of multiple myeloma bone disease. Bone destruction is associated with severely imbalanced bone remodeling, secondary to increased osteoclastogenesis and significant osteoblast suppression. Lytic lesions of the pelvis are relatively common in MM patients and are known to contribute to the increased morbidity due to the high risk of fracture that frequently demands extensive surgical intervention.After observing unexpected radiological improvement in serial large pelvic CT assessment in a patient treated in a total therapy protocol, the radiographic changes of pelvic osteolytic lesions by CT/PET scanning in patients who received total therapy 4 treatment for myeloma were retrospectively analyzed...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239825/upregulated-serum-sclerostin-level-in-the-t2dm-patients-with-femur-fracture-inhibits-the-expression-of-bone-formation-remodeling-associated-biomarkers-via-antagonizing-wnt-signaling
#20
Y Wu, S-Y Xu, S-Y Liu, L Xu, S-Y Deng, Y-B He, S-C Xian, Y-H Liu, G-X Ni
OBJECTIVE: Bone formation/remodeling-associated biomarkers, such as osteocalcin, amino pro-peptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP) and CrossLaps (CTX) have been deregulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In particular, the T2DM-associated sclerostin markedly inhibits the bone formation, suppresses the osteoblast activity and downregulates the bone turnover. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present study, we examined the serum levels of sclerostin, osteocalcin, P1NP and CTX in the T2DM patients...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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